Publications by authors named "Ana Filipa Silva"

68 Publications

Variability of internal and external loads and technical/tactical outcomes during small-sided soccer games: a systematic review.

Biol Sport 2021 Sep 27;39(3):647-672. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Centre for Research, Education, Innovation and Intervention in Sport, Faculty of Sport of the University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.

Small-sided games (SSGs) are widely used in soccer training. However, some of the typical outcomes related to human responses during these games (namely internal and external load) may vary between sessions for similar practice conditions. Thus, the study of intra- and inter-bout variability in response to SSGs is progressively growing. This systematic review aimed to (1) identify studies that have examined the intra- and inter-session bouts' variability levels regarding the internal and external load and technical/tactical outcomes during SSGs and (2) summarize the main evidence. A systematic review of PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Cochrane, and Web of Science databases was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. From the 486 studies initially identified, 24 were fully reviewed, and their outcome measures were extracted and analyzed. Sixteen studies analyzed internal load, 13 studies analyzed external load variables, six studies analyzed technical execution, and two studies analyzed tactical behavior. All studies included SSGs with a range number of players between 2 to 14 (1 vs. 1 to 7 vs. 7 SSGs). Internal load and low-speed external load variables presented a low variability, while high variations were reported regarding the technical execution and high-speed external loads.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/biolsport.2022.107016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9331334PMC
September 2021

Exploring the Effects of Energy Constraints on Performance, Body Composition, Endocrinological/Hematological Biomarkers, and Immune System among Athletes: An Overview of the Fasting State.

Nutrients 2022 Aug 4;14(15). Epub 2022 Aug 4.

Escola Superior Desporto e Lazer, Instituto Politécnico de Viana do Castelo, Rua Escola Industrial e Comercial de Nun'Álvares, 4900-347 Viana do Castelo, Portugal.

The Ramadan fasting period (RFP) means abstaining from consuming food and/or beverages during certain hours of the day-from sunrise to sunset. Engaging in exercise and sports during the RFP leads to the lipolysis of adipose tissue and an increase in the breakdown of peripheral fat, leading to an increase in fat consumption. The effects of the RFP on functional, hematological, and metabolic parameters needs further study as existing studies have reported contradictory results. The differences in the results of various studies are due to the geographical characteristics of Muslim athletes, their specific diets, and their genetics, which explain these variations. In recent years, the attention of medical and sports researchers on the effects of the RFP and energy restrictions on bodily functions and athletic performance has increased significantly. Therefore, this brief article examines the effects of the RFP on the immune system, body composition, hematology, and the functionality of athletes during and after the RFP. We found that most sporting activities were performed during any time of the day without being affected by Ramadan fasting. Athletes were able to participate in their physical activities during fasting periods and saw few effects on their performance. Sleep and nutritional factors should be adjusted so that athletic performance is not impaired.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu14153197DOI Listing
August 2022

Classified metabolic power-based measures in professional football players: comparison between playing positions and match period.

BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil 2022 Jul 30;14(1):146. Epub 2022 Jul 30.

Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, 5619911367, Ardabil, Iran.

Objective: The aim of this study was (i) provide reference data of metabolic power-based measures during professional football matches; and to (ii) analyze the between-position and between-halves differences of power-based measures during professional football matches.

Methods: Forty-six professional male players from two Turkish Super League teams were observed during two seasons, and 58 matches were analyzed. Total distance, equivalent distance, Low Power (LP), Intermediate Power (IP), High Power (HP), Elevated Power (EP), Max Power (MP) and power metabolic measures P at different match moments were considered.

Results: Significant between-position differences were observed for IP (p: 0.000; d: 0.284), HP (p ≤ 0.001; d = 0.45), EP (p ≤ 0.001; d = 0.44), and for MP (p ≤ 0.001; d = 0.56), with the central defenders (CD) showing the lower values, and the central midfielders (CM) showing the higher values for the overall measures.

Conclusion: Power-based measures are dependent on playing positions. While the CD have lower P values when compared to all positions, the CM have the greatest values. Training and recovery strategies must be ensured for CM players, especially those who have greater match participation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13102-022-00541-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9338561PMC
July 2022

Leg dominance and performance in change of directions tests in young soccer players.

Sci Rep 2022 Jul 28;12(1):12900. Epub 2022 Jul 28.

Department of Physical Education and Sports, Pontifical University of Comillas. CESAG, 07013, Palma, Spain.

The present study aimed to examine the influence of leg dominance on the change of direction (COD) performance. In this study participated 94 healthy young highly trained male soccer players belonging from two categories (n = 27 vs. n = 67; 14.81 ± 0.40 vs. 16.64 ± 1.25 years of age; 170.61 ± 5.61 vs. 173.73 ± 7.19 cm of height; 64.74 ± 8.44 vs. 66.70 ± 7.95 kg of weight, for U16 and U18, respectively). Fitness assessments were performed two times in a period of three months, and included: (1) anthropometry measures, (2) 30-15 IFT, (3) 10-m sprint test, (4) 505-COD test, 90° COD test and cross-over hop test. A paired sample t-test was performed to evaluate the asymmetries at the intragroup level in each of the COD's tests. A symmetry index was used to analyse the asymmetries between categories, and an independent sample t-test was used to compare the variability between the two categories in each of the three tests performed. The effect size was also evaluated. Analysis demonstrated that evidence a trend for a better performance with the preferred leg in the cross-over hop and 505-COD tests, and with the non-dominant leg in the 90° COD. However, in the intragroup analysis, only the 505-COD test registered differences, and no differences were notice din the intergroup comparison. Only in the 505-COD test the percentage of variability (CV) was statistically significant (7.03 ± 4.18% vs. 4.03 ± 2.02% from U16 and U18, respectively). In sum, bilateral differences were noticed in the intragroup comparison, although only in 505-COD test the leg dominance showed to influence performance. In the intergroup analysis any difference was noticed between age categories.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-17245-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9334385PMC
July 2022

A Data Analytics Approach to Assess the Functional and Physical Performance of Female Soccer Players: A Cohort Design.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 Jul 22;19(15). Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Escola Superior Desporto e Lazer, Instituto Politécnico de Viana do Castelo, Rua Escola Industrial e Comercial de Nun'Álvares, 4900-347 Viana do Castelo, Portugal.

Background And Objectives: The aim of this study was twofold: (i) to observe the individual results of fitness status [countermovement jump (CMJ)], hop test, linear sprinting time, stride frequency, stride distance, force-power-velocity, peak power maximal and maximal speed, and repeated sprint ability (RSA) and functional performance (overhead squat, single-leg squat test, dumbbell hip-hinge, Thomas test, hip extension, and internal and external hip rotators) and (ii) to analyze the relationship between anthropometrical measures and values of fitness status with % of difference in the Thomas test, hip extension, and internal and external hip rotators.

Materials And Methods: The study followed a cohort design. Sixteen female soccer players competing in the second division of the Spanish league were monitored during the first days of the pre-season. These players were evaluated three times during the preseason of the cohort period. The dataset showed a negative moderate correlation between time and percentage of difference in hip angle and another positive moderate correlation between maximal sprint and percentage of difference in hip angle (r = -0.54, = 0.02 and r = 0.53, = 0.04), respectively. The correlations of stride time and distance with hip extension are interesting, as professional soccer players should have higher levels of hip flexor flexibility during the stride phase, recoil of the instep kick action.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19158941DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9330724PMC
July 2022

Within-Week Variations and Relationships between Internal and External Intensities Occurring in Male Professional Volleyball Training Sessions.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 Jul 17;19(14). Epub 2022 Jul 17.

The Research Centre of Sports Performance, Recreation, Innovation and Technology (SPRINT), 4960-320 Melgaço, Portugal.

The purpose of the study was to test the within-week variations of the internal and external training intensity outcomes organized by days of the week. An 8-month observational period was conducted during the 2020-2021 season. The training sessions and matches of an elite volleyball team were monitored daily. The data comes from 14 players (two setters, five middle blockers, five outside hitters, and two opposites) of an elite team from the Portuguese 1st League (age: 21.7 ± 4.19 years of age; experience: 6.2 ± 3.8 years; body mass: 85.7 ± 8.69 kg; height: 192.4 ± 6.25 cm; BMI: 23.1 ± 1.40 kg/m). The CR10 Borg scale was applied daily to measure the training intensity. The rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and the session-RPE were extracted as the internal outcomes. The external intensity was measured using an inertial measurement unit (IMU). The number of jumps, height average of jumps (JHA), minimum jump (MJ), maximal jump (MXJ), range jump (RJ), number of jumps (NJ), and training session density (D) were extracted as external intensity outcomes. The results showed that there was a difference between RPE and S-RPE (F (1.98) = 6.31, = 0.01, η = 0.36, and F (1.73) = 28.30, = 0.001, η = 0.72), as well as JHA and NJ (F (2.14) = 4.76, = 0.02, η = 0.30, and F (1.77) = 4.77, = 0.02, η = 0.30) within the microcycle. When analyzing the correlations between internal and external intensity, it was observed that there was a negative correlation between the Maximum Jump (4, 3, and 1 days before the Match day) (r = 0.34, r = 0.40, r = 0.41, respectively) and the Range Jump (3 and 1 days before the Match day (r = 0.33, r = 0.38, respectively) with the RPE (4 days before the Match day) and Maximum Jump (5, 4, 3, and 1 days before the Match day (r = 0.35, r = 0.39, r = 0.44, r = 0.34, respectively) and Range Jump (5, 4, 3, and 1 days before the Match day) (r = 0.34, r = 0.35, r = 0.40 and r = 0.36, respectively) with S_RPE (4 days before the Match day). Such findings show that higher internal intensities are correlated with lower external intensities in sessions further away from the game day. Such results could be an important tool for coaches to reflect, plan, monitor, and execute the training unit according to the temporal distance to the competition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19148691DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9319941PMC
July 2022

Evaluation of Ibuprofen Use on the Immune System Indicators and Force in Disabled Paralympic Powerlifters of Different Sport Levels.

Healthcare (Basel) 2022 Jul 18;10(7). Epub 2022 Jul 18.

Department of Physical Education and Special Motricity, Transilvania University of Brasov, 500068 Brasov, Romania.

Background: Paralympic powerlifting (PP) training is typically intense and causes fatigue and alterations in the immune system.

Objective: To analyze whether IBU would affect performance and the immune system after training in PP.

Methodology: 10 athletes at the national level (NL) and 10 at the regional level (RL) participated in the study, where force and blood indicators were evaluated after training. The study took place over three weeks: (1) familiarization and (2 and 3) comparison between recovery methods, with ibuprofen or placebo (IBU vs. PLA), 800 mg. In the evaluation of the force, the peak torque (PT), fatigue index (FI), and blood immune system biomarkers were analyzed. The training consisted of five sets of five repetitions with 80% of one maximum repetition (5 × 5, 80% 1RM) on the bench press.

Results: The PT at the national level using IBU was higher than with PLA ( = 0.007, η2p = 0.347), and the FI in the NL was lower with IBU than with PLA ( = 0.002, η2p = 0.635), and when comparing the use of IBU, the NL showed less fatigue than the regional level ( = 0.004, η2p = 0.414). Leukocytes, with the use of IBU in the NL group, were greater than in the RL ( = 0.001, η2p = 0.329). Neutrophils, in the NL with IBU, were greater than in the RL with IBU and PLA ( = 0.025, η2p = 0.444). Lymphocytes, in NL with IBU were lower than in RL with IBU and PLA ( = 0.001, η2p = 0.491). Monocytes, in the NL with IBU and PLA, were lower than in the RL with IBU ( = 0.049, η2p = 0.344). For hemoglobin, hematocrit, and erythrocyte, the NL with IBU and PLA were higher than the RL with IBU and PLA ( < 0.05). Ammonia, with the use of IBU in the NL, obtained values higher than in the RL ( = 0.007), and with the use of PLA, the NL was higher than the RL ( = 0.038, η2p = 0.570).

Conclusion: The training level tends to influence the immune system and, combined with the use of the IBU, it tends to improve recovery and the immune system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10071331DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9323516PMC
July 2022

Physiological and locomotor demands during small-sided games are related to match demands and physical fitness? A study conducted on youth soccer players.

BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil 2022 Jul 23;14(1):138. Epub 2022 Jul 23.

Sports Science Department, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey.

Aim: The purpose of the study was: (i) to analyze the relationships of physiological and locomotor demands between small-sided games (3v3 and 5v5) and official matches (11v11); (ii) to analyze the relationships between small-sided games demands and the physical fitness of youth soccer players.

Methods: The observational study lasted three weeks. In the first week participants performed the 5v5 (50 × 31 and 40 × 25 m) repeatedly over four days. In the third week they repeatedly performed the 3v3 (39 × 24 and 32 × 19 m) over four consecutive days. Twenty youth soccer players (age: 16.8 ± 0.41) were tested twice for their final velocity at 30-15 Intermittent Fitness test (V), peak speed attained at 30-m sprint test (peak speed), and anaerobic speed reserve (ASR). The heart rate responses and locomotor demands were monitored in the SSGs (3v3 and 5v5) and matches (11v11) occurring once a week. The Polar Team Pro was used as the instrument to monitor heart rate and locomotor demands. Three official matches were also monitored during the period.

Results: Results revealed no significant correlations (p > 0.05) between small-sided games and match physiological or locomotor demands. However, V and ASR were significantly correlated with distance covered at 5v5 (r = 0.483; p = 0.031; and r = - 0.474; p = 0.035, respectively), average speed (r = 0.474; p = 0.035; and r = - 0.453; p = 0.045, respectively), while VIFT was also significantly correlated with distance covered at Z2 intensity (r = 0.510; p = 0.022).

Conclusions: The results suggest that the physiological and locomotor demands occurring in small-sided games are significantly different from those occurring in official matches. Thus, physiological and locomotor similarities between small-sided games and official matches are scarce. Considering the second purpose of this study, the results suggest that VIFT and ASR are important physical fitness parameters to modulate the amount of distance covered by the players in 5v5, the average pace, and also the distance covered at high intensities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13102-022-00535-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9308277PMC
July 2022

Reliability levels of motor competence in youth athletes.

BMC Pediatr 2022 07 20;22(1):430. Epub 2022 Jul 20.

Sport Performance, Recreation, Innovation and Technology (SPRINT), Rua Escola Industrial E Comercial de Nun'Alvares, 4900-347, Viana do Castelo, Portugal.

This study aimed to analyze the reliability of the tests included in the motor competence assessment (MCA) battery and compare the effects of the number of trials per test. Thirty female volleyball players (14.6 ± 1.3 years of age) were tested. The participants performed two or three trials of each test. Intra-class correlation (ICC) was calculated, and a paired sample t-test analyzed the variations between trials (1st vs. 2nd vs. 3rd). Results revealed a significant difference between the first and the second trials for jumping sideways [t(29) = -4.108, p < 0.01], standing long jump [t(29) = -3.643, p < 0.01], and shuttle run [t(29) = -3.139, p < 0.01]. No significant result was registered in the shifting platforms, ball throwing and kicking between the first and second trials. Hence, any difference was recorded between the second and third trial. High ICC values were registered in lateral jumps, among the three repetitions of ball kicking and ball throwing, and between the last two repetitions of shuttle run. Almost perfect values were recorded for the shifting platforms and standing long jump. Nevertheless, there seems to be a learning effect between the first and the second repetition-no differences were registered only considering the two manipulative tests. In conclusion, except for jumping sideways, the MCA tests are reliable and only need to be performed two times instead of three.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-022-03483-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9297583PMC
July 2022

Can high-intensity interval training and small-sided games be effective for improving physical fitness after detraining? A parallel study design in youth male soccer players.

PeerJ 2022 1;10:e13514. Epub 2022 Jul 1.

Escola Superior Desporto e Lazer, Instituto Politécnico de Viana do Castelo, Rua Escola Industrial e Comercial de Nun'Álvares, Viana do Castelo, Portugal, Melgaço, Portugal.

Background: The aim of this study was two-fold: (i) analyze the within-group physical fitness adaptations promoted by a detraining period (4 weeks) followed by an intervention period (4 weeks) using small-sided games (SSGs) or running-based high intensity interval training (HIIT); and (ii) analyze the between-group differences aiming to identify the effectiveness of each training intervention on the physical fitness of youth male soccer players.

Methods: This study followed a randomized parallel study design. Forty male soccer players (age: 16.4 ± 0.5 years old) were assessed three times: (i) baseline; (ii) after 4 weeks of detraining; and (iii) after a retraining period of 4 weeks. After returning from detraining, players were randomized to an SSG-based training intervention ( = 20) or running-based HIIT ( = 20). Interventions lasted 4 weeks, with a training frequency of three sessions per week. At all timepoints, players were assessed by: (i) anthropometry (height, body mass, fat mass (FM)), countermovement jump (CMJ), standing broad jump (SBJ), triple hop jump (THJ), linear sprint test (5-, 10-, and 20-m), zig-zag test with (ZZwB) and without (ZZwoB) ball, three corner run test (3CRT), Y-balance test and the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (YYIRT). Mixed ANOVA (time * group) was conducted for testing interactions between the three timepoints of repeated measures and the two groups. Effect size (ES) for pairwise comparisons was calculated using Cohen's.

Results: Between-group analysis revealed significantly smaller SBJ ( = -2.424, = 0.020, d = -0.767 small ES) and THT ( = -4.353, < 0.001, d = -1.376 large ES) in the SSG group after the retraining period. At the same time, SSG presented significantly greater FM after retraining compared to HIIT ( = 3.736, < 0.001, d = 1.181 large ES). Additionally, SSG had significantly smaller values than HIIT in the ZZwB ( = -3.645, < 0.001, d = -1.153 large ES), but greater times in the ZZwoB ( = 2.679, = 0.011, d = 0.847 large ES) and 3CRT ( = 3.126, = 0.003, d = 0.989 large ES).

Conclusions: Although SSG and HIIT interventions improved physical fitness outcomes after a period of detraining, they were not able to effectively restore body composition, CMJ, 20-m sprint, ZZwB, and YYIRT compared with the baseline assessments (before detraining). Only HIIT was significantly effective for restoring SBJ, short linear sprin speed, and change-of-direction compared with baseline. HIIT was also significantly better than SSG in improving SBJ and ZZwoB. Although the small sample, the non determination of maturation status and the need to be cautious regarding generalization, HIIT appears to be more beneficial than SSG after a detraining period for recovery of body composition and physical fitness qualities in this specific context of youth soccer players.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.13514DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9252184PMC
July 2022

Effects of small-sided games and running-based high-intensity interval training on body composition and physical fitness in under-19 female soccer players.

BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil 2022 Jun 28;14(1):119. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Escola Superior Desporto e Lazer, Instituto Politécnico de Viana do Castelo, Rua Escola Industrial e Comercial de Nun'Álvares, 4900-347, Viana do Castelo, Portugal.

Background: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of small-sided games (SSGs) and running-based high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on the body composition and physical fitness of youth female soccer players.

Methods: This study followed a randomized parallel study design. Twenty-four female soccer players (age: 18.63 ± 2.36 years) were randomly allocated to two training groups (SSG, n = 12; and HIIT, n = 12). The training intervention had a duration of eight weeks, consisting of three training sessions per week. Players were assessed twice (pre- and post-intervention) for anthropometrics, vertical (countermovement jumps, CMJ; and drop jumps, DJ) and horizontal jumping (single, triple and crossover hop), sprinting (10- and 30-m), change-of-direction (COD), COD deficit and final velocity at 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (V). A covariance analysis (ANCOVA) was used to determine differences between the groups in the effect on post-intervention by controlling for covariates (pre-intervention). The within-group analysis (time) was performed using a paired t-test, while the between-group analysis per assessment moment was performed using an independent t-test.

Results: The between-group analysis with ANCOVA revealed that there are no significant differences between the SSG and HIIT groups in the post-intervention for any outcome (p > 0.05). The within-group analysis revealed significant improvements in both the SSG and HIIT groups in CMJ (p < 0.05), single, triple and crossover hops (p < 0.05), RSI DJ 30-cm and RSI DJ 40-cm (p < 0.05), VIFT (p < 0.05) and COD (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: SSG and HIIT are both effective for improving vertical and horizontal jumping ability, change-of-direction, and aerobic capacity status measured at a progressive and intermittent multistage test in youth soccer players.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13102-022-00516-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9238068PMC
June 2022

Effects of High-Intensity Resistance Training on Physical Fitness, Hormonal and Antioxidant Factors: A Randomized Controlled Study Conducted on Young Adult Male Soccer Players.

Biology (Basel) 2022 Jun 13;11(6). Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Department of Physiology and Biochemistry, University School of Physical Education, 51-612 Wrocław, Poland.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to test the effects of high-intensity resistance training (HIRT) intervention on the physical fitness, hormonal and antioxidant factors of adult male soccer players.

Methods: A randomized controlled study design was implemented. Eighteen soccer players (age: 20.3 ± 0.66 years; stature: 174.0 ± 6.01 cm; body mass: 69.1 ± 6.4 kg; body mass index: 22.8 ± 1.6 kg/m) voluntarily participated in this study. Players were assessed before and after an intervention lasting 8 weeks, with three training sessions a week. Assessments of physical fitness included the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (YYIRT1), 10-, 20-, and 30 m sprint time (ST), running-based anaerobic sprint test (RAST) and change-of-direction time (COD). Hormonal tests included cortisol, testosterone and growth hormone (GH), whereas the antioxidant assessment included superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH).

Results: Between-group analysis revealed no significant differences at baseline, whereas it revealed that HIRT presented significant better results than the control group on YYIRT ( = 0.032), 10 m ST ( = 0.041), 20 m ST ( = 0.040), 30 m ST ( = 0.044), RAST ( = 0.013), and COD ( = 0.031) after the intervention period. The within group analysis revealed that the HIRT group significantly improved the YYIRT1 ( < 0.001), VO2max ( < 0.001), 10 m ST ( < 0.001), 20 m ST ( = 0.006), 30 m ST ( < 0.001), RAST ( < 0.001) and COD ( < 0.001). Moreover, HIRT group significantly reduced the cortisol ( < 0.001) and MDA ( = 0.021), whereas it significantly increased the GH ( < 0.001), testosterone ( < 0.001), SOD ( = 0.009) and GSH ( = 0.005).

Conclusions: The HIRT is effective for improving physical fitness, revealing significant better adaptations than controls. Moreover, hormonal and antioxidant adaptations are also confirmed after HIRT intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biology11060909DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9220039PMC
June 2022

Mediterranean Diet Adherence, Body Mass Index and Emotional Intelligence in Primary Education Students-An Explanatory Model as a Function of Weekly Physical Activity.

Children (Basel) 2022 Jun 11;9(6). Epub 2022 Jun 11.

Faculty of Education Sciences, Department of Didactics of Musical, Plastic and Corporal Expression, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain.

Adolescence is a key developmental period from a health, physical and psychological perspective. In view of this, the present research aimed to establish the relationship between emotional intelligence, Mediterranean diet adherence, BMI and age. In order to address this aim, (a) an explanatory model is developed of emotional intelligence and its relationship with Mediterranean diet adherence, BMI and age, and (b) the proposed structural model is examined via multi-group analysis as a function of whether students engage in more than three hours of physical activity a week. To this end, a quantitative, non-experimental (ex post facto), comparative and cross-sectional study was carried out with a sample of 567 students (11.10 ± 1.24). The instruments used were an ad hoc questionnaire, the KIDMED questionnaire and the TMMS-24. Outcomes reveal that participants who engage in more than three hours of physical activity a week score more highly for emotional intelligence than those who do not meet this criterion. Furthermore, it was also observed that, whilst the majority of the sample was physically active, improvement was required with regards to Mediterranean diet adherence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/children9060872DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9221708PMC
June 2022

Comparisons between Bioelectrical Impedance Variables, Functional Tests and Blood Markers Based on BMI in Older Women and Their Association with Phase Angle.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 06 3;19(11). Epub 2022 Jun 3.

Sports Science School of Rio Maior-Polytechnic Institute of Santarém, 2040-413 Rio Maior, Portugal.

The aim of the present study was to compare electrical bioimpedance variables, blood markers and functional tests based on Body Mass Index (BMI) in older women. Associations between Phase Angle (PhA) with functional tests and blood markers were also analyzed. A total of 46 independent elderly people participated in the study, and they were divided into four groups according to BMI values: Group 1 (G1, BMI < 25 kg/m); Group 2 (G2, BMI > 25-30 kg/m); Group 3 (G3, BMI > 30-35 kg/m); Group 4 (G4, BMI > 35 kg/m). In addition to the weight and height used to calculate the BMI, the following body composition variables were collected: fat mass (FM), fat-free mass, intracellular water (ICW), extracellular water (ECW), total body water (TBW) and PhA (50 kHz) through InBody S10 equipment. Functional capacity was assessed using the Fullerton battery of tests: arm-curl; chair-stand; 6 min walking test (6MWT); time up-and-go test (TUG); standing on one leg (SOOL) and take 10 foot-lines (10FL). The main results showed differences between groups in the tests: 6MWT, SOOL and 10FL between G1 vs. G3 and G2 vs. G3 ( < 0.05); ACT, AIC and AEC between G1 vs. G4 ( < 0.05); FM among all groups ( < 0.05). Negative correlations were found between PhA and the agility test in G1 (r = -0.848; = 0.008) and G4 (r = -0.909; = 0.005); PhA and chair-stand in G3 (r = 0.527; = 0.044); PhA and forearm flexion in G3 (r = 0.641; = 0.010) and G4 (r = 0.943; = 0.001); PhA and 6MWT in G4 (r = 0.771; = 0.042). This study found that there is a clear trend towards better functional capacities with better parameters of body composition. Although there were no differences between groups in PhA, associations were found between different functional tests with PhA, which reveals the importance of this variable as a marker of health status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19116851DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9180009PMC
June 2022

Effects of Core Training in Physical Fitness of Youth Karate Athletes: A Controlled Study Design.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 05 10;19(10). Epub 2022 May 10.

Escola Superior Desporto e Lazer, Instituto Politécnico de Viana do Castelo, Rua Escola Industrial e Comercial de Nun'Álvares, 4900-347 Viana do Castelo, Portugal.

This study aimed to analyse the impact of an 8-week core strength training (CST) programme in youth karate practitioners on core endurance, agility, flexibility, sprinting, jumping, and kick performance. This study followed a randomized parallel design. Twenty-nine participants (age: 12.86 ± 0.81 years old; height: 152.55 ± 10.37 cm; weight: 42.93 ± 8.85 kg) were allocated to a CST programme ( = 16) performed thrice weekly or to a control group ( = 13) only performing the sport-specific (karate) training. Participants were assessed three times (baseline, mid and post-intervention) for the following tests: (i) flexor endurance test (FET); (ii) back extensor test (BET); (iii) lateral musculature test (LMT); (iv) flexibility; (v) chance of direction (COD); (vi) countermovement jump (CMJ); (vii) back muscle strength (BMS); (viii) horizontal jump (LJ); (ix) sprint test; and (x) karate kick test (KKT). Between-group analysis revealed significant advantages for the CST group on the FET ( < 0.001), BET ( < 0.001), LMT ( < 0.001), 20 m sprint ( = 0.021) and KKT for right ( < 0.006) and left ( < 0.020) legs. No significant differences were found between groups in the remaining physical fitness variables ( > 0.05). The within-group changes revealed significant improvements in the CST group at flexibility ( = 0.002), COD ( < 0.001), CMJ ( < 0.001), BMS ( < 0.002), 20 m sprint ( = 0.033), and KKT ( < 0.001). In addition, within-group changes in the control group were also significant in flexibility ( = 0.024) and right kick ( < 0.042). We conclude that the CST programme improves core endurance and karate kick performance; however, it is not effective enough for other physical performance parameters in KR practitioners.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19105816DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9141055PMC
May 2022

Nanofiltration as an Efficient Tertiary Wastewater Treatment: Elimination of Total Bacteria and Antibiotic Resistance Genes from the Discharged Effluent of a Full-Scale Wastewater Treatment Plant.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2022 May 6;11(5). Epub 2022 May 6.

Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica António Xavier, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Avenida da República, 2780-157 Oeiras, Portugal.

Wastewater reuse for agricultural irrigation still raises important public health issues regarding its safety, due to the increasing presence of emerging contaminants, such as antibiotic resistant bacteria and genes, in the treated effluents. In this paper, the potential for a commercial Desal 5 DK nanofiltration membrane to be used as a tertiary treatment in the wastewater treatment plants for a more effective elimination of these pollutants from the produced effluents was assessed on laboratory scale, using a stainless steel cross-flow cell. The obtained results showed high concentrations of total bacteria and target carbapenem and (fluoro)quinolone resistance genes (, , , , , A, B and S) not only in the discharged, but also in the reused, effluent samples, which suggests that their use may not be entirely safe. Nevertheless, the applied nanofiltration treatment achieved removal rates superior to 98% for the total bacteria and 99.99% for all the target resistance genes present in both DNA and extracellular DNA fractions, with no significant differences for these microbiological parameters between the nanofiltered and the control tap water samples. Although additional studies are still needed to fully optimize the entire process, the use of nanofiltration membranes seems to be a promising solution to substantially increase the quality of the treated wastewater effluents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11050630DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9137456PMC
May 2022

Effects of Maturation Stage on Sprinting Speed Adaptations to Plyometric Jump Training in Youth Male Team Sports Players: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Open Access J Sports Med 2022 9;13:41-54. Epub 2022 May 9.

Escola Superior Desporto e Lazer, Instituto Politécnico de Viana do Castelo, Rua Escola Industrial e Comercial de Nun'Álvares, Viana do Castelo, 4900-347, Portugal.

Purpose: To determine the effects of maturation stage (eg, classified in the same intervention protocol as early-, and late-mature) on linear sprinting speed adaptations to plyometric jump training (PJT) in youth (aged <18 years) male team sports players.

Patients And Methods: Eligibility criteria was determined based on PICOS: (P) healthy youth male team sport players classified in the same intervention protocol in ≥2 maturation-related categories, based on a recognized maturation stage-determination method, including (but not limited to) Tanner stage; peak height velocity (eg, Mirwald method); radiography-based method (eg, Fels method); (I) athletes exposed to PJT with a minimum of 4 weeks duration; (C) athletes non-exposed to PJT (non-dedicated intervention, ie, only field-based regular training) or performing a parallel intervention not-related with PJT organized by maturation levels; (O) sprinting speed (eg, time, maximal sprint speed) measured in any linear sprint test trajectories before and after the intervention; (S) only randomized controlled and/or parallel trials. Searches were conducted on December 2021 in EMBASE, PubMed, Scopus, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science, restricted to Portuguese, Spanish and English languages, with no restrictions regarding publication date, and no filters applied. The PEDro scale was used to assess the risk of bias in the included studies. Meta-analysis was computed using the inverse variance random-effects model. The significance level was set at p < 0.05.

Results: The search identified 1219 titles. From those, four studies were selected for qualitative and quantitative synthesis. Four studies provided data for sprinting performance, involving 10 experimental and 8 control groups showing a small effect of trained participants on sprinting performance (ES = 0.31; p = 0.064; I2 = 41.3%) when compared to controls. No significant moderator effect was noted for somatic maturity (p = 0.473 between groups).

Conclusion: PJT had no significant effect on sprinting performance, although the inclusion criteria partially may explain that.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OAJSM.S283662DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9109897PMC
May 2022

An Improbable Thromboembolic Manifestation of COVID-19: A Case Report.

Cureus 2022 Mar 9;14(3):e23013. Epub 2022 Mar 9.

Internal Medicine, Centro Hospitalar Tâmega e Sousa, Penafiel, PRT.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease is a multisystem disease and recent studies have shown an increase in reported thromboembolic complications as deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism (PE), stroke, and less frequently mesenteric artery thrombosis. We present a case of a 75-year-old woman, COVID-19 positive with five days of evolution, who was admitted to the emergency room due to diffuse abdominal pain with several days of progression, along with diarrhea and biliary vomit. Abdominal computed tomography presented images of subtraction of the lumen of the upper mesenteric artery. With the reported clinical case the authors intend to clarify the importance of differential diagnosis in patients with a typical severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV2) infection presentation. The gastrointestinal symptoms of SARS CoV2 infection can mask a more severe condition, so a high index suspicion for abdominal thromboembolic events is required once this complication may threaten patient's life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.23013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9001239PMC
March 2022

The Relationship between Executive Functions and Gross Motor Skills in Rural Children Aged 8-10 Years.

Healthcare (Basel) 2022 Mar 25;10(4). Epub 2022 Mar 25.

Physical Education and Sport Science Faculty, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 51666, Iran.

Considering that cognitive and motor dimensions of human beings grow together, and that primary school age is one of the most important stages of children's cognitive and motor development, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between executive functions and gross motor skills in rural children aged 8-10 years. This descriptive and correlational research was conducted with 93 Iranian rural primary school children aged 8 to 10 years. A Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) questionnaire and the Test of Gross Motor Development, second edition (TGMD-2) were used to collect data on executive functions and gross motor skills, respectively. The results showed that most of the correlations between criterion and predictor variables were moderate. In the regression results we observed that among the components of executive functions, inhibition, working memory, planning/organizing, and organization had a significant relationship with gross motor skills, but no relationship was found between other components and motor skills. As a result, it can be said that in predicting cognitive development and specifically mentioned executive functions, gross motor skills are an important and effective factor among rural children and, given the importance of cognitive development and executive functions in childhood, it seems that by helping to develop their gross motor skills, executive functions will also be strengthened. Finally, possible future studies are addressed, which could investigate the effect of different aspects of motor skill classifications on executive functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10040616DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9026807PMC
March 2022

The Curcumin Supplementation with Piperine Can Influence the Acute Elevation of Exercise-Induced Cytokines: Double-Blind Crossover Study.

Biology (Basel) 2022 Apr 10;11(4). Epub 2022 Apr 10.

Laboratory of Exercise Inflammation and Immunology, School of Physical Education, Federal University of Ouro Preto (LABIIEX/EEF-UFOP), Ouro Preto 35400-000, Brazil.

Background: to evaluate the effects of one week of supplementation with curcumin combined with piperine on physical performance, immune system cell counts, muscle damage, and plasma levels of inflammatory markers after a treadmill running training session.

Methods: This study is a double-blind, crossover-balanced clinical trial with a three-week intervention. Sixteen male runners with a mean age of 36 ± 9 years and VO2 max of 60.6 ± 9.03 mL.kg min were recruited and randomly divided into 2 groups: the first group (CPG) was supplemented daily for 7 days with 500 mg of curcumin + 20 mg piperine, and the second group (PG) was supplemented with 540 mg of cellulose. After the 7th day of supplementation, the volunteers participated in the experimental running protocol, where blood samples were collected before, after, and one hour after exercise for analysis of the number of leukocytes, creatine kinase, and cytokine concentration (IL-2, TNF-α, IFN, IL-6, and IL-10) using flow cytometry. This process was repeated, reversing the supplementation offered to the groups.

Results: curcumin and piperine supplementation could not change the physical performance, immune cell counts, and muscle damage; however, the aerobic fatiguing exercise protocol inhibited the elevation of the plasmatic levels of some cytokines. The running exercise protocol could elevate the circulating levels of IL-2 (from 49.7 to 59.3 pg/mL), TNF-α (from 48.5 to 51.5 pg/mL), INF (from 128.8 to 165.0 pg/mL), IL-6 (from 63.1 to 77.3 pg/mL), and IL-10 (from 48.9 to 59.6 pg/mL) 1 h after the end of the running protocol. However, the curcumin and piperine supplementation could inhibit this elevation.

Conclusions: curcumin and piperine supplementation had no effect on physical performance, immune cell counts, or muscle damage; however, the supplementation could modulate the kinetics of IL-2, TNF-α, INF, IL-6, and IL-10 1 h after the end of exercise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biology11040573DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9032800PMC
April 2022

Relationships between Fitness Status and Blood Biomarkers in Professional Soccer Players.

J Healthc Eng 2022 11;2022:5135817. Epub 2022 Apr 11.

Escola Superior Desporto e Lazer, Instituto Politécnico de Viana Do Castelo, Viana do castelo, Portugal.

Background: Physical conditions are recognized to be optimal after the pre-season (PS) phase in professional sports. Given that blood measures may also reveal variations, which in turn, may present associations with fitness changes.

Objective: The aim of this study is to test the changes of blood markers and physical fitness outcomes at the beginning and following the PS phase. Additionally, we aimed also to analyze the associations of training adaptations between blood markers and the physical fitness measures. . 25 professional male soccer players (28.1 ± 4.6 years old, 2.0 ± 7.8 kg, and 176.7 ± 4.9 cm) were assessed for hematological and biochemical parameters, and physical fitness measures in the baseline and after the phase of PS.

Results: Increases in platelets were observed after the PS phase ( = 0.001, 2 = 0.39). Regarding the biochemical parameters, significant increases between PS were found for creatinine (Cre) ( = 0.001, 2 = 0.66), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) ( = 0.001, 2 = 0.79), C-Reactive Protein (CRP) ( = 0.001, 2 = 0.74), cortisol (C) ( = 0.001, 2 = 0.63), and testosterone () ( = 0.001, 2 = 0.76), whereas significant decreases were found for albumin (Alb) ( = 0.004, 2 = 0.29), and calcium corrected (Ca Corr.) ( = 0.002, 2 = 0.32). Moderate correlations were found between albumin and the 5-meter linear sprint split ( = -0.44 (95%CI: -0.71; -0.05)) and CRP ( = -0.48 (95%CI: -0.74; -0.10)). Moderate correlations were found between VAMEVAL and hemoglobin ( = 0.44 (95%CI: 0.05; 0.71)).

Conclusions: The overall physical fitness measures improved after the PS phase. Also, significant variations (decreases/increases) were observed for the case of biomchemical and hematological outcomes. Coaches should carefully consider the adaptative changes observed in blood parameters as the changes in whole organism and metabolism after specific critical phases as the PS in professional players. Thus, optimal management of stimulus/recovery can be warranted to minimize illness and injury rate and to follow the direction and dynamics of adaptative changes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/5135817DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9017447PMC
April 2022

Associations between match participation, maturation, physical fitness, and hormonal levels in elite male soccer player U15: a prospective study with observational cohort.

BMC Pediatr 2022 04 11;22(1):196. Epub 2022 Apr 11.

Faculty of Sport Sciences and Physical Education, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.

Objectives: The aims of this study were to analyze the relationships between minutes of play (MP) and maturity status, fitness, and hormonal levels and to explain how those measures influence the time of play.

Methods: Twenty-six youth soccer players U15 participated in this study over a full-season period. Anthropometric measures, maturity status, growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor and physical levels such as maximal oxygen uptake (VO), fatigue index, countermovement jump (CMJ) performance were collected. At the end-season, players were assessed in 6 different tests over four days.

Results: VO largely correlated with GH (r = 0.57) and CMJ (r = 0.51). Also, GH largely correlated with CMJ (r = 0.55). MP had moderate correlations with VO (r = 0.44) and CMJ (r = 0.42). Multiple linear regression with maturation, physical fitness and hormonal levels explained R of 0.62 of the MP (F (8, 17) = 3.47, p = 0.015). Although each independent variable alone was not able to determine the playing time, when using the interactions, the model significantly explained the MP.

Conclusions: The combination of maturity status, physical fitness, and hormonal levels seem to play a determinant role in explaining the match participation in youth soccer players.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-022-03257-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8996429PMC
April 2022

Are sEMG, Velocity and Power Influenced by Athletes' Fixation in Paralympic Powerlifting?

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 03 31;19(7). Epub 2022 Mar 31.

Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neuroscience and Sense Organs, University of Study of Bari, 70124 Bari, Italy.

The bench press is performed in parapowerlifting with the back, shoulders, buttocks, legs and heels extended over the bench, and the use of straps to secure the athlete to the bench is optional. Thus, the study evaluated muscle activation, surface electromyography (sEMG), maximum velocity (MaxV) and mean propulsive velocity (MPV), and power in paralympic powerlifting athletes under conditions tied or untied to the bench. Fifteen experienced Paralympic powerlifting male athletes (22.27 ± 10.30 years, 78.5 ± 21.6 kg) took part in the research. The sEMG measurement was performed in the sternal portion of the pectoralis major (PMES), anterior deltoid (AD), long head of the triceps brachii (TRI) and clavicular portion of the pectoralis major (PMCL). The MaxV, MPV and power were evaluated using an encoder. Loads of 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% 1RM were analyzed under untied and tied conditions. No differences were found in muscle activation between the tied and untied conditions; however, sEMG showed differences in the untied condition between AD and TRI (F (3112) = 4.484; = 0.005) in the 100% 1RM load, between PMCL and AD (F (3112) = 3.743; = 0.013) in 60% 1RM load and in the tied condition, between the PMES and the AD (F (3112) = 4.067; = 0.009). There were differences in MaxV (F (3112) = 213.3; < 0.001), and MPV (F (3112) = 248.2; < 0.001), between all loads in the tied and untied condition. In power, the load of 100% 1RM differed from all other relative loads (F (3112) = 36.54; < 0.001) in both conditions. The tied condition seems to favor muscle activation, sEMG, and velocity over the untied condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19074127DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8998439PMC
March 2022

Editorial: Training Methodology: A Multidimensional Approach for Team Sports.

Front Psychol 2022 16;13:862465. Epub 2022 Mar 16.

Escola Superior Desporto e Lazer, Instituto Politécnico de Viana do Castelo, Rua Escola Industrial e Comercial de Nun'Álvares, Viana do Castelo, Portugal.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.862465DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8966075PMC
March 2022

The Relationship between Physical Activity, Physical Exercise, and Human Gut Microbiota in Healthy and Unhealthy Subjects: A Systematic Review.

Biology (Basel) 2022 Mar 21;11(3). Epub 2022 Mar 21.

Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neuroscience and Sense Organs, University of Study of Bari, 70124 Bari, Italy.

Several studies have been conducted to find at least an association between physical activity (PA)/ physical exercise (PE) and the possibility to modulate the gut microbiome (GM). However, the specific effects produced on the human GM by different types of PA/PE, different training modalities, and their age-related effects are not yet fully understood. Therefore, this systematic review aims to evaluate and summarize the current scientific evidence investigating the bi-directional relationship between PA/PE and the human GM, with a specific focus on the different types/variables of PA/PE and age-related effects, in healthy and unhealthy people. A systematic search was conducted across four databases (Web of Science, Medline (PubMed), Google Scholar, and Cochrane Library). Information was extracted using the populations, exposure, intervention, comparison, outcomes (PICOS) format. The Oxford Quality Scoring System Scale, the Risk of Bias in Non-Randomized Studies of Interventions (ROBINS-I) tool, and the JBI Critical Appraisal Checklist for Analytical Cross-Sectional Studies were used as a qualitative measure of the review. The protocol was registered in PROSPERO (code: CRD42022302725). The following data items were extracted: author, year of publication, study design, number and age of participants, type of PA/PE carried out, protocol/workload and diet assessment, duration of intervention, measurement tools used, and main outcomes. Two team authors reviewed 694 abstracts for inclusion and at the end of the screening process, only 76 full texts were analyzed. Lastly, only 25 research articles met the eligibility criteria. The synthesis of these findings suggests that GM diversity is associated with aerobic exercise contrary to resistance training; abundance of genus seems to be correlated with training duration; no significant change in GM richness and diversity are detected when exercising according to the minimum dose recommended by the World Health Organizations; intense and prolonged PE can induce a higher abundance of pro-inflammatory bacteria; PA does not lead to significant GM α/β-diversity in elderly people (60+ years). The heterogeneity of the training parameters used in the studies, diet control, and different sequencing methods are the main confounders. Thus, this systematic review can provide an in-depth overview of the relationship between PA/PE and the human intestinal microbiota and, at the same time, provide indications from the athletic and health perspective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biology11030479DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8945171PMC
March 2022

Selected vs. Non-Selected Under-20 National Futsal Players: Differences between Physical Performance and Training Intensity Experienced in Training Camps.

Biology (Basel) 2022 Mar 11;11(3). Epub 2022 Mar 11.

Tanyu Research Laboratory, Taipei 112, Taiwan.

The aim of this study was two-fold: (i) analyze the variations in the physical fitness of selected and non-selected under-20 male national futsal players; and (ii) analyze the variations in training intensity monitored during training camps. Thirty-three Taiwan under-20 national futsal players were monitored for training intensity during 18 training camps. They were divided into two groups: selected ( = 14) and non-selected ( = 17) players. The physical assessments included the following measures: body mass, distance covered at Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test Level 1, final velocity at 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (30-15 IFT), standing long jump, maximum heart rate (HR), and 1-min sit-up. The training intensity was monitored using the rate of perceived exertion (RPE), HR at different intensity zones, and locomotor demands measured at different speed thresholds. The results revealed that the selected players were significantly faster in the 15-m sprint with ball ( = 0.001) and 30-m sprint ( = 0.001). Additionally, the selected players presented significantly greater HR and time spent above 90% maximum HR during the three-to-six-day training camps ( < 0.05) compared to the non-selected players. Interestingly, the NS demonstrated a greater number of sprints during the training camps ( = 0.001), while the selected players presented greater distance/minute and average speed ( = 0.001). A regression analysis showed that the distance/minute and average speed was a significant predictor of maximum HR in the selected players. As conclusions, the physical fitness outcomes are different between the selected and non-selected national futsal players. The selected players spent more time in high intensity HR demands in training sessions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biology11030434DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8945534PMC
March 2022

Editorial: Children's Exercise Physiology, Volume II.

Front Physiol 2022 7;13:864661. Epub 2022 Mar 7.

Escola Superior Desporto e Lazer, Instituto Politécnico de Viana Do Castelo, Rua Escola Industrial e Comercial de Nun'Álvares, Viana Do Castelo, Portugal.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2022.864661DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8940528PMC
March 2022

Body Composition Interactions with Physical Fitness: A Cross-Sectional Study in Youth Soccer Players.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 03 18;19(6). Epub 2022 Mar 18.

Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neuroscience and Sense Organs, University of Study of Bari, 70124 Bari, Italy.

This study aimed to: (i) analyze fat mass and physical fitness variations among age-groups and playing positions, and (ii) explore the relationship between fat mass and physical fitness in youth male soccer players. A total of 66 players from under-16, under-17, and under-19 were tested. Body mass, skinfolds, countermovement jump (CMJ), single-leg triple hop jump (SLTH), bilateral triple hop jump (BTH), and yo-yo intermittent recovery Level 2 (YYIR-2) were assessed. A two- and one-way ANOVA were conducted, and the effect size was measured. Interactions were found in skin folds and fat mass. The under-19 group was taller, heavier, with a greater BMI and muscle mass than the under-16 group. They also exceeded the under-16 and under-17 in SLTH, BTH, and YYIRT-2. The under-17 group jumped higher and longer than under-16 group. Goalkeepers were taller and heavier than the midfielders. Central defenders were taller and had more muscle mass than midfielders and were heavier than the midfielders and wingers. The wingers jumped higher than the midfielders and showed better YYIRT-2. BMI was small correlated with YYIRT-2 and moderately with CMJ. Fat mass had a moderate negative correlation with CMJ and YYIRT-2. Muscle mass largely correlated with CMJ, UTH, very large with BTH and moderate with YYIRT-2. Summarily, with increasing age, better performances and body compositions were registered. Muscle mass better influences performance than body fat. Body composition can distinguish players positions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19063598DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8950089PMC
March 2022

Weekly Variations of Well-Being and Interactions with Training and Match Intensities: A Descriptive Case Study in Youth Male Soccer Players.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 03 2;19(5). Epub 2022 Mar 2.

Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neuroscience and Sense Organs, University of Study of Bari, 70124 Bari, Italy.

The aim of this study was two-fold: (i) analyze the weekly variations of well-being and training/match intensity measures in youth soccer players, and (ii) test relations between well-being and training intensity outcomes. The study followed a descriptive case study design. Twenty-seven under-17 male soccer players were monitored for well-being and training intensity parameters over seventeen consecutive weeks. An adjusted version of the Hooper questionnaire was used to monitor the perceptive sleep quality, readiness, fatigue, and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) early in the morning. The CR-10 Borg's scale was also used for monitoring the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) of players after training sessions. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was executed to test the between-week variations of both well-being and training intensity outcomes. Moreover, Pearson product moment correlation was used to test the relations between well-being and training intensity outcomes. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant differences between weeks in the sleep quality ( = 0.422; < 0.001; ηp2 = 0.140), readiness ( = 0.8.734; < 0.001; ηp2 = 0.251), fatigue ( = 4.484; < 0.001; ηp2 = 0.147), DOMS ( = 3.775; = 0.001; ηp2 = 0.127), RPE ( = 7.301; < 0.001; ηp2 = 0.219), and session-RPE ( = 17.708; < 0.001; ηp2 = 0.405). Correlations between well-being and training intensity outcomes in the same week revealed moderate correlations between fatigue and session-RPE ( = 0.325). As conclusions, it was found that well-being and training intensity fluctuates over the season, while well-being outcomes seems to be related with training intensity, although with a small magnitude.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19052935DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8910011PMC
March 2022

Effects of Small-Sided Games Training versus High-Intensity Interval Training Approaches in Young Basketball Players.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 03 2;19(5). Epub 2022 Mar 2.

Escola Superior Desporto e Lazer, Instituto Politécnico de Viana do Castelo, Rua Escola Industrial e Comercial de Nun'Álvares, 4900-347 Viana do Castelo, Portugal.

This study aimed to investigate the effects of the 6-week small-sided games training (SSGs) vs. high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on the psychophysiological and performance responses, and technical skills of young basketball players. Thirty-two male players (age: 14.5 ± 0.5 years of age) were randomly divided into SSGs group ( = 16) and HIIT group ( = 16) training methods thrice per week for 6 weeks. The players in the SSGs group performed two 5-8 min of 2 vs. 2 with 2 min rest periods, while the players in HIIT performed 12-18 min of runs at intensities (90 to 95%) related to the velocity obtained in the 30-15 intermittent fitness test (IFT). Pre-testing and post-testing sessions involved assessments of Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test level 1, 30-15 intermittent fitness test, 5 and 30 m sprint times, vertical jump height, repeated sprint ability, defensive and offensive agility, and technical skills. The SSGs group demonstrated significantly higher agility-based technical responses in terms of the control dribbling and shooting skills ( = 1.71 vs. 0.20, = 1.41 vs. 0.35, respectively) compared with the HIIT group. Conversely, the HIIT induced greater improvements in 30 m sprint times ( = 3.15 vs. 0.68). These findings provided that SSGs in youth basketball players may allow similar positive physical adaptations to HIIT, with an extra advantage of improving technical skills while improving enjoyability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19052931DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8910324PMC
March 2022
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