Publications by authors named "Ana Cláudia Maretti-Mira"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Severity of tegumentary leishmaniasis is not exclusively associated with Leishmania RNA virus 1 infection in Brazil.

Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2013 Aug;108(5):665-7

Laboratório Interdisciplinar de Pesquisas Médicas, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.

Leishmania RNA virus (LRV) has been shown to be a symbiotic component of Leishmania parasites in South America. Nested retro-transcription polymerase chain reaction was employed to investigate LRV1 presence in leishmaniasis lesions from Brazil. In endemic areas of Rio de Janeiro (RJ), no LRV1 infection was observed even with mucosal involvement. LRV1 was only detected in Leishmania (V.) guyanensis cutaneous lesions from the northern region, which were obtained from patients presenting with disease reactivation after clinical cure of their primary lesions. Our results indicated that the severity of leishmaniasis in some areas of RJ, where Leishmania (V.) brazi-liensis is the primary etiological agent, was not associated with Leishmania LRV1 infection.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3970596PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0074-0276108052013021DOI Listing
August 2013

Transcriptome patterns from primary cutaneous Leishmania braziliensis infections associate with eventual development of mucosal disease in humans.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2012 13;6(9):e1816. Epub 2012 Sep 13.

Division of Molecular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, California, United States of America.

Introduction: Localized Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (LCL) and Mucosal Leishmaniasis (ML) are two extreme clinical forms of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis that usually begin as solitary primary cutaneous lesions. Host and parasite factors that influence the progression of LCL to ML are not completely understood. In this manuscript, we compare the gene expression profiles of primary cutaneous lesions from patients who eventually developed ML to those that did not.

Methods: Using RNA-seq, we analyzed both the human and Leishmania transcriptomes in primary cutaneous lesions.

Results: Limited number of reads mapping to Leishmania transcripts were obtained. For human transcripts, compared to ML patients, lesions from LCL patients displayed a general multi-polarization of the adaptive immune response and showed up-regulation of genes involved in chemoattraction of innate immune cells and in antigen presentation. We also identified a potential transcriptional signature in the primary lesions that may predict long-term disease outcome.

Conclusions: We were able to simultaneously sequence both human and Leishmania mRNA transcripts in primary cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions. Our results suggest an intrinsic difference in the immune capacity of LCL and ML patients. The findings correlate the complete cure of L. braziliensis infection with a controlled inflammatory response and a balanced activation of innate and adaptive immunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001816DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3441406PMC
January 2013

Efficacy of synthetic peptides RP-1 and AA-RP-1 against Leishmania species in vitro and in vivo.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2012 Feb 28;56(2):658-65. Epub 2011 Nov 28.

Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, California, USA.

Host defense peptides are naturally occurring molecules that play essential roles in innate immunity to infection. Based on prior structure-function knowledge, we tested two synthetic peptides (RP-1 and AA-RP-1) modeled on the conserved, microbicidal α-helical domain of mammalian CXCL4 platelet kinocidins. These peptides were evaluated for efficacy against Leishmania species, the causative agents of the group of diseases known as leishmaniasis. In vitro antileishmanial activity was assessed against three distinct Leishmania strains by measuring proliferation, metabolic activity and parasite viability after exposure to various concentrations of peptides. We demonstrate that micromolar concentrations of RP-1 and AA-RP-1 caused dose-dependent growth inhibition of Leishmania promastigotes. This antileishmanial activity correlated with rapid membrane disruption, as well as with a loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential. In addition, RP-1 and AA-RP-1 demonstrated distinct and significant in vivo antileishmanial activities in a mouse model of experimental visceral leishmaniasis after intravenous administration. These results establish efficacy of RP-1 lineage synthetic peptides against Leishmania species in vitro and after intravenous administration in vivo and provide further validation of proof of concept for the development of these and related systemic anti-infective peptides targeting pathogens that are resistant to conventional antibiotics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.05349-11DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3264259PMC
February 2012

MMP-9 activity is induced by Leishmania braziliensis infection and correlates with mucosal leishmaniasis.

Acta Trop 2011 Aug 1;119(2-3):160-4. Epub 2011 Jun 1.

Laboratory of Interdisciplinary Medical Research, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz at FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. amaretti

Infection of humans with Leishmania braziliensis typically results in localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL). Rarely, after months or years of apparent clinical cure, some patients develop the destructive mucosal leishmaniasis (ML). ML results from L. braziliensis dissemination, probably via phagocytic cells. As the preferred cells for Leishmania spp. colonization, macrophages are critical to infection control, and may contribute to parasite dissemination. However, the host factors that determine this outcome are unknown. Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) is known to be important for immune cell migration, macrophage recruitment, and effective granuloma formation. Moreover, MMP-9 has been involved in Mycobacterium tuberculosis dissemination. Here, we demonstrate that in vitro infection of human macrophages with L. braziliensis increased the secretion and activation of MMP-9. We also demonstrate that macrophages from healthy cured individuals with previous history of ML had increased MMP-9 activity compared to LCL cured individuals. These findings may represent a fundamental difference in host innate immunity that could contribute to the clinical leishmaniasis presentation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2011.05.009DOI Listing
August 2011

LXR deficiency confers increased protection against visceral Leishmania infection in mice.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2010 Nov 16;4(11):e886. Epub 2010 Nov 16.

Department of Medicine, Division of Dermatology and Infectious Diseases, Harbor-University of California Los Angeles Medical Center and Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute, Torrance, California, USA.

Background: The liver X receptors (LXRs) are a family of nuclear receptor transcription factors that are activated by oxysterols and have defined roles in both lipid metabolism and cholesterol regulation. LXRs also affect antimicrobial responses and have anti-inflammatory effects in macrophages. As mice lacking LXRs are more susceptible to infection by intracellular bacteria Listeria monocytogenes and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we hypothesized that LXR might also influence macrophage responses to the intracellular protozoan parasite Leishmania chagasi/infantum, a causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis.

Methods And Findings: Surprisingly, both LXRα knock-out and LXRα/LXRβ double-knock-out (DKO) mice were markedly resistant to systemic L. chagasi/infantum infection compared to wild-type mice. Parasite loads in the livers and spleens of these animals were significantly lower than in wild-type mice 28 days after challenge. Bone marrow-derived macrophages from LXR-DKO mice infected with L. chagasi/infantum in vitro in the presence of IFN-γ were able to kill parasites more efficiently than wild-type macrophages. This enhanced killing by LXR-deficient macrophages correlated with higher levels of nitric oxide produced, as well as increased gene expression of IL-1β. Additionally, LXR ligands abrogated nitric oxide production in wild-type macrophages in response to infection.

Conclusions: These observations suggest that LXR-deficient mice and macrophages mount antimicrobial responses to Leishmania infection that are distinct from those mounted by wild-type mice and macrophages. Furthermore, comparison of these findings to other intracellular infection models suggests that LXR signaling pathways modulate host antimicrobial responses in a complex and pathogen-specific manner. The LXR pathway thus represents a potential therapeutic target for modulating immunity against Leishmania or other intracellular parasites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000886DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2982826PMC
November 2010