Publications by authors named "Ana Belén Enguita"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Tumor mutational burden assessment in non-small-cell lung cancer samples: results from the TMB harmonization project comparing three NGS panels.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 May;9(5)

H12O-CNIO Lung Cancer Clinical Research Unit, Health Research Institute Hospital 12 de Octubre (imas12) / Spanish National Cancer Research Center (CNIO), Madrid, Spain.

Background: Tumor mutational burden (TMB) is a recently proposed predictive biomarker for immunotherapy in solid tumors, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Available assays for TMB determination differ in horizontal coverage, gene content and algorithms, leading to discrepancies in results, impacting patient selection. A harmonization study of TMB assessment with available assays in a cohort of patients with NSCLC is urgently needed.

Methods: We evaluated the TMB assessment obtained with two marketed next generation sequencing panels: TruSight Oncology 500 (TSO500) and Oncomine Tumor Mutation Load (OTML) versus a reference assay (Foundation One, FO) in 96 NSCLC samples. Additionally, we studied the level of agreement among the three methods with respect to PD-L1 expression in tumors, checked the level of different immune infiltrates versus TMB, and performed an inter-laboratory reproducibility study. Finally, adjusted cut-off values were determined.

Results: Both panels showed strong agreement with FO, with concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) of 0.933 (95% CI 0.908 to 0.959) for TSO500 and 0.881 (95% CI 0.840 to 0.922) for OTML. The corresponding CCCs were 0.951 (TSO500-FO) and 0.919 (OTML-FO) in tumors with <1% of cells expressing PD-L1 (PD-L1<1%; N55), and 0.861 (TSO500-FO) and 0.722 (OTML-FO) in tumors with PD-L1≥1% (N=41). Inter-laboratory reproducibility analyses showed higher reproducibility with TSO500. No significant differences were found in terms of immune infiltration versus TMB. Adjusted cut-off values corresponding to 10 muts/Mb with FO needed to be lowered to 7.847 muts/Mb (TSO500) and 8.380 muts/Mb (OTML) to ensure a sensitivity >88%. With these cut-offs, the positive predictive value was 78.57% (95% CI 67.82 to 89.32) and the negative predictive value was 87.50% (95% CI 77.25 to 97.75) for TSO500, while for OTML they were 73.33% (95% CI 62.14 to 84.52) and 86.11% (95% CI 74.81 to 97.41), respectively.

Conclusions: Both panels exhibited robust analytical performances for TMB assessment, with stronger concordances in patients with negative PD-L1 expression. TSO500 showed a higher inter-laboratory reproducibility. The cut-offs for each assay were lowered to optimal overlap with FO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jitc-2020-001904DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8108670PMC
May 2021

Molecular diagnosis in non-small-cell lung cancer: expert opinion on and testing.

J Clin Pathol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Pathology, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío, Sevilla, Spain.

The effectiveness of targeted therapies with tyrosine kinase inhibitors in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) depends on the accurate determination of the genomic status of the tumour. For this reason, molecular analyses to detect genetic rearrangements in some genes (ie, , , ) have become standard in patients with advanced disease. Since immunohistochemistry is easier to implement and interpret, it is normally used as the screening procedure, while fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) is used to confirm the rearrangement and decide on ambiguous immunostainings. Although FISH is considered the most sensitive method for the detection of and rearrangements, the interpretation of results requires detailed guidelines. In this review, we discuss the various technologies available to evaluate and genomic rearrangements using these techniques. Other techniques such as real-time PCR and next-generation sequencing have been developed recently to evaluate and gene rearrangements, but some limitations prevent their full implementation in the clinical setting. Similarly, liquid biopsies have the potential to change the treatment of patients with advanced lung cancer, but further research is required before this technology can be applied in routine clinical practice. We discuss the technical requirements of laboratories in the light of quality assurance programmes. Finally, we review the recent updates made to the guidelines for the determination of molecular biomarkers in patients with NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jclinpath-2021-207490DOI Listing
April 2021

Unique presentation of squamous cell carcinoma with longitudinal melanonychia.

Dermatol Ther 2020 11 13;33(6):e14087. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

Dermatology Unit, Clínica Dermatológica Internacional, Madrid, Spain.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dth.14087DOI Listing
November 2020

Clinical-pathological and molecular characterization of long-term survivors with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

Cancer Biol Med 2020 05;17(2):444-457

Infanta Sofía University Hospital, San Sebastián De Los Reyes, Madrid 28702, Spain.

Long-term survivors (LS) of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) without driver alterations, displaying an overall survival (OS) of more than 3 years, comprise around 10% of cases in several series treated with chemotherapy. There are classical prognosis factors for these cases [stage, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG), etc.], but more data are required in the literature. In this multi-center study, we focused on LS of advanced NSCLC with OS above 36 months to perform a clinical-pathological and molecular characterization. In the first step, we conducted a clinical-pathological characterization of the patients. Afterwards, we carried out a genetic analysis by comparing LS to a sample of short-term survivors (SS) (with an OS less than 9 months). We initially used whole-genome RNA-seq to identify differentiating profiles of LS and SS, and later confirmed these with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the rest of the samples. A total of 94 patients were included, who were mainly men, former smokers, having adenocarcinoma (AC)-type NSCLC with an ECOG of 0-1. We obtained an initial differential transcriptome expression, displaying 5 over- and 33 under-expressed genes involved in different pathways: namely, the secretin receptor, surfactant protein, trefoil factor 1 (TFF1), serpin, Ca-channels, and Toll-like receptor (TLRs) families. Finally, RT-PCR analysis of 40 (20 LS/20 SS) samples confirmed that four genes (surfactant proteins and SFTP) were significantly down-regulated in SS compared to LS by using an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) model: ( = 0.023), ( = 0.027), ( = 0.02), and ( = 0.047). We present a sequential genetic analysis of a sample of NSCLC LS with no driver alterations, obtaining a differential RNA-seq/RT-PCR profile showing an abnormal expression of SF genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20892/j.issn.2095-3941.2019.0363DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7309469PMC
May 2020

Differential development of large-cell neuroendocrine or small-cell lung carcinoma upon inactivation of 4 tumor suppressor genes.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 10 14;116(44):22300-22306. Epub 2019 Oct 14.

Molecular Oncology Unit, Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), 28040 Madrid, Spain;

High-grade neuroendocrine lung malignancies (large-cell neuroendocrine cell carcinoma, LCNEC, and small-cell lung carcinoma, SCLC) are among the most deadly lung cancer conditions with no optimal clinical management. The biological relationships between SCLC and LCNEC are still largely unknown and a current matter of debate as growing molecular data reveal high heterogeneity with potential therapeutic consequences. Here we describe murine models of high-grade neuroendocrine lung carcinomas generated by the loss of 4 tumor suppressors. In an -null background, deletion of , , and floxed alleles after Ad-CMVcre infection in a wide variety of lung epithelial cells produces LCNEC. Meanwhile, inactivation of these genes using Ad-K5cre in basal cells leads to the development of SCLC, thus differentially influencing the lung cancer type developed. So far, a defined model of LCNEC has not been reported. Molecular and transcriptomic analyses of both models revealed strong similarities to their human counterparts. In addition, a Ga-DOTATOC-based molecular-imaging method provides a tool for detection and monitoring the progression of the cancer. These data offer insight into the biology of SCLC and LCNEC, providing a useful framework for development of compounds and preclinical investigations in accurate immunocompetent models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1821745116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6825275PMC
October 2019

Assessment of a New ROS1 Immunohistochemistry Clone (SP384) for the Identification of ROS1 Rearrangements in Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma: the ROSING Study.

J Thorac Oncol 2019 12 23;14(12):2120-2132. Epub 2019 Jul 23.

Alvaro Cunqueiro Hospital, Vigo, Spain.

Introduction: The ROS1 gene rearrangement has become an important biomarker in NSCLC. The College of American Pathologists/International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/Association for Molecular Pathology testing guidelines support the use of ROS1 immunohistochemistry (IHC) as a screening test, followed by confirmation with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) or a molecular test in all positive results. We have evaluated a novel anti-ROS1 IHC antibody (SP384) in a large multicenter series to obtain real-world data.

Methods: A total of 43 ROS1 FISH-positive and 193 ROS1 FISH-negative NSCLC samples were studied. All specimens were screened by using two antibodies (clone D4D6 from Cell Signaling Technology and clone SP384 from Ventana Medical Systems), and the different interpretation criteria were compared with break-apart FISH (Vysis). FISH-positive samples were also analyzed with next-generation sequencing (Oncomine Dx Target Test Panel, Thermo Fisher Scientific).

Results: An H-score of 150 or higher or the presence of at least 70% of tumor cells with an intensity of staining of 2+ or higher by the SP384 clone was the optimal cutoff value (both with 93% sensitivity and 100% specificity). The D4D6 clone showed similar results, with an H-score of at least 100 (91% sensitivity and 100% specificity). ROS1 expression in normal lung was more frequent with use of the SP384 clone (p < 0.0001). The ezrin gene (EZR)-ROS1 variant was associated with membranous staining and an isolated green signal FISH pattern (p = 0.001 and p = 0.017, respectively).

Conclusions: The new SP384 ROS1 IHC clone showed excellent sensitivity without compromising specificity, so it is another excellent analytical option for the proposed testing algorithm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtho.2019.07.005DOI Listing
December 2019

FGFR4 increases EGFR oncogenic signaling in lung adenocarcinoma, and their combined inhibition is highly effective.

Lung Cancer 2019 05 8;131:112-121. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

H120-CNIO Lung Cancer Clinical Cancer Research Unit, Fundación de Investigación Biomédica i+12 & Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncológicas (CNIO), Madrid, Spain; Medical Oncology Department, Hospital Universitario Doce de Octubre & Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncológicas (CNIO), Madrid, Spain; Medical School, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain; CIBERONC, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Objectives: Lung adenocarcinoma accounts for approximately half of lung cancer cases. Twenty to 50% of tumors of this type harbor mutations affecting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression or activity, which can be therapeutically targeted. EGFR inhibitors in this context exhibit high efficacy and are currently used in the clinical setting. However, not all adenocarcinomas harboring EGFR mutations respond to therapy, so predictive biomarkers of therapeutic outcomes, as well as novel therapies sensitizing these tumors to EGFR inhibition, are needed.

Materials And Methods: We performed in vitro gene overexpression/silencing and tumorigenic surrogate assays, as well as in vitro and in vivo combination treatments with Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor (FGFR)/EGFR inhibitors. At the clinical level, we determined FGFR4 expression levels in tumors from patients treated with EGFR inhibitors and correlated these with treatment response.

Results: We describe a cooperative interaction between EGFR and FGFR4, which results in their reciprocal activation with pro-oncogenic consequences in vitro and in vivo. This cooperation is independent of EGFR activating mutations and increases resistance to different EGFR inhibitors. At the therapeutic level, we provide evidence of the synergistic effects of the combination of EGFR and FGFR inhibitors in high FGFR4-expressing, EGFR-activated tumors in vitro and in vivo. Correlated with these results, we found that patients treated with EGFR inhibitors relapse earlier when their tumors exhibit high FGFR4 expression.

Conclusions: We propose a novel predictive biomarker for EGFR-targeted therapy, and a highly efficacious combinatory therapeutic strategy to treat EGFR-dependent; this may may extend the use of appropriate inhibitors beyond EGFR-mutated adenocarcinoma patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2019.02.007DOI Listing
May 2019

FGFR1 Cooperates with EGFR in Lung Cancer Oncogenesis, and Their Combined Inhibition Shows Improved Efficacy.

J Thorac Oncol 2019 04 9;14(4):641-655. Epub 2019 Jan 9.

H12O-CNIO Lung Cancer Clinical Research Unit, Biomedical Research Foundation i+12, Madrid, Spain; H12O-CNIO Lung Cancer Clinical Research Unit, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Madrid, Spain; CIBERONC, Madrid, Spain; Medical Oncology Department, University Hospital Doce de Octubre Madrid, Spain; Medical School, Complutense University, Madrid, Spain.

Introduction: There is substantial evidence for the oncogenic effects of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) in many types of cancer, including lung cancer, but the role of this receptor has not been addressed specifically in lung adenocarcinoma.

Methods: We performed FGFR1 and EGFR overexpression and co-overexpression assays in adenocarcinoma and in inmortalized lung cell lines, and we also carried out surrogate and interaction assays. We performed monotherapy and combination EGFR/FGFR inhibitor sensitivity assays in vitro and in vivo in cell line- and patient-derived xenografts. We determined FGFR1 mRNA expression in a cohort of patients with anti-EGFR therapy-treated adenocarcinoma.

Results: We have reported a cooperative interaction between FGFR1 and EGFR in this context, resulting in increased EGFR activation and oncogenic signaling. We have provided in vitro and in vivo evidence indicating that FGFR1 expression increases tumorigenicity in cells with high EGFR activation in EGFR-mutated and EGFR wild-type models. At the clinical level, we have shown that high FGFR1 expression levels predict higher resistance to erlotinib or gefitinib in a cohort of patients with tyrosine kinase inhibitor-treated EGFR-mutated and EGFR wild-type lung adenocarcinoma. Dual EGFR and FGFR inhibition in FGFR1-overexpressing, EGFR-activated models shows synergistic effects on tumor growth in vitro and in cell line- and patient-derived xenografts, suggesting that patients with tumors bearing these characteristics may benefit from combined EGFR/FGFR inhibition.

Conclusion: These results support the extended the use of EGFR inhibitors beyond monotherapy in the EGFR-mutated adenocarcinoma setting in combination with FGFR inhibitors for selected patients with increased FGFR1 overexpression and EGFR activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtho.2018.12.021DOI Listing
April 2019

Tumor-associated metabolic and inflammatory responses in early stage non-small cell lung cancer: Local patterns and prognostic significance.

Lung Cancer 2018 08 10;122:124-130. Epub 2018 Jun 10.

Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain; Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hospital Universitario Parc Taulí, Barcelona, Spain; Department of Medicine, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Introduction: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients diagnosed in early stage and surgically-treated have five-year mortality rate >20%. The identification of biomarkers able to predict progression and death may help to identify patients needing closer follow-up.

Methods: A retrospective cohort of early-stage surgically-treated NSCLC patients enrolled in the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) Staging Project was created, and tissue Microarrays (TMAs) were constructed with tumor and non-tumor lung tissue. Pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) proteins (transketolase [TKT] and transketolase-like 1 [TKTL1]), inflammatory markers (cyclooxygenase-2 [COX-2], tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], interleukin 1 beta [IL1β], nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells [NFκB]-p65 and antigen Ki-67), and programmed death-ligand 1 (PDL1) were measured by immunohistochemistry.

Results: NSCLC patients with adenocarcinoma (ADC) or squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) were included in the study (n = 199). TKT and TKTL1 were significantly higher in ADC than in non-tumor tissue (p < 0.001). Higher values were also observed in NSCLC for all the inflammatory markers, with figures >30% above those of non-tumor tissue (p < 0.001). PDL1 analysis showed a higher percentage of positivity in ADC than in non-tumor tissue (p < 0.001). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling confirmed that high IL1β level in tumor tissue was independently associated with 3-year mortality in NSCLC [HR = 2.05, 95% CI (1.1-3.7), p = 0.019], a relationship driven by ADC subtype.

Conclusion: This study confirms an increase in metabolic activity and an inflammatory response in tumor tissue of early stage NSCLC, and a significant relationship between high levels of IL1β in the tumor and poor prognosis in ADC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2018.06.015DOI Listing
August 2018

Prospective Clinical Integration of an Amplicon-Based Next-Generation Sequencing Method to Select Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Patients for Genotype-Tailored Treatments.

Clin Lung Cancer 2018 01 23;19(1):65-73.e7. Epub 2017 Jun 23.

Medical Oncology Department, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre and Instituto de Investigación i+12, Madrid, Spain; Lung Cancer Group, Clinical Research Program, CNIO (Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncológicas) and Instituto de Investigación i+12, Madrid, Spain; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Cáncer (CIBERONC), Madrid, Spain.

Introduction: A substantial fraction of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) harbor targetable genetic alterations. In this study, we analyzed the feasibility and clinical utility of integrating a next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel into our routine lung cancer molecular subtyping algorithm.

Patients And Methods: After routine pathologic and molecular subtyping, we implemented an amplicon-based gene panel for DNA analysis covering mutational hot spots in 22 cancer genes in consecutive advanced-stage NSCLCs.

Results: We analyzed 109 tumors using NGS between December 2014 and January 2016. Fifty-six patients (51%) were treatment-naive and 82 (75%) had lung adenocarcinomas. In 89 cases (82%), we used samples derived from lung cancer diagnostic procedures. We obtained successful sequencing results in 95 cases (87%). As part of our routine lung cancer molecular subtyping protocol, single-gene testing for EGFR, ALK, and ROS1 was attempted in nonsquamous and 3 squamous-cell cancers (n = 92). Sixty-nine of 92 samples (75%) had sufficient tissue to complete ALK and ROS1 immunohistochemistry (IHC) and NGS. With the integration of the gene panel, 40 NSCLCs (37%) in the entire cohort and 30 NSCLCs (40%) fully tested for ALK and ROS1 IHC and NGS had actionable mutations. KRAS (24%) and EGFR (10%) were the most frequently mutated actionable genes. Ten patients (9%) received matched targeted therapies, 6 (5%) in clinical trials.

Conclusion: The combination of IHC tests for ALK and ROS1 and amplicon-based NGS is applicable in routine clinical practice, enabling patient selection for genotype-tailored treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cllc.2017.06.008DOI Listing
January 2018

Early mortality after heart transplantation related to IgA anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies.

J Heart Lung Transplant 2017 Nov 19;36(11):1258-1265. Epub 2017 May 19.

I+12 Investigation Institute, 12 de Octubre University Hospital, Madrid, Spain; Immunology Department, 12 de Octubre University Hospital, Madrid, Spain.

Background: The presence of pre-formed IgA anti-β-glycoprotein I antibodies (IgA-aB2GP1ab) has been related to early graft loss after kidney transplant. Because β-glycoprotein I is produced in both the kidney and heart, we aimed to assess whether the presence of these antibodies may also be associated with poor outcomes after heart transplantation (HT).

Methods: A 2-year follow-up retrospective analysis of 151 consecutive patients who underwent HT between 2004 and 2012 was performed to assess the role of this pre-formed antibody type in HT. The population was divided into 2 groups according to the presence of IgA: Group 1 was positive for IgA-aB2GP1ab (47 patients, 31.1%), and Group 2 was negative for IgA-Ab2GP1ab (104 patients, 68.9%).

Results: Early mortality rates within the first 3 months were higher in Group 1 (27.7%) than in Group 2 (9.6%). No differences in donor and recipient characteristics or in causes of death were observed between groups. Multivariate analysis identified the presence of IgA-aB2GP1ab, female gender and blood type A as independent risks factors for early mortality after HT. A greater incidence of thrombotic events during the first 3 months post-HT in Group 1 (23.4% vs 5.8%) and a greater presence of risk factors for thrombotic events, which may have exacerbated them, were observed. After this period, no increase in mortality or in thrombotic events was found when the 2 groups were compared.

Conclusion: Pre-transplant presence of IgA-aB2GP1ab is associated with both increased early mortality rates and higher thrombotic events after HT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.healun.2017.05.016DOI Listing
November 2017

Ablating all three retinoblastoma family members in mouse lung leads to neuroendocrine tumor formation.

Oncotarget 2017 Jan;8(3):4373-4386

Molecular Oncology Unit, Institute of Biomedical Investigation University Hospital "12 de Octubre", Madrid, Spain.

Lung cancer is a deadly disease with increasing cases diagnosed worldwide and still a very poor prognosis. While mutations in the retinoblastoma (RB1) tumor suppressor have been reported in lung cancer, mainly in small cell lung carcinoma, the tumor suppressive role of its relatives p107 and p130 is still a matter of debate. To begin to investigate the role of these two Rb family proteins in lung tumorigenesis, we have generated a conditional triple knockout mouse model (TKO) in which the three Rb family members can be inactivated in adult mice. We found that ablation of all three family members in the lung of mice induces tumorlets, benign neuroendocrine tumors that are remarkably similar to their human counterparts. Upon chemical carcinogenesis, DHPN and urethane accelerate tumor development; the TKO model displays increased sensitivity to DHPN, and urethane increases malignancy of tumors. All the tumors developing in TKO mice (spontaneous and chemically induced) have neuroendocrine features but do not progress to fully malignant tumors. Thus, loss of Rb and its family members confers partial tumor susceptibility in neuroendocrine lineages in the lungs of mice. Our data also imply the requirement of other oncogenic signaling pathways to achieve full transformation in neuroendocrine lung lesions mutant for the Rb family.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.13875DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5354839PMC
January 2017

The new IASLC/ATS/ERS lung adenocarcinoma classification from a clinical perspective: current concepts and future prospects.

J Thorac Dis 2014 Oct;6(Suppl 5):S526-36

1 Medical Oncology Department, 2 Pathology Department, Hospital 12 de Octubre, Instituto de Investigación Hospital 12 de Octubre i+12, Madrid, Spain.

The new the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC)/the American Thoracic Society (ATS)/the European Respiratory Society (ERS) pathologic classification of lung cancer has markedly changed the pathologic diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma. This classification deals with many aspects that directly affect clinical practice, and opens new gateways for future research. By means of a multidisciplinary approach, it differs significantly from the former 2004 the World Health Organization (WHO) classification, which was mainly written by pathologist. The present review, in line with the consensus article, is divided in two components: the diagnosis and classification of lung adenocarcinoma in resection specimens and the diagnosis of lung cancer in small biopsies and cytology. Resection specimens are currently classified according to the predominant histologic pattern after comprehensive subtyping in 5% increments. This approach has led to the addition of new pathologic subtypes [adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA) and micropapillary predominant adenocarcinoma)] and to the discontinuation of some heterogeneous entities included in the former 2004 WHO classification (mixed subtype adenocarcinoma and bronchioloalveolar carcinoma). Overall, these changes have resulted in a better stratification of lung adenocarcinoma tumors in more homogeneous morphologic, clinical and biological subgroups. Pathologic subtyping has demonstrated prognostic utility in resected stage I-III patients, and recent data support their predictive role for the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy. Moreover, comprehensive pathologic subtyping may potentially affect TNM staging and surgical management or early-stage tumors. On the other hand, for the first time, the novel pathologic classification provides standardized terminology and diagnostic criteria of small biopsies and cytology. Criteria are proposed not only for adenocarcinoma but also for other histologies, but special emphasis was put on the distinction between adenocarcinoma and squamous-cell carcinoma due to its major clinical implications. This review outlines the main issues of the new lung adenocarcinoma classification from a clinical perspective. We describe the different pathologic subtypes in resection specimens, with their most relevant clinical implications. Further on, we address the new terminology and diagnostic criteria for lung adenocarcinomas in small specimens, oriented to their importance for the management and treatment of metastatic lung cancer patients. Finally, we discuss some unanswered questions and relevant issues for the near future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3978/j.issn.2072-1439.2014.01.27DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4209392PMC
October 2014