Publications by authors named "An-Jun Liu"

28 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Antitumor and immunoregulatory activities of a novel polysaccharide from Astragalus membranaceus on S180 tumor-bearing mice.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Aug 19;189:930-938. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

State Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, College of Food Science and Engineering, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457, PR China. Electronic address:

The Astragalus membranaceus polysaccharide (APS4) with direct cytotoxicity on various cancer cells has been prepared in our previous study, while the underlying therapeutic role of APS4 on solid tumors in vivo hasn't been investigated yet. Therefore, in this paper, the lymphocytes-mediated antitumor and immunoregulatory activities of APS4 were researched by establishing S180 tumor-bearing mice model. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that APS4 could effectively regulate the percentages of CD3, CD4, CD8 T cells and CD19 B cells in thymus, peripheral blood and spleen of S180 tumor-bearing mice, dose-dependently. H&E staining and cell cycle determination of solid tumors manifested that APS4 treatment could significantly inhibit the growth of solid tumors by inducing cells apoptosis. Furthermore, two-dimensional electrophoresis and western blot analysis further demonstrated that APS4 could activate antitumor-related immune cells and promote anaerobic metabolism of tumor microenvironment, thereby causing the apoptosis of S180 tumor cells. These data implicated that APS4 could be used as a potential dietary supplement for immune enhancement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.08.099DOI Listing
August 2021

The immunosuppressive effects of low molecular weight chitosan on thymopentin-activated mice bearing H22 solid tumors.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Oct 27;99:108008. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

College of Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457, China. Electronic address:

In the present study, the low molecular weight of chitosan (CS) was prepared and its activity on thymopentin-activated mice bearing H22 solid tumors was further researched. The purity and molecular weight of CS were determined by UV and HPGPC spectra, and its immunosuppressive effects on H22 tumor-bearing mice were evaluated through determination on immune organs, cells and cytokines. Results showed that CS contained little impurities with the average molecular weight of 1.20 × 10 Da. The in vivo antitumor experiments demonstrated that CS facilitated to destroy immune organs (thymuses and spleens), suppress immune cells (lymphocytes, macrophages and NK cells) activities and reduce immune-related cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-4) expressions of H22 tumor-bearing mice even with simultaneous TP5 stimulation. Our data suggested that CS could not be applied to improve immune response in cancer-bearing patients, but might be employed for treatments on autoimmune diseases or organ transplant patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108008DOI Listing
October 2021

A novel acid polysaccharide from Boletus edulis: extraction, characteristics and antitumor activities in vitro.

Glycoconj J 2021 Feb 28;38(1):13-24. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

State Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, No. 29, 13th street, TEDA, Tianjin, 300457, People's Republic of China.

A novel cold-water-soluble polysaccharide (BEP), with a molecular weight of 6.0 × 10 Da, was isolated from Boletus edulis. BEP consists of galactose, glucose, xylose, mannose, glucuronic, and galacturonic acid in a ratio of 0.34:0.28:0.28:2.57:1.00:0.44. The IR results showed that BEP was an acid polysaccharide, containing α-type and β-type glucoside bonds. MTT assay showed BEP could inhibit cell proliferation significantly. Morphological observation demonstrated that BEP-treated MDA-MB-231 and Ca761 cells exhibited typical apoptotic morphological features. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that BEP caused mitochondrial membrane potential collapse. Annexin V-FITC/PI staining indicated that BEP induced apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 and Ca761 cells through cell block in S phase and G/G phase, respectively. Western blot results showed that BEP could increase the Bax/Bcl-2 ratios, promote the release of cytochrome C, and activate the expression of caspase-3 and caspase-9 in MDA-MB-231 and Ca761 cells. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that BEP could inhibit the proliferation of breast cancer cells and induce apoptosis through mitochondrial pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10719-021-09972-0DOI Listing
February 2021

A Novel Optimization of Water-Soluble Compound Polysaccharides from Chinese Herbal Medicines by Quantitative Theory and Study on Its Characterization and Antioxidant Activities.

Chem Biodivers 2021 Jan 23;18(1):e2000688. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, School of Food Science and Engineering, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin, 300457, P. R. China.

The present study optimized the extraction characterization and antioxidant activities of water-soluble compound polysaccharides (CPs) from hawthorn, lotus leaf, Fagopyrum tataricum, semen cassiae, Lycium barbarum, and Poria cocos Chinese herbal medicines that have mass ratios of 4 : 2 : 2 : 1.5 : 1 : 1. The CPs yield equation was predicted using quantitative theory, to which a maximum CPs yield of 7.18±0.24 % under the following optimal extraction conditions: a water-to-raw material ratio of 30 mL/g, an extraction temperature of 65 °C, an extraction time of 45 min, and extraction mode ultrasonic-assistant extraction. CPs were consisted of Ara, Gal, Glc, Xyl, Man, GalA and GlcA in a molar ratio of 3.1 : 2.6 : 50.6 : 1.7 : 20.4 : 17.2 : 4.2. The HPGPC profiles and FT-IR spectra implied that CPs were heterogeneous acidic polysaccharides and possessed the β-d-pyranose configuration. Congo red test, CD spectrum and SEM revealed that CPs with three helix conformation showed a flocculent, granulous or sheet-like appearance. Furthermore, the relationships between antioxidant activity and concentration of CPs displayed significant positive correlation, and the scavenging abilities for DPPH, hydroxyl radical, ABTS, superoxide-anion radical and reducing power of CPs were 93.56±2.51 %, 84.03±1.69 %, 83.29±1.93 %, 37.49±1.93 % and 0.467±0.006 at a concentration of 4.0 mg/mL. Therefore, CPs could be applied as a potential natural antioxidant in pharmaceutical or functional food fields.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.202000688DOI Listing
January 2021

The preparation of a cold-water soluble polysaccharide from Grifola frondosa and its inhibitory effects on MKN-45 cells.

Glycoconj J 2020 08 15;37(4):413-422. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

State Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, College of Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, No. 29, 13th Street, TEDA, 300457, Tianjin, People's Republic of China.

In this study, a novel water soluble polysaccharide (named GFP-4) was extracted from Grifola frondosa at 4 C, and its preliminary structure and inhibitory effects on human gastric carcinoma MKN-45 cells through the Fas/FasL death receptor apoptosis pathway were investigated. High-performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC), fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and ion chromatography (IC) results showed that GFP-4 was a 1.09 × 10 Da neutral hetero polysaccharide with pyranose rings, and α- and β-type glycosidic linkages that contained galactose, glucose, and mannose at a molar ratio of 1.00:3.45:1.19. MTT results indicated that GFP-4 significantly inhibited the proliferation of MKN-45 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The H&E staining and Hoechst 33342/PI double staining results showed that GFP-4-treated MKN-45 cells were subjected to underwent typical apoptotic morphologic changes such as nuclear pyknosis, chromatin condensation, and an increase of membrane permeability. Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining, cell cycle analysis, and western blot results revealed the GFP-4 induced MKN-45 cells apoptosis through the Fas/FasL-mediated death receptor pathway with cells arrested at the G0/G1 phase. These data indicate that GFP-4 is a promising candidate for treating gastric cancer and provide a theoretical basis for the future development and utilization of G. frondosa clinically.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10719-020-09932-0DOI Listing
August 2020

The structural characteristics of an acid-soluble polysaccharide from Grifola frondosa and its antitumor effects on H22-bearing mice.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 May 10. Epub 2020 May 10.

State Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, College of Food Science and Engineering, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457, China. Electronic address:

The edible mushroom G. frondosa has been used as a kind of functional food for the prevention and therapy of various diseases in Asian countries. In the present work, a novel acid-soluble polysaccharide (GFAP) was successfully isolated from G. frondosa under room temperature and hydrochloric acid solution treatment. Results of chemical composition analysis, UV and HPGPC spectra showed that GFAP mainly contained 94.28% of carbohydrate with the average molecular weight of about 644.9 kDa. GC, FT-IR, NMR and methylation analysis further indicated that GFAP was a neutral sugar mainly composed of (1 → 3)-β-D-Glcp and (1 → 3)-α-D-Manp. The in vivo antitumor experiments demonstrated that GFAP could effectively protect thymuses and spleens of tumor-bearing mice and inhibit the growth of H22 solid tumors with the inhibitory rate of 36.72%. Besides, GFAP could significantly improve the activities of NK cells, macrophages, CD19 B cells and CD4 T cells, leading to the apoptosis of H22 cells via G0/G1 phase arrested. Our data demonstrated that GFAP holds great application prospect to be a safe and effective antitumor adjuvant in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.05.054DOI Listing
May 2020

The caspases-dependent apoptosis of hepatoma cells induced by an acid-soluble polysaccharide from Grifola frondosa.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Sep 16;159:364-372. Epub 2020 May 16.

State Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, College of Food Science and Engineering, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457, China. Electronic address:

The edible mushroom Grifola frondosa has been used as a functional food for diseases prevention and therapy in Asian countries. In the present work, an acid-soluble polysaccharide (GFAP) was prepared from Grifola frondosa under room temperature and hydrochloric acid solution treatment, and its inhibitory effects on H22 and HepG2 cells were investigated. Results of MTT indicated that GFAP could effectively suppress proliferations of HCC cells, dose-dependently. Microscopic observation results demonstrated that GFAP-treated HCC cells showed apoptotic characteristics like membrane blebbing, chromatin condensed, nucleus pycnosis and fragmentation. Annexin V-FITC/PI staining and cell cycle distribution results showed that GFAP could induce the apoptosis of H22 and HepG2 cells via arresting them in G1 and S phases respectively. Rh123, JC-1 staining and western blotting results suggested that GFAP could significantly increase the permeability of mitochondrial membrane of HCC cells, and upregulated the expressions of Bax, cytochrome c, cleaved-caspase-3 and cleaved-caspase-9, which indicated that GFAP could trigger apoptosis of HCC cells through mitochondria apoptotic pathway in a caspases-dependent pattern. Our data demonstrated that GFAP holds great application prospect as a safe and effective antitumor drug for hepatocellular carcinoma therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.05.095DOI Listing
September 2020

Seleno-Chitosan induces apoptosis of lung cancer cell line SPC-A-1 via Fas/FasL pathway.

Bioorg Chem 2020 04 29;97:103701. Epub 2020 Feb 29.

State Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, College of Food Science and Engineering, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457, China. Electronic address:

In this study, human lung cancer SPC-A-1 cells were cultured with Seleno-Chitosan to study the mechanism of apoptosis. CCK-8 results showed that with the increase of the concentration of Seleno-Chitosan and the prolongation of culture time, the inhibition on the proliferation of SPC-A-1 cells gradually increased, and the morphology of SPC-A-1 cells changed obviously. Flow cytometry result suggested that the concentration of calcium ion, level of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial membrane potential increased. Western blot showed that Seleno-Chitosan induced apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway in SPC-A-1. Eventually, we found 15 proteins that were expressed abnormally by Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), which were all related to Fas/FasL pathway of cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2020.103701DOI Listing
April 2020

Relationship between heat treatment on structural properties and antitumor activity of the cold-water soluble polysaccharides from Grifola frondosa.

Glycoconj J 2020 02 10;37(1):107-117. Epub 2019 Dec 10.

Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, College of Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, No. 29, 13th street, TEDA, Tianjin, 300457, People's Republic of China.

Grifola frondosa is a basidiomycete fungus with potential biomedical applications owing to the presence of bioactive polysaccharides. The activities of polysaccharides are influenced by many factors, particularly temperature; however, the optimal temperature and conditions for preparation of polysaccharides from this organism have not yet been determined. Therefore, in this study, cold-water soluble polysaccharides from Grifola frondosa were extracted at 4 °C (GFP-4) and purified. GFP-4-30, GFP-4-60 and GFP-4-90 were obtained from GFP-4 after treatment at 30 °C, 60 °C, or 90 °C, respectively, for 6 h. MTT results showed that GFP-4 had the highest inhibitory effects on the proliferation of SPC-A-1 cells in vitro. High-performance gel permeation chromatography results demonstrated that the molecular weight of GFP-4 was 1.05 × 10 Da and that GFP-4-30, GFP-4-60, and GFP-4-90 showed different levels of degradation and generated small molecule sugars. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance results indicated that GFPs mainly consisted of α-D-Galp, α-D-Manp and α-D-Glcp. Periodate oxidation, Smith degradation, and methylation results showed that the backbones of the molecules consisted of 1,3-linked-Galp. After heat treatment, percentages of (1 → 3,4) α-D-Galp in heat-treated polysaccharides were obviously decreased, indicating their lower branching degree, and resulting in weaker antitumor effects. Overall, our findings demonstrated changes in the structure-activity relationships of GFP-4 after heat treatment and provided a theoretical basis for the application of GFP-4 in the food and drug industries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10719-019-09894-yDOI Listing
February 2020

An alcohol-soluble polysaccharide from Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz induces apoptosis of Eca-109 cells.

Carbohydr Polym 2019 Dec 3;226:115136. Epub 2019 Sep 3.

Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, School of Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

In this study, polysaccharides from Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz (APA) which were soluble in alcohol were prepared, purified, analyzed the structure and investigated the antitumor activity in vitro cell experiment. Results of high-performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC), fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and gas chromatography (GC) showed that APA was a 2.1KDa neutral hetero polysaccharide composed of arabinose and glucose (molar ratio, 1.00:4.57) with pyranose rings and α-type and β-type glycosidic linkages. Results by MTT experiments showed that the proliferation inhibition was 74.63% in Eca109 cells treated with 2 mg/mL dose of APA. Annexin V/PI assay, Hoechst 33,258 staining, cell cycle distribution, rhodamine 123 dye assay and western blot assay clarified that APA could accelerate the apoptosis of Eca109 cells by mitochondrial pathway and stocked cells at S phase. These data indicated that APA is a promising potential candidate for therapeutic treatment of esophageal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2019.115136DOI Listing
December 2019

Seleno-β-lactoglobulin (Se-β-Lg) induces mitochondria-dependant apoptosis in HepG2 cells.

Mol Biol Rep 2019 Oct 30;46(5):5025-5031. Epub 2019 Jul 30.

Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, College of Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, No. 29, 13th Street, TEDA, Tianjin, 300457, People's Republic of China.

Selenium compounds have been widely investigated as novel anticancer agents due to high efficacy and selectivity against cancer cells in recent years. This study aimed to research the potential inhibitory effects of seleno-β-lactoglobulin (Se-β-Lg) on HepG2 cells in vitro. MTT results demonstrated that the synthetized Se-β-Lg exhibited strong antitumor activity on HepG2 cells with few side effects on human normal cells (LO2) and relatively weaker cytotoxic effects compared to inorganic selenium (SeO). Scanning electron microscope (SEM), hoechst 33342/PI double staining, annexin V-FITC/PI staining and cell cycle detection results showed that Se-β-Lg could induce the apoptosis of HepG2 cells via arresting them in S and G2/M phases and lead to the obvious morphological changes (loss of adhesion, cell shrinkage, and membrane blebbing, membrane permeabilities and DNA fragmentation). Besides, JC-1 staining, western blotting (WB) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results showed that Se-β-Lg could gradually destroy the mitochondrial membrane potential of HepG2 cells, and finally resulting in the mitochondria-dependant apoptosis via up-regulation of Bax, Cytochrome c, Caspase-3 and down-regulation of Bcl-2. Our data could provide a theoretical basis for practical application of Se-β-Lg in food and drug industries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-019-04953-xDOI Listing
October 2019

Polysaccharide extracted from Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz (PAMK) induce apoptosis in transplanted H22 cells in mice.

Int J Biol Macromol 2019 Sep 19;137:604-611. Epub 2019 Jun 19.

Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, School of Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Polysaccharide of Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz (PAMK) was extracted by alcohol sedimenting ranging from 60% to 90% and purified by ultrafiltration membrane. The high-performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), gas chromatography (GC) and Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) revealed that PAMK was a 4.1KDa neutral heteropolysaccharide composed of galactose, arabinose and glucose with α-configuration (molar ratio, 1: 1.5: 5). Results of determination of chemical components suggested that PAMK contained 96.47% of polysaccharide and little protein, nucleic acid and uronic acid. Antitumor experiments in vivo could be concluded that PAMK had a significantly cytotoxic and anti-tumor effect by blocking tumor cells in S phase. And not only that, PAMK could protect immune organ efficiently, comparing with cyclophosphamide. The research provided a potential antineoplastic drug component for tumor treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.06.059DOI Listing
September 2019

Effects of Heat Treatment on the Structural Characteristics and Antitumor Activity of Polysaccharides from Grifola frondosa.

Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2019 Jun 10;188(2):481-490. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, College of Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, No. 29, 13th Street, TEDA, Tianjin, 300457, People's Republic of China.

This study investigated the effects of heat treatment on structural characteristics and in vitro antitumor activity of polysaccharides from Grifola frondosa. GFP-4 (extracted at 4 °C), GFP-4-80 (80 °C treatment on GFP-4) and GFP-80 (extracted at 80 °C) were prepared, and the chemical composition analysis showed that their total sugar contents were all higher than 90%, high-performance gel-permeation chromatography (HPGPC), ion chromatography (IC) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results demonstrated that GFP-4 were degraded and denatured after 80 °C heat treatment, MTT and JC-1 results showed that GFP-4 exhibited higher inhibitory effects on HepG2 cells in vitro than GFP-4-80 and GFP-80. Our study suggested that heat treatment at 80 °C on polysaccharides from Grifola frondosa would destroy their structure and attenuate their antitumor effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12010-018-02936-5DOI Listing
June 2019

Selenious-β-lactoglobulin induces the apoptosis of human lung cancer A549 cells via an intrinsic mitochondrial pathway.

Cytotechnology 2018 Dec 10;70(6):1551-1563. Epub 2018 Aug 10.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, School of Food Engineering and Biological Technology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, No. 29, 13th Avenue, Tianjin Economic and Technological Development Zone, Tianjin, 300457, China.

In this study, the cytotoxic activity of selenious-β-lactoglobulin (Se-β-Lg) and the anticancer mechanism were investigated in human lung cancer A549 cells in vitro. MTT assay showed that Se-β-Lg at 200 μg/mL exhibited a significant suppression effect on A549 cells and the maximum inhibition rate reached 90% after 72 h treatment. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that 200 μg/mL of Se-β-Lg induced cell cycle arrest at G/G phase. Cell apoptosis was induced via the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, Se-β-Lg suppressed the expression of Bcl-2 and improved the level of Bax, leading to the release of cytochrome c and a higher expression of caspase-3 in A549 cells. In summary, Se-β-Lg could induce apoptosis in A549 cells via an intrinsic mitochondrial pathway and it might serve as a potential therapeutic agent for human lung cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10616-018-0248-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6269361PMC
December 2018

Alcohol-soluble polysaccharide from Astragalus membranaceus: Preparation, characteristics and antitumor activity.

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Oct 14;118(Pt B):2057-2064. Epub 2018 Jul 14.

Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, College of Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457, China. Electronic address:

The alcohol-soluble polysaccharide (ASP) was extracted from Astragalus membranaceus, and their preliminary structural characteristics and in vivo antitumor activity were investigated in this study. The contents of total sugar, protein and uronic acid in ASP was 92.04%, 0.51% and 1.42%, respectively. FTIR and IC results indicated that ASP (about 2.1 × 10 Da) was a neutral polysaccharide composed of arabinose, galactose, glucose and mannose (molar ratio: 1.00:0.98:3.01:1.52) with pyranose ring and α-type glycosidic linkages. Besides, ASP could significantly inhibit the growth of H22 heptoma cells in vivo via improving the levels of serum cytokines (TNF-α, IL-2 and IFN-γ) and activities of immune cells (macrophages, lymphocytes and NK cells), thereby inducing tumor cell apoptosis and attenuating their accessional damages. These results suggested that ASP may serve as a novel potential antitumor agent in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.07.073DOI Listing
October 2018

Pinocembrin⁻Lecithin Complex: Characterization, Solubilization, and Antioxidant Activities.

Biomolecules 2018 06 19;8(2). Epub 2018 Jun 19.

Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, School of Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457, China.

Pinocembrin is a natural flavonoid compound which is capable of antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic activities. The present study aimed to enhance the solubility and antioxidant activities of pinocembrin by complex formation with lecithin. The physicochemical characteristics of pinocembrin⁻lecithin complex were analyzed by ultraviolet (UV), fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and solubility assay, and the antioxidant activities of pinocembrin⁻lecithin complex were evaluated via radical scavenging capacities for 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), hydroxyl, and superoxide-anion. The results indicated that pinocembrin complex with lecithin could significantly improve the solubility of pinocembrin in water and -octane, the pinocembrin⁻lecithin complex displayed no characteristic endothermic peak and the appearance of amorphous state, compared to the pinocembrin, and no new covalent bond was produced in the pinocembrin and lecithin compound. It was demonstrated that the antioxidant activities of pinocembrin were obviously enhanced by the complex with lecithin, and the scavenging capacities for hydroxyl radical, DPPH, superoxide-anion radical, and ABTS radical of pinocembrin⁻lecithin complex were 82.44 ± 2.21%, 40.07 ± 1.32%, 59.15 ± 0.86%, and 24.73 ± 1.04% at 1.0 mg/mL, respectively. It suggested that the pinocembrin⁻lecithin complex had a great potential application prospect in the healthcare industry and in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom8020041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6023000PMC
June 2018

Extraction of a Novel Cold-Water-Soluble Polysaccharide from Astragalus membranaceus and Its Antitumor and Immunological Activities.

Molecules 2017 Dec 28;23(1). Epub 2017 Dec 28.

Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, College of Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457, China.

The polysaccharides of have received extensive study and attention, but there have been few reports on the extraction of these polysaccharides using cold water (4 °C). In this study, we fractionated a novel cold-water-soluble polysaccharide (cAMPs-1A) from with a 92.00% carbohydrate content using a DEAE-cellulose 52 anion exchange column and a Sephadex G-100 column. Our UV, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), high-performance gel permeation chromatography, and ion chromatography analysis results indicated the monosaccharide composition of cAMPs-1A with 1.23 × 10⁴ Da molecular weight to be fucose, arabinose, galactose, glucose, and xylose, with molar ratios of 0.01:0.06:0.20:1.00:0.06, respectively. The UV spectroscopy detected no protein and nucleic acid in cAMPs-1A. We used FTIR analysis to characterize the α-d-pyranoid configuration in cAMPs-1A. In addition, we performed animal experiments in vivo to evaluate the antitumor and immunomodulatory effects of cAMPs-1A. The results suggested that cAMPs-1A oral administration could significantly inhibit tumor growth with the inhibitory rate of 20.53%, 36.50% and 44.49%, respectively, at the dosage of 75,150, and 300 mg/kg. Moreover, cAMPs-1A treatment could also effectively protect the immune organs, promote macrophage pinocytosis, and improve the percentages of lymphocyte subsets in the peripheral blood of tumor-bearing mice. These findings demonstrate that the polysaccharide cAMPs-1A has an underlying application as natural antitumor agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules23010062DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6017583PMC
December 2017

Antitumor and Immunoregulatory Activities of Seleno-β-Lactoglobulin on S180 Tumor-Bearing Mice.

Molecules 2017 Dec 28;23(1). Epub 2017 Dec 28.

Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, School of Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457, China.

Degeneration of immune organs like thymus and spleen has been discovered in tumor-bearing mice; which increases the difficulties on oncotherapy. More effective drugs which target the protection of immune organs are expected to be researched. In this study; we aim to analyze the antitumor and immunoregulatory activities of seleno-β-lactoglobulin (Se-β-lg) on S180 tumor-bearing mice. Results indicated that Se-β-lg exhibited a remarkable inhibitory effect on S180 solid tumors with the inhibition rate of 48.38%; and protected the thymuses and spleens of S180-bearing mice. In addition, Se-β-lg could also balance the proportions of CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T cells in spleens; thymuses and peripheral bloods; and improve Levels of IL-2; IFN-γ; TNF-α in mice serums. β-lg showed weaker bioactivities while SeO₂ showed stronger toxicity on mice. Therefore our results demonstrated that Se-β-lg possessed stronger antitumor and immunoregulatory activities with lower side effects and had the potential to be a novel immunopotentiator and antitumor agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules23010046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5943936PMC
December 2017

ZBTB20 is required for anterior pituitary development and lactotrope specification.

Nat Commun 2016 Apr 15;7:11121. Epub 2016 Apr 15.

Department of Pathophysiology, Second Military Medical University, 800 Xiangyin Road, Shanghai 200433, China.

The anterior pituitary harbours five distinct hormone-producing cell types, and their cellular differentiation is a highly regulated and coordinated process. Here we show that ZBTB20 is essential for anterior pituitary development and lactotrope specification in mice. In anterior pituitary, ZBTB20 is highly expressed by all the mature endocrine cell types, and to some less extent by somatolactotropes, the precursors of prolactin (PRL)-producing lactotropes. Disruption of Zbtb20 leads to anterior pituitary hypoplasia, hypopituitary dwarfism and a complete loss of mature lactotropes. In ZBTB20-null mice, although lactotrope lineage commitment is normally initiated, somatolactotropes exhibit profound defects in lineage specification and expansion. Furthermore, endogenous ZBTB20 protein binds to Prl promoter, and its knockdown decreases PRL expression and secretion in a lactotrope cell line MMQ. In addition, ZBTB20 overexpression enhances the transcriptional activity of Prl promoter in vitro. In conclusion, our findings point to ZBTB20 as a critical regulator of anterior pituitary development and lactotrope specification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms11121DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4835541PMC
April 2016

Structural properties of polysaccharides from cultivated fruit bodies and mycelium of Cordyceps militaris.

Carbohydr Polym 2016 May 21;142:63-72. Epub 2016 Jan 21.

Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, Institut Parisien de Chimie Moléculaire, UMR CNRS 8232, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris, France.

The structural properties of polysaccharides, respectively, obtained from the fermented mycelium and cultivated fruiting bodies of the Cordyceps militaris were investigated and compared in this paper. First, the crude polysaccharides were extracted from the mycelium and the fruiting bodies, respectively. The polysaccharides were successively purified by Sevag and chromatography on Sephadex G-100 column to produce two polysaccharides fractions termed CMPS-II and CBPS-II, respectively. The average molecular weights of CMPS-II and CBPS-II were 1.402×10(3) kDa and 1.273×10(3) kDa, respectively, and they were mainly composed of mannose, glucose and galactose in the mole ratios of 1:28.63:1.41 and 1:12.41:0.74, respectively, for CMPS-II and CBPS-II. Afterward, the structural features of CMPS-II and CBPS-II were investigated by a combination of chemical and instrumental analysis, such as FT-IR, periodate oxidation-Smith degradation, GC-MS, NMR and methylation analysis. The results indicated that structurally, both CMPS-II and CBPS-II were 1,3-branched-galactomannoglucan that had a linear backbone of (1→4)-linked α-D-glucopyranose (Glcp). Congo-red test revealed that CMPS-II and CBPS-II existed as triple-helical chains in 0.05-0.15 M NaOH solution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2016.01.040DOI Listing
May 2016

Effect of ultrasonic treatment on structure and antitumor activity of mycelial polysaccharides from Cordyceps gunnii.

Carbohydr Polym 2014 Dec 10;114:12-20. Epub 2014 Aug 10.

Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, Institut Parisien de Chimie Moléculaire, CNRS UMR 8232, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris, France.

Taking mycelial polysaccharides from Cordyceps gunnii (C. gunnii) as the study subject, the effect of ultrasonic power, time and concentration of polysaccharides on antitumor activity of the polysaccharides was investigated. The ultrasonic processing condition of the polysaccharides was optimized by using orthogonal test design, and determined to be 400 W, 15 min and 1g/L. The change of structures of polysaccharides before and after ultrasonic treatment was also studied. Results show that ultrasonic treatment did not change the characteristic attribute of polysaccharides from C. gunnii. The composition of monosaccharide residues and the category of glycosidic bond have not been changed. But the molecular weight and intrinsic viscosity was reduced, and the alpha-helicity was enhanced after ultrasonic treatment. It was possible that ultrasonic treatment is an effective way for enhancing antitumor activity of polysaccharides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2014.07.068DOI Listing
December 2014

Effect of spleen lymphocytes on the splenomegaly in hepatocellular carcinoma-bearing mice.

Biomed Environ Sci 2014 Jan;27(1):17-26

Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457, China.

Objective: To study the effect of spleen lymphocytes on the splenomegaly by hepatocellular carcinoma-bearing mouse model.

Methods: Cell counts, cell cycle distribution, the percentage of lymphocytes subsets and the levels of IL-2 were measured, and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was used to investigate the relationship between spleen lymphocytes and splenomegaly in hepatocellular carcinoma-bearing mice.

Results: Compared with the normal group, the thymus was obviously atrophied and the spleen was significantly enlarged in the tumor-bearing group. Correlation study showed that the number of whole spleen cells was positively correlated with the splenic index. The cell diameter and cell-cycle phase distribution of splenocytes in the tumor-bearing group showed no significant difference compared to the normal group. The percentage of CD3+ T lymphocytes and CD8+ T lymphocytes in spleen and peripheral blood of tumor-bearing mice were substantially higher than that in the normal mice. Meanwhile, the IL-2 level was also higher in the tumor-bearing group than in the normal group. Furthermore, two dysregulated protein, β-actin and S100-A9 were identified in spleen lymphocytes from H22-bearing mice, which were closely related to cellular motility.

Conclusion: It is suggested that dysregulated β-actin and S100-A9 can result in recirculating T lymphocytes trapped in the spleen, which may explain the underlying cause of splenomegaly in H22-bearing mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3967/bes2014.012DOI Listing
January 2014

Sulfated modification of the polysaccharide from Cordyceps_gunnii mycelia and its biological activities.

Carbohydr Polym 2013 Jan 12;92(1):872-6. Epub 2012 Oct 12.

Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, College of Food Science and Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457, PR China.

A chemically new sulfated polysaccharide (SPS50) was prepared from the water soluble polysaccharide (PS50), isolated from Cordyceps_gunnii mycelia, by concentrated sulfuric acid method. The yield of crude SPS50 was 62.34% and its specific rotation was [α](D)(20)=-36.75°. The structural characteristics of this chemically sulfated polysaccharide were determined based on the infrared analysis (IR), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electropheresis (SDS-PAGE). Its biological properties including anti-oxidant and anti-tumor activities were also investigated. The results showed that the anti-oxidant capacity of SPS50 was not as good as SP50 and the anti-tumor activity of SPS50 was much better than PS50. SPS50 showed evident growth inhibition on K562 cells. The tumor inhibition ratio of SPS50 against K562 cells was 69.92%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2012.10.007DOI Listing
January 2013

Chemical analysis of a polysaccharide from Cristaria plicata (Leach).

Int J Food Sci Nutr 2012 Jun 24;63(4):506-11. Epub 2011 Nov 24.

Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, College of Food Science and Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457, P.R. China.

A polysaccharide (MPS) isolated from Cristaria plicata (Leach) consisted of d-glucose. Its structural characteristics were investigated by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), infrared analysis, gas chromatography-MS, total acid hydrolysis, methylation analysis, periodate oxidation and Smith degradation. The results indicated that the polysaccharide of C. plicata (Leach) has the weight-average molecular weight of about 2.97 × 10⁶ Da. The structure of the polysaccharide was composed of glucose with α-(1 → 4)-linkages with short exterior chains. The fundamental information obtained from this work is beneficial to the interpretation in the relationship of the polysaccharide structure and its biological functions, and suggests that the polysaccharide from mussel may contribute to be used as a dietary supplement for health foods and therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/09637486.2011.637903DOI Listing
June 2012

Immunizing effects of cocultures of H22 hepatocarcinoma cells and cartilage polysaccharide on murine H22 hepatocarcinoma.

J Food Sci 2010 Oct;75(8):H265-73

Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, Inst. of Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Tianjin Univ. of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457, PR China.

Hepatocarcinoma is a malignant cancer, which is threatening human lives. In order to disclose the immunizing effects of the cells and cartilage polysaccharide (CHCP) on liver cancer, murine H22 hepatocarcinoma model was set up. The survival time, life span, and survival rate of the CHCP group were better than model group or other groups which was immunized with cartilage short-chain polysaccharide (CPS) only or H22 cell lysate only. A series of experiments were proceeded and the results confirmed that the humoral immunity and cellular immunity were strengthened. HE staining, TUNEL assay, and Alcian staining were used to research the mechanism of the tumor specific antigen production which may be related to the apoptosis of H22 hepatocarcinoma cells induced by CPS or some new polysaccharide compound emerged. The animal experiment testified the relationship between H22 hepatocarcinoma cell apoptosis induced by CPS and the effect of murine H22 hepatocarcinoma immunoprophylaxis. Our data demonstrated that the coculture of cartilage polysaccharide and cancer cells may serve as a novel source of antihepatocarcinoma agent that may play an important role in future liver cancer immunoprophylaxis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01509.xDOI Listing
October 2010

A new nutrient polypeptide-Fe and its antioxidant ability.

Int J Food Sci Nutr 2009 ;60 Suppl 2:185-96

Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin, China.

Polypeptide-Fe is the hemoglobin that is purified highly from animal blood. It is an active material obtained by connecting heme with a different-length peptide section after physical and chemical processing. Polypeptide-Fe is non-toxic to the human body, does not have the side effects, and namely has iron enhancement function. Nitroblue tetrazolium staining showed that it retained the superoxide radical scavenging activity of hemoglobin. Polypeptide-Fe achieves the elimination of free radical by degradations of the polypeptide connected to iron. Oxidative stress has been considered to play an important role in the pathogenesis of iron-deficiency anemia. The primary free radicals in most of biological system are the superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, and the hydroxyl free radical. We performed experiments to detect the clearance ability on these three free radicals and maleic dialdehyde by polypeptide-Fe. Results of the present study showed that polypeptide-Fe had strong antioxidant ability and it may provide some useful information relevant to an additional contribution to the treatment of iron-deficiency anemia in future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09637480903061220DOI Listing
March 2012

The mechanism of inhibition of metastasis by cartilage polysaccharide in breast-cancer cells.

Biotechnol Appl Biochem 2009 Jun 22;53(Pt 4):253-63. Epub 2009 Jun 22.

Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457, People's Republic of China.

As large amounts of porcine cartilage are discarded as waste in daily life, it is necessary to find new uses for them. We extracted polysaccharide from cartilage and performed in vitro and in vivo experiments in cancer cells. A mouse breast-cancer pulmonary metastasis model was set up, and we tried to determine the mechanism of the inhibition of metastasis by cartilage PS (polysaccharide). Effects on tumour size and the progression of metastasis indicated that cartilage PS can obviously inhibit metastasis in breast-cancer cells. The levels of LNR1 (laminin receptor 1), alphavbeta3 integrin and MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase-9) in mice treated or not with cartilage PS showed significant differences. Cartilage PS inhibited the growth of MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cells, but had little effect on normal cells. Cartilage PS can inhibit the activity of the MMP-2 and the MMP-9 by decreasing the levels of LNR1 and alphavbeta3 integrin to inhibit metastasis further. In summary, we conclude that cartilage PS can act as a specific anti-metastatic agent in breast-cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BA20080037DOI Listing
June 2009

[Effect of seleno-arginine on cellular immunological function in D-gal aging mice].

Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi 2007 Dec;23(12):1126-9

College of Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457, China.

Aim: To study the effect of seleno-argnine on cellular immunological function in D-gal aging mice.

Methods: The mice were divided into normal group, model group, low seleno-argnine group(L-SeArg) and high seleno-argnine group (H-SeArg). D-galactose induced aging model was set up by s.c. injection for 42 days, i.g. method was used to add Seleno-argnine. Spleen index(SI) and thymus index (TI) were measured. The ability of Spleen cell multiplication and NK cell killing activity were determined by MTT colorimetry. The changes of CD40 and CD40L expression were observed by immunofluorescent assay.

Results: Compared with the model mice, seleno-argnine increased spleen index and thynus index, enhanced the ability of spleen cell multiplication, enhanced the expression of CD40 and CD40L, and accelerated the NK cell killing activity. Between the two seleno-argnine groups, the effect of L-SeArg on cellular immunological function was more obvious in D-gal aging mice.The result were statistic ally significantly compared with the model mice(P<0.01).

Conclusion: D-gal injection can decrease the cellular immunological function of mice. Seleno-argnine can activate immune cells, enhance the cellular immunological function of mice, reduce the toxic effect of D-gal and delay the aging process.
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December 2007
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