Publications by authors named "Amy Milsted"

33 Publications

Propranolol and ascorbic acid in control of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva flare-ups due to accidental falls.

Intractable Rare Dis Res 2019 Feb;8(1):24-28

UFMG/ Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.

Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare, intractable and devastating genetic connective tissue disorder characterized by progressive ectopic ossification in the soft tissues and skeleton. Three patients, one teenage girl (P1), one male adult (P2) and one male child (P3), were studied and treated with FOPCON (combined formulation of 14 mg of propranolol and 250 mg of ascorbic acid), given three times per day. P1 started treatment in March 2012, P2 in October 2012 and P3 in July 2015. The clinical follow-up of these three patients, before initiating treatment with FOPCON, showed that FOP flare-ups used to occur frequently and that under FOPCON therapy, none of these patients had flare-ups. The striking feature of this treatment with FOPCON, is that, all three cases suffered accidental falls with documented injures until complete healing and that where major flare-ups should occur, injures or sequels, there was none. The present clinical observation shows that ascorbic acid plus the nonspecific beta blocker propranolol can be effectively useful, when administered previously and continually, in the prophylaxis of FOP flare-ups, especially for accidental falls. In this regard, FOPCON could be a prophylactic aid in cases of surgery of patients with FOP, hoping that it may benefit patients from having the severe sequels, characteristic of heterotopic bone formation. All three patients reported, to date, they no longer had flare-ups nor heterotopic ossification and showed normal scar healing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5582/irdr.2018.01095DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6409115PMC
February 2019

The phenotypic impact of the male-specific region of chromosome-Y in inbred mating: the role of genetic variants and gene duplications in multiple inbred rat strains.

Biol Sex Differ 2016 3;7:10. Epub 2016 Feb 3.

HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology, 601 Genome Way, Huntsville, AL 35806 USA ; Human and Molecular Genetics Center, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226 USA ; Department of Physiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226 USA.

Backgound: The male-specific region of chromosome-Y (MSY) contributes to phenotypes outside of testis development and has a high rate of evolution between mammalian species. With a lack of genomic crossover, MSY is one of the few genomic areas under similar variation and evolutionary selection in inbred and outbred animal populations, allowing for an assessment of evolutionary mechanisms to translate between the populations.

Methods: Using next-generation sequencing, MSY consomic strains, molecular characterization, and large-scale phenotyping, we present here regions of MSY that contribute to inbred strain phenotypes.

Results: We have shown that (1) MSY of rat has nine autosomal gene transposition events with strain-specific selection; (2) sequence variants in MSY occur with a 1.98-fold higher number of variants than other chromosomes in seven sequenced rat strains; (3) Sry, the most studied MSY gene, has undergone extensive gene duplications, driving ubiquitous expression not seen in human or mouse; (4) the expression profile of Sry in the rat is driven by the insertion of the Sry2 copy into an intron of the ubiquitously expressed Kdm5d gene in antisense orientation, but due to several loss of function mutations in the Sry2 protein, nuclear localization and transcriptional control are decreased; (5) expression of Sry copies other than Sry2 in the rat overlaps with the expression profile for human SRY; (6) gene duplications and sequence variants (P76T) of Sry can be selected for phenotypes such as high blood pressure and androgen receptor signaling within inbred mating; and most importantly, (7) per chromosome size, MSY contributes to higher strain-specific phenotypic variation relative to all other chromosomes, with 53 phenotypes showing both a male to female and consomic cross significance.

Conclusion: The data presented supports a high probability of MSY genetic variation altering a broad range of inbred rat phenotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-016-0064-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4740989PMC
February 2016

Similarities and differences of X and Y chromosome homologous genes, SRY and SOX3, in regulating the renin-angiotensin system promoters.

Physiol Genomics 2015 May 10;47(5):177-86. Epub 2015 Mar 10.

Human and Molecular Genetics Center, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin; and Department of Physiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin

The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is subject to sex-specific modulation by hormones and gene products. However, sex differences in the balance between the vasoconstrictor/proliferative ACE/ANG II/AT1 axis, and the vasodilator/antiproliferative ACE2/ANG-(1-7)/MAS axis are poorly known. Data in the rat have suggested the male-specific Y-chromosome gene Sry to contribute to balance between these two axes, but why the testis-determining gene has these functions remains unknown. A combination of in silico genetic/protein comparisons, functional luciferase assays for promoters of the human RAS, and RNA-Seq profiling in rat were used to address if regulation of Sry on the RAS is conserved in the homologous X-chromosome gene, Sox3. Both SRY and SOX3 upregulated the promoter of Angiotensinogen (AGT) and downregulated the promoters of ACE2, AT2, and MAS, likely through overlapping mechanisms. The regulation by both SRY and SOX3 on the MAS promoter indicates a cis regulation through multiple SOX binding sites. The Renin (REN) promoter is upregulated by SRY and downregulated by SOX3, likely through trans and cis mechanisms, respectively. Sry transcripts are found in all analyzed male rat tissues including the kidney, while Sox3 transcripts are found only in the brain and testis, suggesting that the primary tissue for renin production (kidney) can only be regulated by SRY and not SOX3. These results suggest that SRY regulation of the RAS is partially shared with its X-chromosome homolog SOX3, but SRY gained a sex-specific control in the kidney for the rate-limiting step of the RAS, potentially resulting in male-specific blood pressure regulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiolgenomics.00138.2014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4421791PMC
May 2015

Assessing the antimicrobial activity of polyisoprene based surfaces.

Int J Mol Sci 2015 Feb 19;16(3):4392-415. Epub 2015 Feb 19.

LUNAM Université, Institut des Molécules et des Matériaux du Mans, UMR CNRS 6283, Université du Maine, Avenue Olivier Messiaen, 72085 Le Mans, France.

There has been an intense research effort in the last decades in the field of biofouling prevention as it concerns many aspects of everyday life and causes problems to devices, the environment, and human health. Many different antifouling and antimicrobial materials have been developed to struggle against bacteria and other micro- and macro-organism attachment to different surfaces. However the "miracle solution" has still to be found. The research presented here concerns the synthesis of bio-based polymeric materials and the biological tests that showed their antifouling and, at the same time, antibacterial activity. The raw material used for the coating synthesis was natural rubber. The polyisoprene chains were fragmented to obtain oligomers, which had reactive chemical groups at their chain ends, therefore they could be modified to insert polymerizable and biocidal groups. Films were obtained by radical photopolymerization of the natural rubber derived oligomers and their structure was altered, in order to understand the mechanism of attachment inhibition and to increase the efficiency of the anti-biofouling action. The adhesion of three species of pathogenic bacteria and six strains of marine bacteria was studied. The coatings were able to inhibit bacterial attachment by contact, as it was verified that no detectable leaching of toxic molecules occurred.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms16034392DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4394427PMC
February 2015

Structural libraries of protein models for multiple species to understand evolution of the renin-angiotensin system.

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2015 May 26;215:106-16. Epub 2014 Sep 26.

Department of Biology, The University of Akron, Akron, OH, USA.

The details of protein pathways at a structural level provides a bridge between genetics/molecular biology and physiology. The renin-angiotensin system is involved in many physiological pathways with informative structural details in multiple components. Few studies have been performed assessing structural knowledge across the system. This assessment allows use of bioinformatics tools to fill in missing structural voids. In this paper we detail known structures of the renin-angiotensin system and use computational approaches to estimate and model components that do not have their protein structures defined. With the subsequent large library of protein structures, we then created a species specific protein library for human, mouse, rat, bovine, zebrafish, and chicken for the system. The rat structural system allowed for rapid screening of genetic variants from 51 commonly used rat strains, identifying amino acid variants in angiotensinogen, ACE2, and AT1b that are in contact positions with other macromolecules. We believe the structural map will be of value for other researchers to understand their experimental data in the context of an environment for multiple proteins, providing pdb files of proteins for the renin-angiotensin system in six species. With detailed structural descriptions of each protein, it is easier to assess a species for use in translating human diseases with animal models. Additionally, as whole genome sequencing continues to decrease in cost, tools such as molecular modeling will gain use as an initial step in designing efficient hypothesis driven research, addressing potential functional outcomes of genetic variants with precompiled protein libraries aiding in rapid characterizations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygcen.2014.09.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4375088PMC
May 2015

Discovery of the elusive leptin in birds: identification of several 'missing links' in the evolution of leptin and its receptor.

PLoS One 2014 24;9(3):e92751. Epub 2014 Mar 24.

Integrated Biosciences Program, The University of Akron, Akron, Ohio, United States of America.

Leptin is a pleiotropic protein best known for regulation of appetite and fat storage in mammals. While many leptin orthologs have been identified among vertebrates, an authentic leptin in birds has remained elusive and controversial. Here we identify leptin sequence from the Peregrine falcon, Falco peregrinus (pfleptin), and identify sequences from two other birds (mallard and zebra finch), and 'missing' vertebrates (elephant shark, alligator, Indian python, Chinese soft-shelled turtle, and coelacanth). The pattern of genes surrounding leptin (snd1, rbm28) is syntenic between the falcon and mammalian genomes. Phylogenetic analysis of all known leptin protein sequences improves our understanding of leptin's evolution. Structural modeling of leptin orthologs highlights a highly conserved hydrophobic core in the four-helix cytokine packing domain. A docked model of leptin with the leptin receptor for Peregrine falcon reveals several conserved amino acids important for the interaction and possible coevolution of leptin with its receptor. We also show for the first time, an authentic avian leptin sequence that activates the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. These newly identified sequences, structures, and tools for avian leptin and its receptor will allow elucidation of the function of these proteins in feral and domestic birds.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0092751PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3963946PMC
November 2014

Analysis of Sry duplications on the Rattus norvegicus Y-chromosome.

BMC Genomics 2013 Nov 14;14:792. Epub 2013 Nov 14.

Department of Biology, The University of Akron, 302 Buchtel Commons, 44325-3908 Akron, OH, USA.

Background: Gene copy number variation plays a large role in the evolution of genomes. In Rattus norvegicus and other rodent species, the Y-chromosome has accumulated multiple copies of Sry loci. These copy number variations have been previously linked with changes in phenotype of animal models such as the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). This study characterizes the Y-chromosome in the Sry region of Rattus norvegicus, while addressing functional variations seen in the Sry protein products.

Results: Eleven Sry loci have been identified in the SHR with one (nonHMG Sry) containing a frame shift mutation. The nonHMGSry is found and conserved in the related WKY and SD rat strains. Three new, previously unidentified, Sry loci were identified in this study (Sry3BII, Sry4 and Sry4A) in both SHR and WKY. Repetitive element analysis revealed numerous LINE-L1 elements at regions where conservation is lost among the Sry copies. In addition we have identified a retrotransposed copy of Med14 originating from spliced mRNA, two autosomal genes (Ccdc110 and HMGB1) and a normal mammalian Y-chromosome gene (Zfy) in the Sry region of the rat Y-chromosome. Translation of the sequences of each Sry gene reveals eight proteins with amino acid differences leading to changes in nuclear localization and promoter activation of a Sry-responsive gene. Sry-β (coded by the Sry2 locus) has an increased cytoplasmic fraction due to alterations at amino acid 21. Sry-γ has altered gene regulation of the Sry1 promoter due to changes at amino acid 76.

Conclusions: The duplication of Sry on the Rattus norvegicus Y-chromosome has led to proteins with altered functional ability that may have been selected for functions in addition to testis determination. Additionally, several other genes not normally found on the Y-chromosome have duplicated new copies into the region around the Sry genes. These suggest a role of active transposable elements in the evolution of the mammalian Y-chromosome in species such as Rattus norvegicus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-14-792DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3840628PMC
November 2013

MAS promoter regulation: a role for Sry and tyrosine nitration of the KRAB domain of ZNF274 as a feedback mechanism.

Clin Sci (Lond) 2014 May;126(10):727-38

*Department of Biology, Program in Integrated Bioscience, The University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325, U.S.A.

The ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2)/Ang-(1-7) [angiotensin-(1-7)]/MAS axis of the RAS (renin-angiotensin system) has emerged as a pathway of interest in treating both cardiovascular disorders and cancer. The MAS protein is known to bind to and be activated by Ang-(1-7); however, the mechanisms of this activation are just starting to be understood. Although there are strong biochemical data regarding the regulation and activation of the AT1R (angiotensin II type 1 receptor) and the AT2R (angiotensin II type 2 receptor), with models of how AngII (angiotensin II) binds each receptor, fewer studies have characterized MAS. In the present study, we characterize the MAS promoter and provide a potential feedback mechanism that could compensate for MAS degradation following activation by Ang-(1-7). Analysis of ENCODE data for the MAS promoter revealed potential epigenetic control by KRAB (Krüppel-associated box)/KAP-1 (KRAB-associated protein-1). A proximal promoter construct for the MAS gene was repressed by the SOX [SRY (sex-determining region on the Y chromosome) box] proteins SRY, SOX2, SOX3 and SOX14, of which SRY is known to interact with the KRAB domain. The KRAB-KAP-1 complex can be tyrosine-nitrated, causing the dissociation of the KAP-1 protein and thus a potential loss of epigenetic control. Activation of MAS can lead to an increase in nitric oxide, suggesting a feedback mechanism for MAS on its own promoter. The results of the present study provide a more complete view of MAS regulation and, for the first time, suggest biochemical outcomes for nitration of the KRAB domain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/CS20130385DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4255987PMC
May 2014

Bacterial adhesion and growth reduction by novel rubber-derived oligomers.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2013 Sep 3;438(4):691-6. Epub 2013 Aug 3.

Biology Department, University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325, USA.

In the medical field, attached bacteria can cause infections associated with catheters, incisions, burns, and medical implants especially in immunocompromised patients. The problem is exacerbated by the fact that attached bacteria are ∼1000 times more resistant to antibiotics than planktonic cells. The rapid spread of antibiotic resistance in these and other organisms has led to a significant need to find new methods for preventing bacterial attachment. The goal of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of novel polymer coatings to prevent the attachment of three medically relevant bacteria. Tests were conducted with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Staphylococcus aureus for oligomers derived from modifications of natural rubber (cis 1,4-polyisoprene). The different oligomers were: PP04, with no quaternary ammonium (QA); MV067, one QA; PP06, three QA groups. In almost all experiments, cell attachment was inhibited to various extents as long as the oligomers were used. PP06 was the most effective as it decreased the planktonic cell numbers by at least 50% for all bacteria. Differences between species sensitivity were also observed. P. aeruginosa was the most resistant bacteria tested, S. aureus, the most sensitive. Further experiments are required to understand the full extent and mode of the antimicrobial properties of these surfaces.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2013.07.120DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3864970PMC
September 2013

Differential mechanisms of activation of the Ang peptide receptors AT1, AT2, and MAS: using in silico techniques to differentiate the three receptors.

PLoS One 2013 3;8(6):e65307. Epub 2013 Jun 3.

Department of Biology, Program in Integrated Bioscience, The University of Akron, Akron, Ohio, United States of America.

The renin-angiotensin system is involved in multiple conditions ranging from cardiovascular disorders to cancer. Components of the pathway, including ACE, renin and angiotensin receptors are targets for disease treatment. This study addresses three receptors of the pathway: AT1, AT2, and MAS and how the receptors are similar and differ in activation by angiotensin peptides. Combining biochemical and amino acid variation data with multiple species sequence alignments, structural models, and docking site predictions allows for visualization of how angiotensin peptides may bind and activate the receptors; allowing identification of conserved and variant mechanisms in the receptors. MAS differs from AT1 favoring Ang-(1-7) and not Ang II binding, while AT2 recently has been suggested to preferentially bind Ang III. A new model of Ang peptide binding to AT1 and AT2 is proposed that correlates data from site directed mutagenesis and photolabled experiments that were previously considered conflicting. Ang II binds AT1 and AT2 through a conserved initial binding mode involving amino acids 111 (consensus 325) of AT1 (Asn) interacting with Tyr (4) of Ang II and 199 and 256 (consensus 512 and 621, a Lys and His respectively) interacting with Phe (8) of Ang II. In MAS these sites are not conserved, leading to differential binding and activation by Ang-(1-7). In both AT1 and AT2, the Ang II peptide may internalize through Phe (8) of Ang II propagating through the receptors' conserved aromatic amino acids to the final photolabled positioning relative to either AT1 (amino acid 294, Asn, consensus 725) or AT2 (138, Leu, consensus 336). Understanding receptor activation provides valuable information for drug design and identification of other receptors that can potentially bind Ang peptides.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0065307PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3670877PMC
January 2015

A method for in silico identification of SNAIL/SLUG DNA binding potentials to the E-box sequence using molecular dynamics and evolutionary conserved amino acids.

J Mol Model 2013 Sep 25;19(9):3463-9. Epub 2013 May 25.

Program of Integrated Bioscience, The University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325, USA.

Binding of transcription factors to DNA is a dynamic process allowing for spatial- and sequence-specificity. Many methods for determination of DNA-protein structures do not allow for identification of dynamics of the search process, but provide only a single snapshot of the most stable binding. In order to better understand the dynamics of DNA binding as a protein encounters its cognate site, we have created a computer-based DNA scanning array macro that sequentially inserts a high affinity DNA consensus binding site at all possible locations in a predicted protein-DNA interface. We show, using short molecular dynamic simulations at each location in the interface, that energy minimized states and decreased movement of evolutionary conserved amino acids can be readily observed and used to predict the consensus binding site. The macro was applied to SNAIL class C2H2 zinc finger family proteins. The analysis suggests that (1) SNAIL binds to the E-box in multiple states during its encounter with its cognate site; (2) several different amino acids contribute to the E-box binding in each state; (3) the linear array of zinc fingers contributes differentially to overall folding and base-pair recognition; and (4) each finger may be specialized for stability and sequence specificity. Moreover, the macromolecular movement observed using this dynamic approach may allow the NH2-terminal finger to bind without sequence specificity yet result in higher binding energy. This macro and overall approach could be applicable to many evolutionary conserved transcription factor families and should help to better elucidate the varied mechanisms used for DNA sequence-specific binding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00894-013-1876-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3745821PMC
September 2013

Mathematical modelling of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm growth and treatment in the cystic fibrosis lung.

Math Med Biol 2014 Jun 21;31(2):179-204. Epub 2013 Mar 21.

Department of Chemistry, University of Akron, Akron, OH, USA.

Lung failure due to chronic bacterial infection is the leading cause of death for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). It is thought that the chronic nature of these infections is, in part, due to the increased tolerance and recalcitrant behaviour of bacteria growing as biofilms. Inhalation of silver carbene complex (SCC) antimicrobial, either encased in polymeric biodegradable particles or in aqueous form, has been proposed as a treatment. Through a coordinated experimental and mathematical modelling effort, we examine this proposed treatment of lung biofilms. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms grown in a flow-cell apparatus irrigated with an artificial CF sputum medium are analysed as an in vitro model of CF lung infection. A 2D mathematical model of biofilm growth within the flow-cell is developed. Numerical simulations demonstrate that SCC inactivation by the environment is critical in aqueous SCC, but not SCC-polymer, based treatments. Polymer particle degradation rate is shown to be an important parameter that can be chosen optimally, based on environmental conditions and bacterial susceptibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/imammb/dqt003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4571485PMC
June 2014

Development of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa mushroom morphology and cavity formation by iron-starvation: a mathematical modeling study.

J Theor Biol 2012 Sep 4;308:68-78. Epub 2012 Jun 4.

Integrated Bioscience, University of Akron, Akron, OH, USA.

We present a mathematical model of mushroom-like architecture and cavity formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. We demonstrate that a proposed disparity in internal friction between the stalk and cap extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) leads to spatial variation in volumetric expansion sufficient to produce the mushroom morphology. The capability of diffusible signals to induce the formation of a fluid-filled cavity within the cap is then investigated. We assume that conversion of bacteria to the planktonic state within the cap occurs in response to the accumulation or depletion of some signal molecule. We (a) show that neither simple nutrient starvation nor signal production by one or more subpopulations of bacteria is sufficient to trigger localized cavity formation. We then (b) demonstrate various hypothetical scenarios that could result in localized cavity formation. Finally, we (c) model iron availability as a detachment signal and show simulation results demonstrating cavity formation by iron starvation. We conclude that iron availability is a plausible mechanism by which fluid-filled cavities form in the cap region of mushroom-like structures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtbi.2012.05.029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3410399PMC
September 2012

Amino acid function and docking site prediction through combining disease variants, structure alignments, sequence alignments, and molecular dynamics: a study of the HMG domain.

BMC Bioinformatics 2012 Mar 13;13 Suppl 2:S3. Epub 2012 Mar 13.

Department of Biology, Program in Integrated Bioscience, The University of Akron, Akron, OH, USA.

Background: The DNA binding domain of HMG proteins is known to be important in many diseases, with the Sox sub-family of HMG proteins of particular significance. Numerous natural variants in HMG proteins are associated with disease phenotypes. Integrating these natural variants, molecular dynamic simulations of DNA interaction and sequence and structure alignments give detailed molecular knowledge of potential amino acid function such as DNA or protein interaction.

Results: A total of 33 amino acids in HMG proteins are known to have natural variants in diseases. Eight of these amino acids are normally conserved in human HMG proteins and 27 are conserved in the human Sox sub-family. Among the six non-Sox conserved amino acids, amino acids 16 and 45 are likely targets for interaction with other proteins. Docking studies between the androgen receptor and Sry/Sox9 reveals a stable amino acid specific interaction involving several Sox conserved residues.

Conclusion: The HMG box has structural conservation between the first two of the three helixes in the domain as well as some DNA contact points. Individual sub-groups of the HMG family have specificity in the location of the third helix, DNA specific contact points (such as amino acids 4 and 29), and conserved amino acids interacting with other proteins such as androgen receptor. Studies such as this help to distinguish individual members of a much larger family of proteins and can be applied to any protein family of interest.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2105-13-S2-S3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3402923PMC
March 2012

From rat to human: regulation of Renin-Angiotensin system genes by sry.

Int J Hypertens 2012 22;2012:724240. Epub 2012 Jan 22.

Department of Biology and Integrated Bioscience Ph.D. Program, The University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325-3908, USA.

The testis determining protein, Sry, has functions outside of testis determination. Multiple Sry loci are found on the Y-chromosome. Proteins from these loci have differential activity on promoters of renin-angiotensin system genes, possibly contributing to elevation of blood pressure. Variation at amino acid 76 accounts for the majority of differential effects by rat proteins Sry1 and Sry3. Human SRY regulated rat promoters in the same manner as rat Sry, elevating Agt, Ren, and Ace promoter activity while downregulating Ace 2. Human SRY significantly regulated human promoters of AGT, REN, ACE2, AT2, and MAS compared to control levels, elevating AGT and REN promoter activity while decreasing ACE2, AT2, and MAS. While the effect of human SRY on individual genes is often modest, we show that many different genes participating in the renin-angiotensin system can be affected by SRY, apparently in coordinated fashion, to produce more Ang II and less Ang-(1-7).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/724240DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3270428PMC
August 2012

Canine distemper virus induces apoptosis in cervical tumor derived cell lines.

Virol J 2011 Jun 30;8:334. Epub 2011 Jun 30.

Department of General Pathology, Institute of Biological Science, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, UFMG, Brazil.

Apoptosis can be induced or inhibited by viral proteins, it can form part of the host defense against virus infection, or it can be a mechanism for viral spread to neighboring cells. Canine distemper virus (CDV) induces apoptotic cells in lymphoid tissues and in the cerebellum of dogs naturally infected. CDV also produces a cytopathologic effect, leading to apoptosis in Vero cells in tissue culture. We tested canine distemper virus, a member of the Paramyxoviridae family, for the ability to trigger apoptosis in HeLa cells, derived from cervical cancer cells resistant to apoptosis. To study the effect of CDV infection in HeLa cells, we examined apoptotic markers 24 h post infection (pi), by flow cytometry assay for DNA fragmentation, real-time PCR assay for caspase-3 and caspase-8 mRNA expression, and by caspase-3 and -8 immunocytochemistry. Flow cytometry showed that DNA fragmentation was induced in HeLa cells infected by CDV, and immunocytochemistry revealed a significant increase in the levels of the cleaved active form of caspase-3 protein, but did not show any difference in expression of caspase-8, indicating an intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Confirming this observation, expression of caspase-3 mRNA was higher in CDV infected HeLa cells than control cells; however, there was no statistically significant change in caspase-8 mRNA expression profile. Our data suggest that canine distemper virus induced apoptosis in HeLa cells, triggering apoptosis by the intrinsic pathway, with no participation of the initiator caspase -8 from the extrinsic pathway. In conclusion, the cellular stress caused by CDV infection of HeLa cells, leading to apoptosis, can be used as a tool in future research for cervical cancer treatment and control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1743-422X-8-334DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3141686PMC
June 2011

Sry, more than testis determination?

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2011 Sep 15;301(3):R561-71. Epub 2011 Jun 15.

Department of Biology, The University of Akron, Akron, Ohio, USA.

The Sry locus on the mammalian Y chromosome is the developmental switch responsible for testis determination. Inconsistent with this important function, the Sry locus is transcribed in adult males at times and in tissues not involved with testis determination. Sry is expressed in multiple tissues of the peripheral and central nervous system. Sry is derived from Sox3 and is similar to other SOXB family loci. The SOXB loci are responsible for nervous system development. Sry has been demonstrated to modulate the catecholamine pathway, so it should have functional consequences in the central and peripheral nervous system. The nervous system expression and potential function are consistent with Sry as a SOXB family member. In mammals, Sox3 is X-linked and undergoes dosage compensation in females. The expression of Sry in adult males allows for a type of sexual differentiation independent of circulating gonadal hormones. A quantitative difference in Sox3 plus Sry expression in males vs. females could drive changes in the transcriptome of these cells, differentiating male and female cells. Sry expression and its transcriptional effects should be considered when investigating sexual dimorphic phenotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.00645.2010DOI Listing
September 2011

The Sry3 Y chromosome locus elevates blood pressure and renin-angiotensin system indexes.

Gend Med 2011 Apr;8(2):126-38

Department of Biology, University of Akron, Akron, Ohio 44325-3908, USA.

Background: Sex-determining region Y (Sry) is a transcription factor. Our research group has shown that there are multiple copies of Sry in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneous hypertensive (SHR) rats, and that they have novel functions separate from testes determination.

Objective: We hypothesized that exogenously delivered Sry3 to the normotensive WKY male kidney would activate the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and raise blood pressure (BP), based on previous in vitro studies.

Methods: Sry3 or control vector was electroporated to the left kidney of male WKY rats and the following measurements were taken: BP by telemetry, renin-angiotensin measures by radioimmunoassay, plasma and tissue catecholamines by HPLC with electrochemical detection, sodium by flame photometry, and inulin by ELISA.

Results: Sry3 increased BP 10 to 20 mm Hg compared with controls (P < 0.01) and produced a significant 40% decrease in urine sodium compared with controls (P < 0.05). Sry3 increased renal angiotensin II and plasma renin activity by >100% compared with controls (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively).

Conclusion: The findings presented here confirm and extend the argument for Sry3 as one of the genes responsible for the SHR hypertensive Y chromosome phenotype and are consistent with increased tissue RAS activity due to Sry3 and increased sodium reabsorption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.genm.2010.11.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3087190PMC
April 2011

The synthesis and toxicity of tripodal tricarbonyl rhenium complexes as radiopharmaceutical models.

J Inorg Biochem 2010 Jun 6;104(6):632-8. Epub 2010 Mar 6.

Department of Chemistry, University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325-3601, USA.

We report the synthesis and toxicity of a series of rhenium(I) tricarbonyl complexes incorporating the trisaminomethylethane (TAME) ligand. Compounds with the (TAME)Re(CO)(3)(+) cation were synthesized via several routes, including by use of Re(CO)(5)X precursors as well as the aqueous cation Re(CO)(3)(H(2)O)(3)(+). Salts of the formula [(TAME)Re(CO)(3)]X where X=Br(-), Cl(-), NO(3)(-), PF(6)(-) and ClO(4)(-) were evaluated using two cell lines: the monoclonal S3 HeLa line and a vascular smooth muscle cell line harvested from mice. All compounds have isostructural cations and differ only in the identity of the non-coordinating anion. None of the complexes exhibited any appreciable toxicity in the HeLa line up to the solubility limit. In the vascular smooth muscle cell line, the bromide salt exhibited some cytotoxicity, but this observation most likely results from the presence of bromide anion, which has been shown to have limited toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2010.02.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3520515PMC
June 2010

Review of the Y chromosome, Sry and hypertension.

Steroids 2010 Nov 13;75(11):747-53. Epub 2009 Nov 13.

Department of Biology, University of Akron, 185 S Mill St., Akron, OH 44325-3908, United States.

The following review examines the role of the SHR Y chromosome and specifically the Sry gene complex in hypertension and potential mechanisms that involve the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin system. There are consistent gender differences in hypertension, with a greater proportion of males affected than females in most mammalian populations. Our earlier studies demonstrated that a portion of the gender differences in blood pressure (BP) in the SHR rat mapped to the SHR Y chromosome. In rats, males with the SHR Y chromosome have higher BP than females, or males with a different Y chromosome. Consistent with these results, several human population studies have confirmed a Y chromosome effect on BP. Our more recent studies focus on a transcription factor, Sry, as the locus involved in not only BP modulation but effects on other phenotypes. The Sry locus is an evolutionarily conserved locus on the mammalian Y chromosome responsible for testis determination and is a transcription factor. The Sry locus contains a highly conserved High Mobility Group (HMG) box region responsible for DNA binding. Mutations in the HMG box result in sex reversal. We have found multiple functional copies of Sry in SHR and WKY male rats. There is abundant evidence that testes determination may not be Sry's only function as it is expressed in the brain, kidney and adrenal gland of adult males. These findings have potential implications for gender physiology research which involves, the sympathetic nervous system, renin-angiotensin system, androgen receptor regulation and prostate physiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.steroids.2009.10.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2891862PMC
November 2010

Regulation of multiple renin-angiotensin system genes by Sry.

J Hypertens 2010 Jan;28(1):59-64

Department of Biology and Program in Integrated Bioscience, University of Akron, Akron, Ohio 44325-3908, USA.

Background And Objective: We demonstrated that the Sry gene complex on the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) Y chromosome is a candidate locus for hypertension that accounts for the SHR Y chromosome blood pressure effect. All rat strains examined to date share six Sry loci, and a seventh Sry locus (Sry3) appears to be unique to SHR male rats. Previously, we showed that Sry1 increased activity of the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter in transfected PC12 cells, and Sry1 delivered to adrenal gland of Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats increased blood pressure and sympathetic nervous system activity. The objective of this study was to determine whether renin-angiotensin system genes participate in Sry-mediated effects.

Method: Sry expression vectors were co-transfected into CHO cells with luciferase reporter constructs containing promoters of angiotensinogen (Agt -1430/+22), renin (Ren -1050/-1), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) (ACE -1677/+21) and ACE2 (ACE2 -1091/+83).

Results: Sry1, Sry2 and Sry3 differentially upregulated activity of the promoters of angiotensinogen, renin and ACE genes and downregulated ACE2 promoter activity. The largest effect was seen with Sry3, which increased activity of angiotensinogen promoter by 1.7-fold, renin promoter by 1.3-fold, ACE promoter by 2.6-fold and decreased activity of ACE2 promoter by 0.5-fold. The effect of Sry1 on promoter activity was significantly less than that of Sry3. Sry2 activated promoters at a significantly lower level than Sry1 did. The result of either an additive effect of Sry regulation of multiple genes in the renin-angiotensin system or alterations in expression of a single gene could favor increased levels of Ang II and decreased levels of Ang-(1-7).

Conclusion: These actions of Sry could result in increased blood pressure in males and contribute to sex differences in blood pressure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0b013e328332b88dDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2897148PMC
January 2010

Delivery of sry1, but not sry2, to the kidney increases blood pressure and sns indices in normotensive wky rats.

BMC Physiol 2009 Jun 5;9:10. Epub 2009 Jun 5.

Department of Biology, University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325, USA.

Background: Our laboratory has shown that a locus on the SHR Y chromosome increases blood pressure (BP) in the SHR rat and in WKY rats with the SHR Y chromosome (SHR/y rat). A candidate for this Y chromosome hypertension locus is Sry, a gene that encodes a transcription factor responsible for testes determination. The SHR Y chromosome has six divergent Sry loci. The following study examined if exogenous Sry1 or Sry2 delivered to the kidney would elevate renal tyrosine hydroxylase, renal catecholamines, plasma catecholamines and telemetered BP over a 28 day period. We delivered 50 mug of either the expression construct Sry1/pcDNA 3.1, Sry2/pcDNA 3.1, or control vector into the medulla of the left kidney of normotensive WKY rats by electroporation. Weekly air stress was performed to determine BP responsiveness. Separate groups of animals were tested for renal function and plasma hormone patterns and pharmacological intervention using alpha adrenergic receptor blockade. Pre-surgery baseline and weekly blood samples were taken from Sry1 electroporated and control vector males for plasma renin, aldosterone, and corticosterone. BP was measured by telemetry and tyrosine hydroxylase and catecholamines by HPLC with electrochemical detection.

Results: In the animals receiving the Sry1 plasmid there were significant increases after 21 days in resting plasma norepinephrine (NE, 27%) and renal tyrosine hydroxylase content (41%, p < .05) compared to controls. BP was higher in animals electroporated with Sry1 (143 mmHg, p < .05) compared to controls (125 mmHg) between 2-4 weeks. Also the pressor response to air stress was significantly elevated in males electroporated with Sry1 (41 mmHg) compared to controls (28 mmHg, p < .001). Sry2 did not elevate BP or SNS indices and further tests were not done. The hormone profiles for plasma renin, aldosterone, and corticosterone between electroporated Sry1 and control vector males showed no significant differences over the 28 day period. Alpha adrenergic receptor blockade prevented the air stress pressor response in both strains. Urinary dopamine significantly increased after 7 days post Sry electroporation.

Conclusion: These results are consistent with a role for Sry1 in increasing BP by directly or indirectly activating renal sympathetic nervous system activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6793-9-10DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2699329PMC
June 2009

Which Sry locus is the hypertensive Y chromosome locus?

Hypertension 2009 Feb 15;53(2):430-5. Epub 2008 Dec 15.

Department of Biology, University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325-3908, USA.

The Y chromosome of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) contains a genetic component that raises blood pressure compared with the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) Y chromosome. This research tests the Sry gene complex as the hypertensive component of the SHR Y chromosome. The Sry loci were sequenced in 1 strain with a hypertensive Y chromosome (SHR/Akr) and 2 strains with a normotensive Y chromosome (SHR/Crl and WKY/Akr). Both SHR strains have 7 Sry loci, whereas the WKY strain has 6. The 6 loci in common between SHR and WKY strains were identical in the sequence compared (coding region, 392-bp 5' prime flanking, 1200-bp 3' flanking). Both SHR strains have a locus (Sry3) not found in WKY rats, but this locus is different between SHR/Akr and SHR/Crl rats. Six mutations have accumulated in Sry3 between the SHR strains, whereas the other 6 Sry loci are identical. This pattern of an SHR-specific locus and mutation in this locus in SHR/Crl coinciding with the loss of Y chromosome hypertension is an expected pattern if Sry3 is the Y chromosome-hypertensive component. The SHR/y strain showed a significant increase in total Sry expression in the kidney between 4 and 15 weeks of age. There are significant differences in Sry expression between adrenal glands and the kidney (15 to 30 times higher in kidneys) but no significant differences between strains. These results, along with previous studies demonstrating an interaction of Sry with the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter and increased blood pressure with exogenous Sry expression, suggest the Sry loci as the hypertensive component of the SHR Y chromosome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.108.124131DOI Listing
February 2009

Testosterone influences renal electrolyte excretion in SHR/y and WKY males.

BMC Physiol 2008 Mar 26;8. Epub 2008 Mar 26.

Biology Department, The University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325-3908, USA.

Background: The Y-chromosome (Yc) and testosterone (T) increase blood pressure and may also influence renal electrolyte excretion. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine if the Yc combined with T manipulation could influence renal Na and K excretion.

Methods: To investigate the role of the Yc and T, consomic borderline hypertensive (SHR/y) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat strains were used (15 weeks) in three T treatment groups: castrate, castrate with T implant and gonadally intact males. Urine was collected (24 hrs at 15 weeks of age) for Na and K measurements by flame photometry. RT-PCR was used to demonstrate the presence of renal androgen receptor (AR) transcripts. Plasma T and aldosterone were measured by RIA. In another experiment the androgen receptor was blocked using flutamide in the diet.

Results: Na and K excretion were decreased by T in SHR/y and WKY. AR transcripts were identified in SHR/y and WKY kidneys. Plasma aldosterone was decreased in the presence of T. Blockade of the AR resulted in a significant increase in Na excretion but not in K excretion in both SHR/y and WKY males.

Conclusion: T influences electrolyte excretion through an androgen receptor dependent mechanism. There was not a differential Yc involvement in electrolyte excretion between WKY and SHR/y males.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6793-8-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2329660PMC
March 2008

Angiotensin II and its receptor subtypes in the human retina.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2007 Jul;48(7):3301-11

Department of Ophthalmology, Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA.

Purpose: To quantify and evaluate the distribution of angiotensin II (Ang II) and its receptors in the human retina.

Methods: Donor eyes were obtained within 12 hours postmortem and classified as hypertensive or normotensive and diabetic or nondiabetic, based on the donors' medical histories. Ang II in retina and vitreous was quantified by RIA. Ang II receptors were characterized and quantified by competitive membrane-binding assays. Ang II, its heptapeptide metabolite Ang-(1-7), and AT1 and AT2 receptors were localized by immunohistochemistry and confocal imaging.

Results: Levels of Ang II in the retina were significantly higher than in vitreous (P < 0.05). Ang II in the diabetic retina had a higher median compared with that in the nondiabetic retina. Ang II and Ang-(1-7) colocalized in retinal Müller cells. The retina had the highest levels of Ang II receptors that were significantly higher than the optic nerve, retinal pigment epithelium-choroid complex, and ciliary body-iris complex (P < 0.05). AT1 receptors were more abundant than AT2 receptors in the retina. Immunoreactivity for AT1 was detected in Müller cells and on blood vessels. AT2 receptors were localized throughout the Müller cells and nuclei of ganglion cells and neurons in the inner nuclear layer.

Conclusions: In the human retina, identification of Ang II and its bioactive metabolite Ang-(1-7) in Müller cells suggests that these glial cells are able to produce and process Ang II. Ang receptors were localized in the blood vessels and neural cells. Local Ang II signaling may thus allow for autoregulation of neurovascular activity. Such an autonomous system could modulate the onset and severity of retinovascular disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.06-1024DOI Listing
July 2007

A cell culture model using rat coronary artery adventitial fibroblasts to measure collagen production.

BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2007 May 8;7:13. Epub 2007 May 8.

Kent State University, Kent, Ohio, USA.

Background: We have developed a rat cell model for studying collagen type I production in coronary artery adventitial fibroblasts. Increased deposition of adventitial collagen type I leads to stiffening of the blood vessel, increased blood pressure, arteriosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Although the source and mechanism of collagen deposition is yet unknown, the adventitia appears to play a significant role. To demonstrate the application of our cell model, cultured adventitial fibroblasts were treated with sex hormones and the effect on collagen production measured.

Methods: Hearts (10-12 weeks) were harvested and the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) was isolated and removed. Tissue explants were cultured and cells (passages 2-4) were confirmed as fibroblasts using immunohistochemistry. Optimal conditions were determined for cell tissue harvest, timing, proliferation and culture conditions. Fibroblasts were exposed to 10-7 M testosterone or 10-7 M estrogen for 24 hours and either immunostained for collagen type I or subjected to ELISA.

Results: Results showed increased collagen staining in fibroblasts treated with testosterone compared to control and decreased staining with estrogen. ELISA results showed that testosterone increased collagen I by 20% whereas estrogen decreased collagen I by 15%.

Conclusion: Data demonstrates the usefulness of our cell model in studying the specific role of the adventitia apart from other blood vessel tissue in rat coronary arteries. Results suggest opposite effects of testosterone and estrogen on collagen synthesis in the rat coronary artery adventitial fibroblasts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2261-7-13DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1885448PMC
May 2007

Genomic and expression analysis of multiple Sry loci from a single Rattus norvegicus Y chromosome.

BMC Genet 2007 Apr 4;8:11. Epub 2007 Apr 4.

Department of Biology, The University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325-3908, USA.

Background: Sry is a gene known to be essential for testis determination but is also transcribed in adult male tissues. The laboratory rat, Rattus norvegicus, has multiple Y chromosome copies of Sry while most mammals have only a single copy. DNA sequence comparisons with other rodents with multiple Sry copies are inconsistent in divergence patterns and functionality of the multiple copies. To address hypotheses of divergence, gene conversion and functional constraints, we sequenced Sry loci from a single R. norvegicus Y chromosome from the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat strain (SHR) and analyzed DNA sequences for homology among copies. Next, to determine whether all copies of Sry are expressed, we developed a modification of the fluorescent marked capillary electrophoresis method to generate three different sized amplification products to identify Sry copies. We applied this fragment analysis method to both genomic DNA and cDNA prepared from mRNA from testis and adrenal gland of adult male rats.

Results: Y chromosome fragments were amplified and sequenced using primers that included the entire Sry coding region and flanking sequences. The analysis of these sequences identified six Sry loci on the Y chromosome. These are paralogous copies consistent with a single phylogeny and the divergence between any two copies is less than 2%. All copies have a conserved reading frame and amino acid sequence consistent with function. Fragment analysis of genomic DNA showed close approximations of experimental with predicted values, validating the use of this method to identify proportions of each copy. Using the fragment analysis procedure with cDNA samples showed the Sry copies expressed were significantly different from the genomic distribution (testis p < 0.001, adrenal gland p < 0.001), and the testis and adrenal copy distribution in the transcripts were also significantly different from each other (p < 0.001). Total Sry transcript expression, analyzed by real-time PCR, showed significantly higher levels of Sry in testis than adrenal gland (p, 0.001).

Conclusion: The SHR Y chromosome contains at least 6 full length copies of the Sry gene. These copies have a conserved coding region and conserved amino acid sequence. The pattern of divergence is not consistent with gene conversion as the mechanism for this conservation. Expression studies show multiple copies expressed in the adult male testis and adrenal glands, with tissue specific differences in expression patterns. Both the DNA sequence analysis and RNA transcript expression analysis are consistent with more than one copy having function and selection preventing divergence although we have no functional evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2156-8-11DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1852568PMC
April 2007

Sry delivery to the adrenal medulla increases blood pressure and adrenal medullary tyrosine hydroxylase of normotensive WKY rats.

BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2007 Feb 26;7. Epub 2007 Feb 26.

Department of Biology, University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325, USA.

Background: Our laboratory has shown that a locus on the SHR Y chromosome increases blood pressure (BP) in the SHR rat and in WKY rats that had the SHR Y chromosome locus crossed into their genome (SHR/y rat). A potential candidate for this Y chromosome hypertension locus is Sry, a gene that encodes a transcription factor that is responsible for testes development and the Sry protein may affect other target genes.

Methods: The following study examined if exogenous Sry would elevate adrenal Th, adrenal catecholamines, plasma catecholamines and blood pressure. We delivered 10 mug of either the expression construct, Sry1/pcDNA 3.1, or control vector into the adrenal medulla of WKY rats by electroporation. Blood pressure was measured by the tail cuff technique and Th and catecholamines by HPLC with electrochemical detection.

Results: In the animals receiving Sry there were significant increases after 3 weeks in resting plasma NE (57%) and adrenal Th content (49%) compared to vector controls. BP was 30 mmHg higher in Sry injected animals (160 mmHg, p < .05) compared to vector controls (130 mmHg) after 2-3 weeks. Histological analysis showed that the electroporation procedure did not produce morphological damage.

Conclusion: These results provide continued support that Sry is a candidate gene for hypertension. Also, these results are consistent with a role for Sry in increasing BP by directly or indirectly activating sympathetic nervous system activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2261-7-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1810322PMC
February 2007

Synthesis from caffeine of a mixed N-heterocyclic carbene-silver acetate complex active against resistant respiratory pathogens.

J Med Chem 2006 Nov;49(23):6811-8

Department of Chemistry, University of Akron, Akron, Ohio 44325-3601, USA.

The bis(N-heterocyclic carbene) (NHC) silver complex, 3, with a methyl carbonate anion was formed from the reaction of the iodide salt of methylated caffeine, 1, with silver (I) oxide in methanol. Attempts to crystallize this complex from a mixture of common alcohols and ethyl acetate led to the formation of an NHC-silver acetate complex, 4. The more direct synthesis of 4 was accomplished by the in-situ deprotonation of 1 by silver acetate in methanol. Complex 4 demonstrated antimicrobial activity against numerous resistant respiratory pathogens from the lungs of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients including members of the Burkholderia cepacia complex that cause a high rate of mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Application of this NHC silver complex to primary cultures of murine respiratory epithelial cells followed by microarray analysis showed minimal gene expression changes at the concentrations effective against respiratory pathogens. Furthermore, methylated caffeine without silver showed some antibacterial and antifungal activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm060711tDOI Listing
November 2006

Silver(I)-imidazole cyclophane gem-diol complexes encapsulated by electrospun tecophilic nanofibers: formation of nanosilver particles and antimicrobial activity.

J Am Chem Soc 2005 Feb;127(7):2285-91

Department of Chemistry, University of Akron, Akron, Ohio 44325, USA.

Silver(I)-imidazole cyclophane gem-diol complex, 3 [Ag2C36 N10(O)4](2+)2(x)-, where x = OH- or CO3(2-), was synthesized and well characterized. The minimum inhibition concentration tests showed that the aqueous form of 3 is 2 times less effective as an antibiotic than 0.5% AgNO3, with about the same amount of silver. The antimicrobial activity of 3 was enhanced when encapsulated into Tecophilic polymer by electrospinning to obtain mats made of nano-fibers. The fiber mats released nanosilver particles, which in turn sustained the antimicrobial activity of the mats over a long period of time. The rate of bactericidal activity of 3 was greatly improved by encapsulation, and the amount of silver used was much reduced. The amount of silver contained in the fiber mat of 3, with 75% of 3 and 25% Tecophilic, was 8 times less than that in 0.5% AgNO3 and 5 times lower than that in silver sulfadiazine cream 1%. The fiber mat was found to kill S. aureus at the same rate as 0.5% AgNO3, with zero colonies on an agar plate, and about 6 times faster than silver sulfadiazine cream. The silver mats were found effective against E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, C. albicans, A. niger, and S. cerevisiae. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the fiber mats. The acute toxicity of the ligand (imidazolium cyclophane gem-diol dichloride) was assessed by intravenous administration to rats, with an LD 50 of 100 mg/kg of rat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja040226sDOI Listing
February 2005