Publications by authors named "Amy M Pastva"

39 Publications

Economic Outcomes of Rehabilitation Therapy in Older Patients With Acute Heart Failure in the REHAB-HF Trial: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Cardiol 2021 Nov 24. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina.

Importance: In the Rehabilitation Therapy in Older Acute Heart Failure Patients (REHAB-HF) trial, a novel 12-week rehabilitation intervention demonstrated significant improvements in validated measures of physical function, quality of life, and depression, but no significant reductions in rehospitalizations or mortality compared with a control condition during the 6-month follow up. The economic implications of these results are important given the increasing pressures for cost containment in health care.

Objective: To report the economic outcomes of the REHAB-HF trial and estimate the potential cost-effectiveness of the intervention.

Design, Setting, Participants: The multicenter REHAB-HF trial randomized 349 patients 60 years or older who were hospitalized for acute decompensated heart failure to rehabilitation intervention or a control group; patients were enrolled from September 17, 2014, through September 19, 2019. For this preplanned secondary analysis of the economic outcomes, data on medical resource use and quality of life (via the 5-level EuroQol 5-Dimension scores converted to health utilities) were collected. Medical resource use and medication costs were estimated using 2019 US Medicare payments and the Federal Supply Schedule, respectively. Cost-effectiveness was estimated using the validated Tools for Economic Analysis of Patient Management Interventions in Heart Failure Cost-Effectiveness Model, which uses an individual-patient simulation model informed by the prospectively collected trial data. Data were analyzed from March 24, 2019, to December 1, 2020.

Interventions: Rehabilitation intervention or control.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and the lifetime estimated cost per QALY gained (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio).

Results: Among the 349 patients included in the analysis (183 women [52.4%]; mean [SD] age, 72.7 [8.1] years; 176 non-White [50.4%] and 173 White [49.6%]), mean (SD) cumulative costs per patient were $26 421 ($38 955) in the intervention group (excluding intervention costs) and $27 650 ($30 712) in the control group (difference, -$1229; 95% CI, -$8159 to $6394; P = .80). The mean (SD) cost of the intervention was $4204 ($2059). Quality of life gains were significantly greater in the intervention vs control group during 6 months (mean utility difference, 0.074; P = .001) and sustained beyond the 12-week intervention. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were estimated at $58 409 and $35 600 per QALY gained for the full cohort and in patients with preserved ejection fraction, respectively.

Conclusions And Relevance: These analyses suggest that longer-term benefits of this novel rehabilitation intervention, particularly in the subgroup of patients with preserved ejection fraction, may yield good value to the health care system. However, long-term cost-effectiveness is currently uncertain and dependent on the assumption that benefits are sustained beyond study follow-up, which needs to be corroborated in future trials in this patient population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2021.4836DOI Listing
November 2021

Skilled Nursing and Inpatient Rehabilitation Facility Use by Medicare Fee-for-Service Beneficiaries s Discharged Home following a Stroke: Findings from the COMPASS Trial.

Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2021 Nov 2. Epub 2021 Nov 2.

Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 135 Dauer Dr, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599.

Objectives: To examine the effect of a comprehensive transitional care model on the utilization of skilled nursing facility (SNF) and inpatient rehabilitation facility (IRF) care in the 12 months after acute care discharge home following stroke; and to identify predictors of experiencing a SNF or IRF admission following discharge home after stroke.

Design: Cluster randomized pragmatic trial Setting: 41 acute care hospitals in North Carolina.

Participants: 2,262 Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries with transient ischemic attack or stroke discharged home. The sample was 80.3% White and 52.1% female, with a mean (standard deviation [SD]) age of 74.9 (10.2) years and a mean (SD) NIH stroke scale score of 2.3 (3.7).

Intervention: Comprehensive transitional care model (COMPASS-TC) which consisted of a 2-day follow-up phone call from the post-acute care coordinator (PAC) and 14-day in-person visit with the PAC and advanced practice provider.

Main Outcome Measures: Time to first SNF or IRF and SNF or IRF admission (yes/no) in the 12 months following discharge home. All analyses utilized multivariable mixed models including a hospital-specific random effect to account for the non-independence of measures within hospital. Intent to treat analyses using Cox proportional hazards regression assessed the effect of COMPASS-TC on time to SNF/IRF admission. Logistic regression was used to identify clinical and non-clinical predictors of SNF/IRF admission.

Results: Only 34% of patients in the intervention arm received COMPASS-TC per protocol. COMPASS-TC was not associated with a reduced hazard of a SNF/ IRF admission in the 12 months post-discharge (HR=1.20 [0.95 - 1.52]) compared to usual care. This estimate was robust to additional covariate adjustment (HR=1.23 [0.93-1.64]). Both clinical and non-clinical factors (i.e., insurance, geography) were predictors of SNF/IRF use.

Conclusions: COMPASS-TC was not consistently incorporated into real-world clinical practice. The use of a comprehensive transitional care model for patients discharged home after stroke was not associated with SNF or IRF admissions in a 12-month follow-up period. Non-clinical factors predictive of SNF/IRF use suggest potential issues with access to this type of care.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2021.10.015DOI Listing
November 2021

Physical Rehabilitation in Patients with Heart Failure. Reply.

N Engl J Med 2021 09;385(14):1340-1341

Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc2113494DOI Listing
September 2021

Physical Rehabilitation in Older Patients Hospitalized with Acute Heart Failure and Diabetes: Insights from REHAB-HF.

Am J Med 2021 Sep 10. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC. Electronic address:

Background: Prior studies showed an attenuated response to exercise training among patients with heart failure and type 2 diabetes mellitus. We explored the interaction between diabetes status and a novel, transitional, tailored, progressive rehabilitation intervention that improved physical function compared with usual care in the Rehabilitation Therapy in Older Acute Heart Failure Patients (REHAB-HF) trial.

Methods: The effect of the intervention on 3-month Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) (primary endpoint), 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), modified Fried frailty criteria, and quality-of-life scores (Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire [KCCQ] and EuroQoL Visual Analogue Scale [VAS]) was compared between participants with and without diabetes. Differences in 6-month clinical outcomes were also explored.

Results: Of the 349 participants enrolled in REHAB-HF, 186 (53%) had diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes was higher in the intervention group (59% vs 48%). Participants with diabetes had worse baseline physical function by the SPPB and 6MWD, but similar frailty and quality-of-life scores. There was a consistent improvement with the intervention for 3-month SPPB, 6MWD, and VAS regardless of diabetes status (all interaction P value > .6), but participants with diabetes had significantly less improvement for frailty (P = .021) and a trend toward lower improvement in KCCQ (P = .11). There was no significant interaction by diabetes status for 6-month clinical event outcomes (all interaction P value > .3).

Conclusions: Participants with diabetes had worse baseline physical function but showed similar clinically meaningful improvements from the intervention. There was less benefit for frailty with the intervention in participants with diabetes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2021.08.001DOI Listing
September 2021

Is Discordance Between Recommended and Actual Postacute Discharge Setting a Risk Factor for Readmission in Patients With Congestive Heart Failure?

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 08 29;10(15):e020425. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Physical Therapy University of Pittsburgh PA.

Background Readmissions in patients with congestive heart failure are common and often preventable. Limited data suggest that patients discharged to a less intensive postacute care setting than recommended are likely to readmit. We examined whether postacute setting discordance (discharge to a less intensive postacute setting than recommended by a physical and occupational therapist) was associated with hospital readmission in patients with congestive heart failure. We also assessed sociodemographic and clinical predictors of setting discordance. Methods and Results Retrospective analysis of administrative claims and electronic health record data was conducted on 25 500 adults with a discharge diagnosis of congestive heart failure from 12 acute care hospitals in Western Pennsylvania. Generalized linear mixed models were estimated to examine the association between postacute setting discordance and 30-day hospital readmission and to identify predictors of setting discordance. The 30-day readmission and postacute setting discordance rates were high (23.7%, 20.6%). While controlling for demographic and clinical covariates, patients in discordant postacute settings were more likely to be readmitted within 30 days (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.12; 95% CI, 1.04-1.20). The effect was also seen in the subgroup of patients with low mobility scores (adjusted OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.08-1.33). Factors associated with setting discordance were lower-income, higher comorbidity burden, therapist recommendation disagreement, and midrange mobility limitations. Conclusions Postacute setting discordance was associated with an increased readmission risk in patients hospitalized with congestive heart failure. Maximizing concordance between therapist recommended and actual postacute discharge setting may decrease readmissions. Understanding factors associated with post-acute setting discordance can inform strategies to improve the quality of the discharge process.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.020425DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8475711PMC
August 2021

Rehabilitation Intervention in Older Patients With Acute Heart Failure With Preserved Versus Reduced Ejection Fraction.

JACC Heart Fail 2021 10 7;9(10):747-757. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Section on Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA; Sections on Geriatrics, Department of Internal Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: This study assessed for treatment interactions by ejection fraction (EF) subgroup (≥45% [heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF); vs <45% [heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF)]).

Background: The REHAB-HF trial showed that an early multidomain rehabilitation intervention improved physical function, frailty, quality-of-life, and depression in older patients hospitalized with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF).

Methods: Three-month outcomes were: Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), 6-min walk distance (6MWD), and Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ). Six-month end points included all-cause rehospitalization and death and a global rank of death, all-cause rehospitalization, and SPPB. Prespecified significance level for interaction was P ≤ 0.1.

Results: Among 349 total participants, 185 (53%) had HFpEF and 164 (47%) had HFrEF. Compared with HFrEF, HFpEF participants were more often women (61% vs 43%) and had significantly worse baseline physical function, frailty, quality of life, and depression. Although interaction P values for 3-month outcomes were not significant, effect sizes were larger for HFpEF vs HFrEF: SPPB +1.9 (95% CI: 1.1-2.6) vs +1.1 (95% CI: 0.3-1.9); 6MWD +40 meters (95% CI: 9 meters-72 meters) vs +27 (95% CI: -6 meters to 59 meters); KCCQ +9 (2-16) vs +6 (-2 to 14). All-cause rehospitalization rate was nominally lower with intervention in HFpEF but not HFrEF [effect size 0.83 (95% CI: 0.64-1.09) vs 0.99 (95% CI: 0.74-1.33); interaction P = 0.40]. There were significantly greater treatment benefits in HFpEF vs HFrEF for all-cause death [interaction P = 0.08; intervention rate ratio 0.63 (95% CI: 0.25-1.61) vs 2.21 (95% CI: 0.78-6.25)], and the global rank end point (interaction P = 0.098) with benefit seen in HFpEF [probability index 0.59 (95% CI: 0.50-0.68)] but not HFrEF.

Conclusions: Among older patients hospitalized with ADHF, compared with HFrEF those with HFpEF had significantly worse impairments at baseline and may derive greater benefit from the intervention. (A Trial of Rehabilitation Therapy in Older Acute Heart Failure Patients [REHAB-HF]; NCT02196038).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchf.2021.05.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8487922PMC
October 2021

Physical Rehabilitation for Older Patients Hospitalized for Heart Failure.

N Engl J Med 2021 07 16;385(3):203-216. Epub 2021 May 16.

From the Department of Internal Medicine, Sections of Cardiovascular Medicine (D.W.K., M.B.N., B.U.) and Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine (D.W.K., M.A.E.), and the Departments of Neurology (P.D.) and Biostatistics and Data Science (H.C., M.A.E.), Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, the Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Doctor of Physical Therapy Division (A.M.P.), the Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology (R.J.M.), and the Department of Population Health Sciences (S.D.R.), Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, and Novant Health Heart and Vascular Institute, Charlotte (G.R.R.) - all in North Carolina; the Department of Medicine, Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University (D.J.W.), and the Department of Physical Therapy, Jefferson College of Rehabilitation Sciences at Thomas Jefferson University (L.A.H.) - both in Philadelphia; and Inova Heart and Vascular Institute, Fairfax, VA (C.M.O.).

Background: Older patients who are hospitalized for acute decompensated heart failure have high rates of physical frailty, poor quality of life, delayed recovery, and frequent rehospitalizations. Interventions to address physical frailty in this population are not well established.

Methods: We conducted a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial to evaluate a transitional, tailored, progressive rehabilitation intervention that included four physical-function domains (strength, balance, mobility, and endurance). The intervention was initiated during, or early after, hospitalization for heart failure and was continued after discharge for 36 outpatient sessions. The primary outcome was the score on the Short Physical Performance Battery (total scores range from 0 to 12, with lower scores indicating more severe physical dysfunction) at 3 months. The secondary outcome was the 6-month rate of rehospitalization for any cause.

Results: A total of 349 patients underwent randomization; 175 were assigned to the rehabilitation intervention and 174 to usual care (control). At baseline, patients in each group had markedly impaired physical function, and 97% were frail or prefrail; the mean number of coexisting conditions was five in each group. Patient retention in the intervention group was 82%, and adherence to the intervention sessions was 67%. After adjustment for baseline Short Physical Performance Battery score and other baseline characteristics, the least-squares mean (±SE) score on the Short Physical Performance Battery at 3 months was 8.3±0.2 in the intervention group and 6.9±0.2 in the control group (mean between-group difference, 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 2.0; P<0.001). At 6 months, the rates of rehospitalization for any cause were 1.18 in the intervention group and 1.28 in the control group (rate ratio, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.66 to 1.19). There were 21 deaths (15 from cardiovascular causes) in the intervention group and 16 deaths (8 from cardiovascular causes) in the control group. The rates of death from any cause were 0.13 and 0.10, respectively (rate ratio, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.61 to 2.27).

Conclusions: In a diverse population of older patients who were hospitalized for acute decompensated heart failure, an early, transitional, tailored, progressive rehabilitation intervention that included multiple physical-function domains resulted in greater improvement in physical function than usual care. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others; REHAB-HF ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02196038.).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2026141DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8353658PMC
July 2021

Relationship of physical function with quality of life in older patients with acute heart failure.

J Am Geriatr Soc 2021 07 10;69(7):1836-1845. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States.

Background: Older patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) have severely impaired physical function (PF) and quality of life (QOL). However, relationships between impairments in PF and QOL are unknown but are relevant to clinical practice and trial design.

Methods: We assessed 202 consecutive patients hospitalized with ADHF in the multicenter Rehabilitation Therapy in Older Acute HF Patients (REHAB-HF) Trial. PF measures included Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and 6-min walk distance (6MWD). Disease-specific QOL was assessed by the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ). General QOL was assessed by the Short Form-12 (SF-12) and EuroQol-5D-5L. PF was evaluated as a predictor of QOL using stepwise regression adjusted for age, sex, race, and New York Heart Association class.

Results: Participants were 72 ± 8 years, 54% women, 55% minority race, 52% with reduced ejection fraction, and body mass index 33 ± 9 kg/m . Participants had severe impairments in PF (6MWD 185 ± 99 m, SPPB 6.0 ± 2.5 units) and disease-specific QOL (KCCQ Overall Score 41 ± 21 and Physical Score 47 ± 24) and general QOL (SF-12 Physical Score 28 ± 9 and EuroQol Visual Analog Scale 57 ± 23). There were modest, statistically significant correlations between 6MWD and KCCQ Overall, KCCQ Physical Limitation, and SF-12 Physical Scores (r = 0.23, p < 0.001; r = 0.30, p < 0.001; and r = 0.24, p = 0.001, respectively); and between SPPB and KCCQ Physical and SF-12 Physical Scores (r = 0.20, p = 0.004, and r = 0.19, p = 0.007, respectively). Both 6MWD and SPPB were correlated with multiple components of the EuroQol-5D-5L. 6MWD was a significant, weak predictor of KCCQ Overall Score and SF-12 Physical Score (estimate = 0.05 ± 0.01, p < 0.001 and estimate = 0.05 ± 0.02, p = 0.012, respectively). SPPB was a significant, weak predictor of KCCQ Physical Score and SF-12 Physical Score (estimate = 1.37 ± 0.66, p = 0.040 and estimate = 0.54 ± 0.25, p = 0.030, respectively).

Conclusion: In older, hospitalized ADHF patients, PF and QOL are both severely impaired but are only modestly related, suggesting that PF and QOL provide complementary information and assessment of both should be considered to fully assess clinically meaningful patient-oriented outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jgs.17156DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8273137PMC
July 2021

Towards "mobility is medicine": Socioecological factors and hospital mobility in older adults.

J Am Geriatr Soc 2021 07 23;69(7):1846-1855. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Background: Understanding the factors that influence hospital mobility, especially in the context of a heightened focus on falls prevention, is needed to improve care.

Objective: This qualitative study uses a socioecological framework to explore factors that influence hospital mobility in older adults.

Design: Qualitative research PARTICIPANTS: Semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with medically-ill hospitalized older adults (n = 19) and providers (hospitalists, nurses, and physical and occupational therapists (n = 48) at two hospitals associated with an academic health system.

Approach: Interview and focus group guides included questions on perceived need for mobility, communication about mobility, hospital mobility culture, and awareness of patients' walking activity. Data were analyzed thematically and mapped onto the constructs of the socioecological model.

Key Results: A consistent theme among patients and providers was that "mobility is medicine." Categories of factors reported to influence hospital walking activity included intrapersonal factors (patients' health status, fear of falls), interpersonal factors (patient-provider communication about mobility), organizational factors (clarity about provider roles and responsibilities, knowledge of safe patient handling, reliance on physical therapy for mobility), and environmental factors (falls as a never event, patient geographical locations on hospital units). Several of these factors were identified as potentially modifiable targets for intervention. Patients and providers offered recommendations for improving awareness of patient's ambulatory activity, assigning roles and responsibility for mobility, and enhancing education and communication between patients and providers across disciplines.

Conclusion: Patients and providers identified salient factors for future early mobility initiatives targeting hospitalized older adults. Consideration of these factors across all stages of intervention development and implementation will enhance impact and sustainability.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jgs.17109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8273111PMC
July 2021

Movement Matters, and So Does Context: Lessons Learned From Multisite Implementation of the Movement Matters Activity Program for Stroke in the Comprehensive Postacute Stroke Services Study.

Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2021 03 22;102(3):532-542. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

University of Pittsburgh School of Health and Rehabilitation Science, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

The purpose of this Special Communication is to discuss the rationale and design of the Movement Matters Activity Program for Stroke (MMAP) and explore implementation successes and challenges in home health and outpatient therapy practices across the stroke belt state of North Carolina. MMAP is an interventional component of the Comprehensive Postacute Stroke Services Study, a randomized multicenter pragmatic trial of stroke transitional care. MMAP was designed to maximize survivor health, recovery, and functional independence in the community and to promote evidence-based rehabilitative care. MMAP provided training, tools, and resources to enable rehabilitation providers to (1) prescribe physical activity and exercise according to evidence-based guidelines and programs, (2) match service setting and parameters with survivor function and benefit coverage, and (3) align treatment with quality metric reporting to demonstrate value-based care. MMAP implementation strategies were aligned with the Expert Recommendations for Implementing Change project, and MMAP site champion and facilitator survey feedback were thematically organized into the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research domains. MMAP implementation was challenging, required modification and was affected by provider- and system-level factors. Program and study participation were limited and affected by practice priorities, productivity standards, and stroke patient volume. Sites with successful implementation appeared to have empowered MMAP champions in vertically integrated systems that embraced innovation. Findings from this broad evaluation can serve as a road map for the design and implementation of other comprehensive, complex interventions that aim to bridge the currently disconnected realms of acute care, postacute care, and community resources.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2020.09.386DOI Listing
March 2021

Acute skeletal muscle wasting and dysfunction predict physical disability at hospital discharge in patients with critical illness.

Crit Care 2020 11 4;24(1):637. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, USA.

Background: Patients surviving critical illness develop muscle weakness and impairments in physical function; however, the relationship between early skeletal muscle alterations and physical function at hospital discharge remains unclear. The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether changes in muscle size, strength and power assessed in the intensive care unit (ICU) predict physical function at hospital discharge.

Methods: Study design is a single-center, prospective, observational study in patients admitted to the medicine or cardiothoracic ICU with diagnosis of sepsis or acute respiratory failure. Rectus femoris (RF) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscle ultrasound images were obtained day one of ICU admission, repeated serially and assessed for muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), layer thickness (mT) and echointensity (EI). Muscle strength, as measured by Medical Research Council-sum score, and muscle power (lower-extremity leg press) were assessed prior to ICU discharge. Physical function was assessed with performance on 5-times sit-to-stand (5STS) at hospital discharge.

Results: Forty-one patients with median age of 61 years (IQR 55-68), 56% male and sequential organ failure assessment score of 8.1 ± 4.8 were enrolled. RF muscle CSA decreased significantly a median percent change of 18.5% from day 1 to 7 (F = 26.6, p = 0.0253). RF EI increased at a mean percent change of 10.5 ± 21% in the first 7 days (F = 3.28, p = 0.081). At hospital discharge 25.7% of patients (9/35) met criteria for ICU-acquired weakness. Change in RF EI in first 7 days of ICU admission and muscle power measured prior to ICU were strong predictors of ICU-AW at hospital discharge (AUC = 0.912). Muscle power at ICU discharge, age and ICU length of stay were predictive of performance on 5STS at hospital discharge.

Conclusion: ICU-assessed muscle alterations, specifically RF EI and muscle power, are predictors of diagnosis of ICU-AW and physical function assessed by 5x-STS at hospital discharge in patients surviving critical illness.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13054-020-03355-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7640401PMC
November 2020

Cognition, Physical Function, and Quality of Life in Older Patients With Acute Decompensated Heart Failure.

J Card Fail 2021 03 18;27(3):286-294. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Department of Neurology and Sticht Center on Aging Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC.

Background: Older adults with acute decompensated heart failure have persistently poor clinical outcomes. Cognitive impairment (CI) may be a contributing factor. However, the prevalence of CI and the relationship of cognition with other patient-centered factors such a physical function and quality of life (QOL) that also may contribute to poor outcomes are incompletely understood.

Methods And Results: Older (≥60 years) hospitalized patients with acute decompensated heart failure were assessed for cognition (Montreal Cognitive Assessment [MoCA]), physical function (Short Physical Performance Battery [SPPB], 6-minute walk distance [6MWD]), and QOL (Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire, Short Form-12). Among patients (N = 198, 72.1 ± 7.6 years), 78% screened positive for CI (MoCA of <26) despite rare medical record documentation (2%). Participants also had severely diminished physical function (SPPB 6.0 ± 2.5 units, 6MWD 186 ± 100 m) and QOL (scores of <50). MoCA positively related to SPPB (ß = 0.47, P < .001), 6MWD ß = 0.01, P = .006) and inversely related to Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire Overall Score (ß = -0.05, P < .002) and Short Form-12 Physical Component Score (ß = -0.09, P = .006). MoCA was a small but significant predictor of the results on the SPPB, 6MWD, and Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire.

Conclusions: Among older hospitalized patients with acute decompensated heart failure, CI is highly prevalent, is underrecognized clinically, and is associated with severe physical dysfunction and poor QOL. Formal screening may reduce adverse events by identifying patients who may require more tailored care.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cardfail.2020.09.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7914148PMC
March 2021

Role of anabolic testosterone agents and structured exercise to promote recovery in ICU survivors.

Curr Opin Crit Care 2020 10;26(5):508-515

Division of Physical Therapy, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Duke Claude D. Pepper Older Americans Independence Center, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Purpose Of Review: ICU survivors frequently suffer significant, prolonged physical disability. 'ICU Survivorship', or addressing quality-of-life impairments post-ICU care, is a defining challenge, and existing standards of care fail to successfully address these disabilities. We suggest addressing persistent catabolism by treatment with testosterone analogues combined with structured exercise is a promising novel intervention to improve 'ICU Survivorship'.

Recent Findings: One explanation for lack of success in addressing post-ICU physical disability is most ICU patients exhibit severe testosterone deficiencies early in ICU that drives persistent catabolism despite rehabilitation efforts. Oxandrolone is an FDA-approved testosterone analogue for treating muscle weakness in ICU patients. A growing number of trials with this agent combined with structured exercise show clinical benefit, including improved physical function and safety in burns and other catabolic states. However, no trials of oxandrolone/testosterone and exercise in nonburn ICU populations have been conducted.

Summary: Critical illness leads to a catabolic state, including severe testosterone deficiency that persists throughout hospital stay, and results in persistent muscle weakness and physical dysfunction. The combination of an anabolic agent with adequate nutrition and structured exercise is likely essential to optimize muscle mass/strength and physical function in ICU survivors. Further research in ICU populations is needed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCC.0000000000000757DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8367823PMC
October 2020

Novel approaches to metabolic assessment and structured exercise to promote recovery in ICU survivors.

Curr Opin Crit Care 2020 08;26(4):369-378

Duke University School of Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, Center for Perioperative Organ Protection (CPOP), Duke Human Pharmacology and Physiology Lab (HPPL), Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Survivorship or addressing impaired quality of life (QoL) in ICU survivors has been named 'the defining challenge of critical care' for this century to address this challenge; in addition to optimal nutrition, we must learn to employ targeted metabolic/muscle assessment techniques and utilize structured, progressive ICU rehabilitative strategies.

Recent Findings: Objective measurement tools such as ccardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and muscle-specific ultrasound show great promise to assess/treat post-ICU physical dysfunction. CPET is showing that systemic mitochondrial dysfunction may underlie development and persistence of poor post-ICU functional recovery. Finally, recent data indicate that we are poor at delivering effective, early ICU rehabilitation and that there is limited benefit of currently employed later ICU rehabilitation on ICU-acquired weakness and QoL outcomes.

Summary: The combination of nutrition with effective, early rehabilitation is highly likely to be essential to optimize muscle mass/strength and physical function in ICU survivors. Currently, technologies such as muscle-specific ultrasound and CPET testing show great promise to guide ICU muscle/functional recovery. Further, we must evolve improved ICU-rehabilitation strategies, as current methods are not consistently improving outcomes. In conclusion, we must continue to look to other areas of medicine and to athletes if we hope to ultimately improve 'ICU Survivorship'.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCC.0000000000000748DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8104451PMC
August 2020

Randomized Pragmatic Trial of Stroke Transitional Care: The COMPASS Study.

Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2020 06 1;13(6):e006285. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health (S.B.J., A.M.J., A.M.K.-N., L.H.M., W.D.R.), University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Background The objectives of this study were to develop and test in real-world clinical practice the effectiveness of a comprehensive postacute stroke transitional care (TC) management program. Methods and Results The COMPASS study (Comprehensive Post-Acute Stroke Services) was a pragmatic cluster-randomized trial where the hospital was the unit of randomization. The intervention (COMPASS-TC) was initiated at 20 hospitals, and 20 hospitals provided their usual care. Hospital staff enrolled 6024 adult stroke and transient ischemic attack patients discharged home between 2016 and 2018. COMPASS-TC was patient-centered and assessed social and functional determinates of health to inform individualized care plans. Ninety-day outcomes were evaluated by blinded telephone interviewers. The primary outcome was functional status (Stroke Impact Scale-16); secondary outcomes were mortality, disability, medication adherence, depression, cognition, self-rated health, fatigue, care satisfaction, home blood pressure monitoring, and falls. The primary analysis was intention to treat. Of intervention hospitals, 58% had uninterrupted intervention delivery. Thirty-five percent of patients at intervention hospitals attended a COMPASS clinic visit. The primary outcome was measured for 59% of patients and was not significantly influenced by the intervention. Mean Stroke Impact Scale-16 (±SD) was 80.6±21.1 in TC versus 79.9±21.4 in usual care. Home blood pressure monitoring was self-reported by 72% of intervention patients versus 64% of usual care patients (adjusted odds ratio, 1.43 [95% CI, 1.21-1.70]). No other secondary outcomes differed. Conclusions Although designed according to the best available evidence with input from various stakeholders and consistent with Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services TC policies, the COMPASS model of TC was not consistently incorporated into real-world health care. We found no significant effect of the intervention on functional status at 90 days post-discharge. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02588664.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.119.006285DOI Listing
June 2020

Implementation of a billable transitional care model for stroke patients: the COMPASS study.

BMC Health Serv Res 2019 Dec 19;19(1):978. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

Department of Neurology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.

Background: The COMprehensive Post-Acute Stroke Services (COMPASS) pragmatic trial compared the effectiveness of comprehensive transitional care (COMPASS-TC) versus usual care among stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) patients discharged home from North Carolina hospitals. We evaluated implementation of COMPASS-TC in 20 hospitals randomized to the intervention using the RE-AIM framework.

Methods: We evaluated hospital-level Adoption of COMPASS-TC; patient Reach (meeting transitional care management requirements of timely telephone and face-to-face follow-up); Implementation using hospital quality measures (concurrent enrollment, two-day telephone follow-up, 14-day clinic visit scheduling); and hospital-level sustainability (Maintenance). Effectiveness compared 90-day physical function (Stroke Impact Scale-16), between patients receiving COMPASS-TC versus not. Associations between hospital and patient characteristics with Implementation and Reach measures were estimated with mixed logistic regression models.

Results: Adoption: Of 95 eligible hospitals, 41 (43%) participated in the trial. Of the 20 hospitals randomized to the intervention, 19 (95%) initiated COMPASS-TC. Reach: A total of 24% (656/2751) of patients enrolled received a billable TC intervention, ranging from 6 to 66% across hospitals.

Implementation: Of eligible patients enrolled, 75.9% received two-day calls (or two attempts) and 77.5% were scheduled/offered clinic visits. Most completed visits (78% of 975) occurred within 14 days. Effectiveness: Physical function was better among patients who attended a 14-day visit versus those who did not (adjusted mean difference: 3.84, 95% CI 1.42-6.27, p = 0.002). Maintenance: Of the 19 adopting hospitals, 14 (74%) sustained COMPASS-TC.

Conclusions: COMPASS-TC implementation varied widely. The greatest challenge was reaching patients because of system difficulties maintaining consistent delivery of follow-up visits and patient preferences to pursue alternate post-acute care. Receiving COMPASS-TC was associated with better functional status.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT02588664. Registered 28 October 2015.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-019-4771-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6923985PMC
December 2019

Frailty Among Older Decompensated Heart Failure Patients: Prevalence, Association With Patient-Centered Outcomes, and Efficient Detection Methods.

JACC Heart Fail 2019 12;7(12):1079-1088

Heart and Vascular Institute, Novant Health, Charlotte, North Carolina. Electronic address:

Objectives: This study sought to assess the prevalence of frailty, its associations with physical function, quality of life (QoL), cognition, and depression and to investigate more efficient methods of detection in older patients hospitalized with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF).

Background: In contrast to the outpatient population with chronic HF, much less is known regarding frailty in older, hospitalized patients with ADHF.

Methods: Older hospitalized patients (N = 202) with ADHF underwent assessment of frailty (using Fried criteria), short physical performance battery (SPPB), 6-min walk test (6-MWT) distance, quality of life (QoL using the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire), cognition (using the Montreal Cognition Assessment), and depression (using the Geriatric Depression Screen [GDS]). The associations of frailty with these patient-centered outcomes were assessed by using adjusted linear regression models. Novel strategies to identify frailty were examined.

Results: A total of 50% of older, hospitalized patients with ADHF were frail, 48% were pre-frail, and 2% were non-frail. Female sex, burden of comorbidity, and prior HF hospitalization were significantly associated with higher likelihood of frailty. Frailty (vs. pre-frail status) was associated with a significantly worse SPPB score (5 ± 2.2 vs. 7 ± 2.4, respectively), 6-MWT distance (143 ± 79 m vs. 221 ± 99 m, respectively), QoL (35 ± 19 vs. 46 ± 21, respectively), and more depression (GDS score: 5.5 ± 3.5 vs. 4.2 ± 3.3, respectively) but similar cognition. These associations were unchanged after adjustment for age, sex, race, total comorbidities, and body mass index. Slow gait speed plus low physical activity signaled frailty status as well (C-statistic = 0.85).

Conclusions: Ninety-eight percent of older, hospitalized patients with ADHF are frail or pre-frail. Frailty (vs. pre-frail status) is associated with worse physical function, QoL, comorbidity, and depression. The simple 4-m walk test combined with self-reported physical activity may quickly and efficiently identify frailty in older patients with ADHF.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchf.2019.10.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8067953PMC
December 2019

Cardiac Rehabilitation in Older Adults with Heart Failure: Fitting a Square Peg in a Round Hole.

Clin Geriatr Med 2019 11 3;35(4):517-526. Epub 2019 Jul 3.

Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA; Advanced Heart Failure for the Greater Charlotte Market, Novant Health Heart and Vascular Institute, 1718 E 4th Street, Suite 501, Charlotte, NC 28204, USA. Electronic address:

Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is a structured exercise and lifestyle program that improves mortality and quality of life in patients with heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction. However, significant gaps remain in optimizing CR for older adults with HF. This review summarizes the state of the science and specific knowledge gaps regarding older adults with HF. The authors discuss the importance of geriatric complexities in the design and implementation of CR, summarize promising future research in this area, and provide a clinical framework for current CR clinicians to follow when considering the specific needs of older adults with HF.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cger.2019.07.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6760316PMC
November 2019

Point of Care Quantitative Assessment of Muscle Health in Older Individuals: An Investigation of Quantitative Muscle Ultrasound and Electrical Impedance Myography Techniques.

Geriatrics (Basel) 2018 Dec 16;3(4). Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Duke University Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Durham, NC 27710, USA.

Muscle health is recognized for its critical role in the functionality and well-being of older adults. Readily accessible, reliable, and inexpensive methods of measuring muscle health are needed to advance research and clinical care. In this prospective, blinded study, 27 patients underwent quantitative muscle ultrasound (QMUS), standard electrical impedance myography (sEIM), and handheld electrical impedance myography (hEIM) of the anterior thigh musculature by two independent examiners. Subjects also had dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans and standardized tests of physical function and strength. Data were analyzed for intra- and inter-rater reliability, along with correlations with DEXA and physical measures. Measures of intra- and inter-rater reliability were excellent (>0.90) for all QMUS, sEIM, and hEIM parameters except intra-rater reliability of rectus femoris echointensity (0.87-0.89). There were moderate, inverse correlations between QMUS, sEIM, and hEIM parameters and measures of knee extensor strength. Moderate to strong correlations (0.57-0.81) were noted between investigational measures and DEXA-measured fat mass. QMUS, sEIM and hEIM were highly reliable in a controlled, same-day testing protocol. Multiple correlations with measures of strength and body composition were noted for each method. Point-of-care technologies may provide an alternative means of measuring health.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics3040092DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6371147PMC
December 2018

A 1-Month Physical Therapy-Based Outpatient Program for Adults Awaiting Lung Transplantation: A Retrospective Analysis of Exercise Capacity, Symptoms, and Quality of Life.

Cardiopulm Phys Ther J 2019 Apr;30(2):61-69

Duke University School of Medicine, Departments of Orthopaedic Surgery, Medicine, Cell Biology.

Purpose: Rehabilitation can improve health outcomes in candidates for lung transplantation. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the effect of a one-month physical therapy (PT)-based outpatient program on exercise capacity, symptoms, quality of life and examine predictors of functional outcome changes in adults awaiting lung transplantation.

Methods: Participants (n=141) completed a 23-session exercise and educational program over one month. Outcomes included 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), San Diego Shortness of Breath Questionnaire (SOBQ), Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CESD), and Ferrans and Powers Quality of Life Index Pulmonary Version III (QOL).

Results: Participants were older (median age 63) with restrictive (59%) or obstructive (24%) disease. Moderate-to-large improvements in 6MWD were observed (69 m, < 0.001, d = 0.72), independent of demographics, symptoms, and QOL. Lower initial 6MWD and lower oxygen utilization were associated with greater 6MWD improvements, with largest gains occurring in initial 6MWD < 305 m. Small-to-moderate improvements were observed on CESD ( < 0.001, d = 0.26) and in overall QOL ( < 0.001, d = 0.27), with a non-significant improvement observed on SOBQ ( = 0.248, d = 0.13).

Conclusions: Completion of a one-month PT-based outpatient rehabilitation program was associated with improved exercise capacity, depressive symptoms and QOL.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CPT.0000000000000087DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6456901PMC
April 2019

Physical Function, Frailty, Cognition, Depression, and Quality of Life in Hospitalized Adults ≥60 Years With Acute Decompensated Heart Failure With Preserved Versus Reduced Ejection Fraction.

Circ Heart Fail 2018 11;11(11):e005254

Department of Medicine, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (D.J.W., G.R.R.).

Background: Older hospitalized acute decompensated heart failure (HF) patients have persistently poor outcomes and delayed recovery regardless of ejection fraction (EF). We hypothesized that impairments in physical function, frailty, cognition, mood, and quality of life (QoL) potentially contributing to poor clinical outcomes would be similarly severe in acute decompensated HF patients ≥60 years of age with preserved versus reduced EF (HFpEF and HFrEF).

Methods And Results: In 202 consecutive older (≥60 years) hospitalized acute decompensated HF patients in a multicenter trial, we prospectively performed at baseline: short physical performance battery, 6-minute walk distance, frailty assessment, Geriatric Depression Scale, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and QoL assessments. Older acute decompensated HFpEF (EF ≥45%, n=96) and HFrEF (EF <45%, n=106) patients had similar impairments in all physical function measures (short physical performance battery [5.9±0.3 versus 6.2±0.2]; 6-minute walk distance [184±10 versus 186±9 m]; and gait speed [0.60±0.02 versus 0.61±0.02 m/s]) and rates of frailty (55% versus 52%; P=0.70) and cognitive impairment (77% versus 81%; P=0.56) when adjusted for differences in sex, body mass index, and comorbidities. However, depression and QoL were consistently worse in HFpEF versus HFrEF. Depression was usually unrecognized clinically with 38% having Geriatric Depression Scale ≥5 and no documented history of depression.

Conclusions: Patients ≥60 years hospitalized with acute decompensated HF patients have broad, marked impairments in physical function and high rates of frailty and impaired cognition: these impairments are similar in HFpEF versus HFrEF. Further, depression was common and QoL was reduced, and both were worse in HFpEF than HFrEF. Depression was usually unrecognized clinically. These findings suggest opportunities for novel interventions to improve these important patient-centered outcomes.

Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT02196038.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.118.005254DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6380360PMC
November 2018

COMPASS-CP: An Electronic Application to Capture Patient-Reported Outcomes to Develop Actionable Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack Care Plans.

Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2018 08;11(8):e004444

Department of Neurology (P.W.D., R.M.A., C.N.C., S.L.L., M.E.S., C.D.B.).

Background Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are clinical tools that measure patients' goals of care and assess patient-reported physical, mental, and social well-being. Despite their value in advancing patient-centered care, routine use of PROs in stroke management has lagged. As part of the pragmatic COMPASS (Comprehensive Post-Acute Stroke Services) trial, we developed COMPASS-Care Plan (CP), a clinician-facing application that captures and analyzes PROs for stroke and transient ischemic attack patients discharged home and immediately generates individualized electronic CP. In this report, we (1) present our methods for developing and implementing COMPASS-CP PROs, (2) provide examples of CP generated from COMPASS-CP, (3) describe key functional, social, and behavioral determinants of health captured by COMPASS-CP, and (4) report on clinician experience with using COMPASS-CP in routine clinical practice for care planning and engagement of stroke and transient ischemic attack patients discharged home. Methods and Results We report on the first 871 patients enrolled in 20 North Carolina hospitals randomized to the intervention arm of COMPASS between July 2016 and February 2018; these patients completed a COMPASS follow-up visit within 14 days of hospital discharge. We also report user satisfaction results from 56 clinicians who used COMPASS-CP during these visits. COMPASS-CP identified more cognitive and depression deficits than physical deficits. Within 14-day posthospitalization, less than half of patients could list the major risk factors for stroke, 36% did not recognize blood pressure as a stroke risk factor, and 19% of patients were nonadherent with prescribed medications. Three-fourths of clinicians reported that COMPASS-CP identifies important factors impacting patients' recovery that they otherwise may have missed, and two-thirds were highly satisfied with COMPASS-CP. Conclusions The COMPASS-CP application meets an immediate need to incorporate PROs into the clinical workflow to develop patient-centered CP for stroke patients and has high user satisfaction. Clinical Trial Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT02588664.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.117.004444DOI Listing
August 2018

Commentary: Central-acting therapeutics alleviate respiratory weakness caused by heart failure-induced ventilatory overdrive.

Front Physiol 2018 23;9:554. Epub 2018 May 23.

Duke University School of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2018.00554DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5975101PMC
May 2018

A Person-Centered Approach to Poststroke Care: The COMprehensive Post-Acute Stroke Services Model.

J Am Geriatr Soc 2018 05 23;66(5):1025-1030. Epub 2018 Mar 23.

Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

Many individuals who have had a stroke leave the hospital without postacute care services in place. Despite high risks of complications and readmission, there is no standard in the United States for postacute stroke care after discharge home. We describe the rationale and methods for the development of the COMprehensive Post-Acute Stroke Services (COMPASS) care model and the structure and quality metrics used for implementation. COMPASS, an innovative, comprehensive extension of the TRAnsition Coaching for Stroke (TRACS) program, is a clinician-led quality improvement model providing early supported discharge and transitional care for individuals who have had a stroke and have been discharged home. The effectiveness of the COMPASS model is being assessed in a cluster-randomized pragmatic trial in 41 sites across North Carolina, with a recruitment goal of 6,000 participants. The COMPASS model is evidence based, person centered, and stakeholder driven. It involves identification and education of eligible individuals in the hospital; telephone follow-up 2, 30, and 60 days after discharge; and a clinic visit within 14 days conducted by a nurse and advanced practice provider. Patient and caregiver self-reported assessments of functional and social determinants of health are captured during the clinic visit using a web-based application. Embedded algorithms immediately construct an individualized care plan. The COMPASS model's pragmatic design and quality metrics may support measurable best practices for postacute stroke care.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jgs.15322DOI Listing
May 2018

Strategies for supporting intervention fidelity in the rehabilitation therapy in older acute heart failure patients (REHAB-HF) trial.

Contemp Clin Trials 2018 01 25;64:118-127. Epub 2017 Oct 25.

Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: Acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) is the leading cause of hospitalization in older adults. Rehabilitation Therapy in Older Acute Heart Failure Patients (REHAB-HF) trial is a multi-site clinical trial to determine if physical rehabilitation intervention in older patients with ADHF improves physical function and reduces rehospitalizations. The REHAB-HF intervention aims to improve functional performance utilizing reproducible and progressive exercises that are individually tailored to the patient's physiological and physical capabilities. Fidelity of the intervention is essential to the trial's integrity and success. Maintaining fidelity is challenged by the complex, multi-domain design of the intervention implemented across multiple sites and delivered to an older, heterogeneous participant pool with severe underlying disease and multi-morbidity.

Methods/design: Given the dynamic nature of the REHAB-HF intervention, rigorous fidelity strategies were formulated. In this paper we summarize the specific strategies that REHAB-HF is using to meet the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Behavior Change Consortium Treatment Fidelity Workgroup recommendations in 5 key areas: 1) ensuring the intervention dose is consistent across participants, 2) standardizing interventionist training, 3) monitoring intervention delivery, 4) evaluating participants' understanding of information provided, and 5) ensuring that participants use the skills taught in the intervention.

Discussion: Effective intervention fidelity strategies are essential to the reliability and validity of physical function intervention trials. The REHAB-HF trial has developed comprehensive, specific strategies to ensure intervention fidelity despite a challenging study population and a complex intervention to meet NIH recommendations. This experience provides a strong working model for future physical function intervention trials.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cct.2017.10.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5742023PMC
January 2018

The Comprehensive Post-Acute Stroke Services (COMPASS) study: design and methods for a cluster-randomized pragmatic trial.

BMC Neurol 2017 Jul 17;17(1):133. Epub 2017 Jul 17.

American Heart Association, 3131 RDU Center Drive, Suite 100, Morrisville, NC, 27560, USA.

Background: Patients discharged home after stroke face significant challenges managing residual neurological deficits, secondary prevention, and pre-existing chronic conditions. Post-discharge care is often fragmented leading to increased healthcare costs, readmissions, and sub-optimal utilization of rehabilitation and community services. The COMprehensive Post-Acute Stroke Services (COMPASS) Study is an ongoing cluster-randomized pragmatic trial to assess the effectiveness of a comprehensive, evidence-based, post-acute care model on patient-centered outcomes.

Methods: Forty-one hospitals in North Carolina were randomized (as 40 units) to either implement the COMPASS care model or continue their usual care. The recruitment goal is 6000 patients (3000 per arm). Hospital staff ascertain and enroll patients discharged home with a clinical diagnosis of stroke or transient ischemic attack. Patients discharged from intervention hospitals receive 2-day telephone follow-up; a comprehensive clinic visit within 2 weeks that includes a neurological evaluation, assessments of social and functional determinants of health, and an individualized COMPASS Care Plan™ integrated with a community-specific resource database; and additional follow-up calls at 30 and 60 days post-stroke discharge. This model is consistent with the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services transitional care management services provided by physicians or advanced practice providers with support from a nurse to conduct patient assessments and coordinate follow-up services. Patients discharged from usual care hospitals represent the control group and receive the standard of care in place at that hospital. Patient-centered outcomes are collected from telephone surveys administered at 90 days. The primary endpoint is patient-reported functional status as measured by the Stroke Impact Scale 16. Secondary outcomes are: caregiver strain, all-cause readmissions, mortality, healthcare utilization, and medication adherence. The study engages patients, caregivers, and other stakeholders (including policymakers, advocacy groups, payers, and local community coalitions) to advise and support the design, implementation, and sustainability of the COMPASS care model.

Discussion: Given the high societal and economic burden of stroke, identifying a care model to improve recovery, independence, and quality of life is critical for stroke survivors and their caregivers. The pragmatic trial design provides a real-world assessment of the COMPASS care model effectiveness and will facilitate rapid implementation into clinical practice if successful.

Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02588664 ; October 23, 2015.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12883-017-0907-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5513078PMC
July 2017

Effects of Structured Exercise Interventions for Older Adults Hospitalized With Acute Medical Illness: A Systematic Review.

J Aging Phys Act 2018 04 30;26(2):284-303. Epub 2018 Mar 30.

This review examined effects of structured exercise (aerobic walking, with or without complementary modes of exercise) on cardiorespiratory measures, mobility, functional status, healthcare utilization, and quality of life in older adults (≥60 years) hospitalized for acute medical illness. Inclusion required exercise protocol, at least one patient-level or utilization outcome, and at least one physical assessment point during hospitalization or within 1 month of intervention. MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL databases were searched for studies published from 2000 to March 2015. Qualitative synthesis of 12 articles, reporting on 11 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-experimental trials described a heterogeneous set of exercise programs and reported mixed results across outcome categories. Methodological quality was independently assessed by two reviewers using the Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias tool. Larger, well-designed RCTs are needed, incorporating measurement of premorbid function, randomization with intention-to-treat analysis, examination of a targeted intervention with predefined intensity, and reported adherence and attrition.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/japa.2016-0372DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6276795PMC
April 2018

Rehabilitation Therapy in Older Acute Heart Failure Patients (REHAB-HF) trial: Design and rationale.

Am Heart J 2017 Mar 28;185:130-139. Epub 2016 Dec 28.

Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC.

Background: Acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) is a leading cause of hospitalization in older persons in the United States. Reduced physical function and frailty are major determinants of adverse outcomes in older patients with hospitalized ADHF. However, these are not addressed by current heart failure (HF) management strategies and there has been little study of exercise training in older, frail HF patients with recent ADHF.

Hypothesis: Targeting physical frailty with a multi-domain structured physical rehabilitation intervention will improve physical function and reduce adverse outcomes among older patients experiencing a HF hospitalization.

Study Design: REHAB-HF is a multi-center clinical trial in which 360 patients ≥60 years hospitalized with ADHF will be randomized either to a novel 12-week multi-domain physical rehabilitation intervention or to attention control. The goal of the intervention is to improve balance, mobility, strength and endurance utilizing reproducible, targeted exercises administered by a multi-disciplinary team with specific milestones for progression. The primary study aim is to assess the efficacy of the REHAB-HF intervention on physical function measured by total Short Physical Performance Battery score. The secondary outcome is 6-month all-cause rehospitalization. Additional outcome measures include quality of life and costs.

Conclusions: REHAB-HF is the first randomized trial of a physical function intervention in older patients with hospitalized ADHF designed to determine if addressing deficits in balance, mobility, strength and endurance improves physical function and reduces rehospitalizations. It will address key evidence gaps concerning the role of physical rehabilitation in the care of older patients, those with ADHF, frailty, and multiple comorbidities.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2016.12.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5341700PMC
March 2017

Promoting Older Adult Physical Activity Throughout Care Transitions Using an Interprofessional Approach.

J Nurse Pract 2017 Jan 7;13(1):64-71.e2. Epub 2017 Jan 7.

assistant professor at Duke University School of Medicine.

The nurse practitioner plays a key role in monitoring and improving physical activity and function of older adults. Physical activity is an essential component of care management for all older adults, even those who are frail with multimorbidities. All physical activity, no matter how small, has the potential to impact functional independence and quality of life. Partnering with the older adult and caregivers along with interprofessional providers, such as a physical therapist or occupational therapist and community-based resources, facilitates the development of successful goals and plans and the implementation of activities to promote physical activity across the continuum of care.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nurpra.2016.08.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8221589PMC
January 2017

Comparison of Frequency of Frailty and Severely Impaired Physical Function in Patients ≥60 Years Hospitalized With Acute Decompensated Heart Failure Versus Chronic Stable Heart Failure With Reduced and Preserved Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction.

Am J Cardiol 2016 Jun 6;117(12):1953-8. Epub 2016 Apr 6.

Department of Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, North Carolina. Electronic address:

Older patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) have persistently poor outcomes including frequent rehospitalization despite guidelines-based therapy. We hypothesized that such patients have multiple, severe impairments in physical function, cognition, and mood that are not addressed by current care pathways. We prospectively examined frailty, physical function, cognition, mood, and quality of life in 27 consecutive older patients with ADHF at 3 medical centers and compared these with 197 participants in 3 age-matched cohorts: stable heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (n = 80), stable HF with reduced ejection fraction (n = 56), and healthy older adults (n = 61). Based on Fried criteria, frailty was present in 56% of patients with ADHF versus 0 for the age-matched chronic HF and health cohorts. Patients with ADHF had markedly reduced Short Physical Performance Battery score (5.3 ± 2.8) and 6-minute walk distance (178 ± 102 m) (p <0.001 vs other cohorts), with severe deficits in all domains of physical function: balance, mobility, strength, and endurance. In the patients with ADHF, cognitive impairment (78%) and depression (30%) were common, and quality of life was poor. In conclusion, older patients with ADHF are frequently frail with severe and widespread impairments in physical function, cognition, mood, and quality of life that may contribute to their persistently poor outcomes, are frequently unrecognized, are not addressed in current ADHF care paradigms, and are potentially modifiable with targeted interventions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2016.03.046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4943325PMC
June 2016
-->