Publications by authors named "Amy L Boore"

5 Publications

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Early cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Uganda: epidemiology and lessons learned from risk-based testing approaches - March-April 2020.

Global Health 2020 11 25;16(1):114. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Uganda Public Health Fellowship Program, Ministry of Health, Kampala, Uganda.

Background: On March 13, 2020, Uganda instituted COVID-19 symptom screening at its international airport, isolation and SARS-CoV-2 testing for symptomatic persons, and mandatory 14-day quarantine and testing of persons traveling through or from high-risk countries. On March 21, 2020, Uganda reported its first SARS-CoV-2 infection in a symptomatic traveler from Dubai. By April 12, 2020, 54 cases and 1257 contacts were identified. We describe the epidemiological, clinical, and transmission characteristics of these cases.

Methods: A confirmed case was laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection during March 21-April 12, 2020 in a resident of or traveler to Uganda. We reviewed case-person files and interviewed case-persons at isolation centers. We identified infected contacts from contact tracing records.

Results: Mean case-person age was 35 (±16) years; 34 (63%) were male. Forty-five (83%) had recently traveled internationally ('imported cases'), five (9.3%) were known contacts of travelers, and four (7.4%) were community cases. Of the 45 imported cases, only one (2.2%) was symptomatic at entry. Among all case-persons, 29 (54%) were symptomatic at testing and five (9.3%) were pre-symptomatic. Among the 34 (63%) case-persons who were ever symptomatic, all had mild disease: 16 (47%) had fever, 13 (38%) reported headache, and 10 (29%) reported cough. Fifteen (28%) case-persons had underlying conditions, including three persons with HIV. An average of 31 contacts (range, 4-130) were identified per case-person. Five (10%) case-persons, all symptomatic, infected one contact each.

Conclusion: The first 54 case-persons with SARS-CoV-2 infection in Uganda primarily comprised incoming air travelers with asymptomatic or mild disease. Disease would likely not have been detected in these persons without the targeted testing interventions implemented in Uganda. Transmission was low among symptomatic persons and nonexistent from asymptomatic persons. Routine, systematic screening of travelers and at-risk persons, and thorough contact tracing will be needed for Uganda to maintain epidemic control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12992-020-00643-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7686950PMC
November 2020

Building Global Epidemiology and Response Capacity with Field Epidemiology Training Programs.

Emerg Infect Dis 2017 12;23(13)

More than ever, competent field epidemiologists are needed worldwide. As known, new, and resurgent communicable diseases increase their global impact, the International Health Regulations and the Global Health Security Agenda call for sufficient field epidemiologic capacity in every country to rapidly detect, respond to, and contain public health emergencies, thereby ensuring global health security. To build this capacity, for >35 years the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has worked with countries around the globe to develop Field Epidemiology Training Programs (FETPs). FETP trainees conduct surveillance activities and outbreak investigations in service to ministry of health programs to prevent and control infectious diseases of global health importance such as polio, cholera, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, malaria, and emerging zoonotic infectious diseases. FETP graduates often rise to positions of leadership to direct such programs. By training competent epidemiologists to manage public health events locally and support public health systems nationally, health security is enhanced globally.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2313.170509DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5711325PMC
December 2017

Legal and regulatory framework for health worker retention in Mozambique: Public health law research to strengthen health systems and services.

J Public Health Policy 2016 08 26;37(3):369-384. Epub 2016 May 26.

U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Maputo, Mozambique.

Realizing the fundamental contribution of human resources to public health, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued policy recommendations for health worker retention. We reviewed Mozambique's laws and regulations and assessed the extent to which this legal and regulatory framework governing public sector health workers aligns with the WHO health worker retention recommendations. We provide guidance for future analysis of non-binding policies that may fill gaps identified in our review. We also indicate how to link legal analysis to the cycle by which research informs policy, policy informs practice, and practice leads to improvements in health systems and population health. Finally, we demonstrate the relevance of understanding and analyzing the impact of domestic laws on global health. Future research should assess implementation of health worker allowances and any associations with increased hiring, more equitable distribution, and improved retention - all are essential to public health in Mozambique.Journal of Public Health Policy advance online publication, 26 May 2016; doi:10.1057/jphp.2016.22.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/jphp.2016.22DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5124410PMC
August 2016

Salmonella enterica Infections in the United States and Assessment of Coefficients of Variation: A Novel Approach to Identify Epidemiologic Characteristics of Individual Serotypes, 1996-2011.

PLoS One 2015 23;10(12):e0145416. Epub 2015 Dec 23.

Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, 30333, United States of America.

Background: Despite control efforts, salmonellosis continues to cause an estimated 1.2 million infections in the United States (US) annually. We describe the incidence of salmonellosis in the US and introduce a novel approach to examine the epidemiologic similarities and differences of individual serotypes.

Methods: Cases of salmonellosis in humans reported to the laboratory-based National Salmonella Surveillance System during 1996-2011 from US states were included. Coefficients of variation were used to describe distribution of incidence rates of common Salmonella serotypes by geographic region, age group and sex of patient, and month of sample isolation.

Results: During 1996-2011, more than 600,000 Salmonella isolates from humans were reported, with an average annual incidence of 13.1 cases/100,000 persons. The annual reported rate of Salmonella infections did not decrease during the study period. The top five most commonly reported serotypes, Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Newport, Heidelberg, and Javiana, accounted for 62% of fully serotyped isolates. Coefficients of variation showed the most geographically concentrated serotypes were often clustered in Gulf Coast states and were also more frequently found to be increasing in incidence. Serotypes clustered in particular months, age groups, and sex were also identified and described.

Conclusions: Although overall incidence rates of Salmonella did not change over time, trends and epidemiological factors differed remarkably by serotype. A better understanding of Salmonella, facilitated by this comprehensive description of overall trends and unique characteristics of individual serotypes, will assist in responding to this disease and in planning and implementing prevention activities.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0145416PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4689500PMC
August 2016

2008 outbreak of Salmonella Saintpaul infections associated with raw produce.

N Engl J Med 2011 Mar 23;364(10):918-27. Epub 2011 Feb 23.

National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA.

Background: Raw produce is an increasingly recognized vehicle for salmonellosis. We investigated a nationwide outbreak that occurred in the United States in 2008.

Methods: We defined a case as diarrhea in a person with laboratory-confirmed infection with the outbreak strain of Salmonella enterica serotype Saintpaul. Epidemiologic, traceback, and environmental studies were conducted.

Results: Among the 1500 case subjects, 21% were hospitalized, and 2 died. In three case-control studies of cases not linked to restaurant clusters, illness was significantly associated with eating raw tomatoes (matched odds ratio, 5.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6 to 30.3); eating at a Mexican-style restaurant (matched odds ratio, 4.6; 95% CI, 2.1 to ∞) and eating pico de gallo salsa (matched odds ratio, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.5 to 17.8), corn tortillas (matched odds ratio, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.2 to 5.0), or salsa (matched odds ratio, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.1 to 3.9); and having a raw jalapeño pepper in the household (matched odds ratio, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.2 to 7.6). In nine analyses of clusters associated with restaurants or events, jalapeño peppers were implicated in all three clusters with implicated ingredients, and jalapeño or serrano peppers were an ingredient in an implicated item in the other three clusters. Raw tomatoes were an ingredient in an implicated item in three clusters. The outbreak strain was identified in jalapeño peppers collected in Texas and in agricultural water and serrano peppers on a Mexican farm. Tomato tracebacks did not converge on a source.

Conclusions: Although an epidemiologic association with raw tomatoes was identified early in this investigation, subsequent epidemiologic and microbiologic evidence implicated jalapeño and serrano peppers. This outbreak highlights the importance of preventing raw-produce contamination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1005741DOI Listing
March 2011
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