Publications by authors named "Amy Kolwaite"

10 Publications

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Evaluation of a Clinical Decision Support Strategy to Increase Seasonal Influenza Vaccination Among Hospitalized Children Before Inpatient Discharge.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 07 1;4(7):e2117809. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia.

Importance: Hospitalized children are at increased risk of influenza-related complications, yet influenza vaccine coverage remains low among this group. Evidence-based strategies about vaccination of vulnerable children during all health care visits are especially important during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Objective: To design and evaluate a clinical decision support (CDS) strategy to increase the proportion of eligible hospitalized children who receive a seasonal influenza vaccine prior to inpatient discharge.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This quality improvement study was conducted among children eligible for the seasonal influenza vaccine who were hospitalized in a tertiary pediatric health system providing care to more than half a million patients annually in 3 hospitals. The study used a sequential crossover design from control to intervention and compared hospitalizations in the intervention group (2019-2020 season with the use of an intervention order set) with concurrent controls (2019-2020 season without use of an intervention order set) and historical controls (2018-2019 season with use of an order set that underwent intervention during the 2019-2020 season).

Interventions: A CDS intervention was developed through a user-centered design process, including (1) placing a default influenza vaccine order into admission order sets for eligible patients, (2) a script to offer the vaccine using a presumptive strategy, and (3) just-in-time education for clinicians addressing vaccine eligibility in the influenza order group with links to further reference material. The intervention was rolled out in a stepwise fashion during the 2019-2020 influenza season.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Proportion of eligible hospitalizations in which 1 or more influenza vaccines were administered prior to discharge.

Results: Among 17 740 hospitalizations (9295 boys [52%]), the mean (SD) age was 8.0 (6.0) years, and the patients were predominantly Black (n = 8943 [50%]) or White (n = 7559 [43%]) and mostly had public insurance (n = 11 274 [64%]). There were 10 997 hospitalizations eligible for the influenza vaccine in the 2019-2020 season. Of these, 5449 (50%) were in the intervention group, and 5548 (50%) were concurrent controls. There were 6743 eligible hospitalizations in 2018-2019 that served as historical controls. Vaccine administration rates were 31% (n = 1676) in the intervention group, 19% (n = 1051) in concurrent controls, and 14% (n = 912) in historical controls (P < .001). In adjusted analyses, the odds of receiving the influenza vaccine were 3.25 (95% CI, 2.94-3.59) times higher in the intervention group and 1.28 (95% CI, 1.15-1.42) times higher in concurrent controls than in historical controls.

Conclusions And Relevance: This quality improvement study suggests that user-centered CDS may be associated with significantly improved influenza vaccination rates among hospitalized children. Stepwise implementation of CDS interventions was a practical method that was used to increase quality improvement rigor through comparison with historical and concurrent controls.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.17809DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8299313PMC
July 2021

Molecular epidemiology of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales in Thailand, 2016-2018.

Antimicrob Resist Infect Control 2021 06 5;10(1):88. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

National Institute of Health, Department of Medical Sciences, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand.

Background: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) is a global threat. Enterobacterales develops carbapenem resistance through several mechanisms, including the production of carbapenemases. We aim to describe the prevalence of Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) with and without carbapenemase production and distribution of carbapenemase-producing (CP) genes in Thailand using 2016-2018 data from a national antimicrobial resistance surveillance system developed by the Thailand National Institute of Health (NIH).

Methods: CRE was defined as any Enterobacterales resistant to ertapenem, imipenem, or meropenem. Starting in 2016, 25 tertiary care hospitals from the five regions of Thailand submitted the first CRE isolate from each specimen type and patient admission to Thailand NIH, accompanied by a case report form with patient information. NIH performed confirmatory identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing and performed multiplex polymerase chain reaction testing to detect CP-genes. Using 2016-2018 data, we calculated proportions of CP-CRE, stratified by specimen type, organism, and CP-gene using SAS 9.4.

Results: Overall, 4,296 presumed CRE isolates were submitted to Thailand NIH; 3,946 (93%) were confirmed CRE. Urine (n = 1622, 41%) and sputum (n = 1380, 35%) were the most common specimen types, while blood only accounted for 323 (8%) CRE isolates. The most common organism was Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 2660, 72%), followed by Escherichia coli (n = 799, 22%). The proportion of CP-CRE was high for all organism types (range: 85-98%). Of all CRE isolates, 2909 (80%) had one CP-gene and 629 (17%) had > 1 CP-gene. New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM) was the most common CP-gene, present in 2392 (65%) CRE isolates. K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) and Verona integron-encoded metallo-β-lactamase (VIM) genes were not detected among any isolates.

Conclusion: CP genes were found in a high proportion (97%) of CRE isolates from hospitals across Thailand. The prevalence of NDM and OXA-48-like genes in Thailand is consistent with pattern seen in Southeast Asia, but different from that in the United States and other regions. As carbapenemase testing is not routinely performed in Thailand, hospital staff should consider treating all patients with CRE with enhanced infection control measures; in line with CDC recommendation for enhanced infection control measures for CP-CRE because of their high propensity to spread.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13756-021-00950-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8180034PMC
June 2021

Core components of infection prevention and control programs at the facility level in Georgia: key challenges and opportunities.

Antimicrob Resist Infect Control 2021 02 24;10(1):39. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

International Infection Control Program, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA.

Background: The Georgia Ministry of Labor, Health, and Social Affairs is working to strengthen its Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) Program, but until recently has lacked an assessment of performance gaps and implementation challenges faced by hospital staff.

Methods: In 2018, health care hospitals were assessed using a World Health Organization (WHO) adapted tool aimed at implementing the WHO's IPC Core Components. The study included site assessments at 41 of Georgia's 273 hospitals, followed by structured interviews with 109 hospital staff, validation observations of IPC practices, and follow up document reviews.

Results: IPC programs for all hospitals were not comprehensive, with many lacking defined objectives, workplans, targets, and budget. All hospitals had at least one dedicated IPC staff member, 66% of hospitals had IPC staff with some formal IPC training; 78% of hospitals had IPC guidelines; and 55% had facility-specific standard operating procedures. None of the hospitals conducted structured monitoring of IPC compliance and only 44% of hospitals used IPC monitoring results to make unit/facility-specific IPC improvement plans. 54% of hospitals had clearly defined priority healthcare-associated infections (HAIs), standard case definitions and data collection methods in their HAI surveillance systems. 85% hospitals had access to a microbiology laboratory. All reported having posters or other tools to promote hand hygiene, 29% had them for injection safety. 68% of hospitals had functioning hand-hygiene stations available at all points of care. 88% had single patient isolation rooms; 15% also had rooms for cohorting patients. 71% reported having appropriate waste management system.

Conclusions: Among the recommended WHO IPC core components, existing programs, infrastructure, IPC staffing, workload and supplies present within Georgian healthcare hospitals should allow for implementation of effective IPC. Development and dissemination of IPC Guidelines, implementation of an effective IPC training system and systematic monitoring of IPC practices will be an important first step towards implementing targeted IPC improvement plans in hospitals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13756-020-00879-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7903395PMC
February 2021

An innovative quality improvement approach for rapid improvement of infection prevention and control at health facilities in Sierra Leone.

Int J Qual Health Care 2020 Apr;32(2):85-92

ICAP, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.

Quality Challenge: The Sierra Leone (SL) Ministry of Health and Sanitation's National Infection Prevention and Control Unit (NIPCU) launched National Infection and Prevention Control (IPC) Policy and Guidelines in 2015, but a 2017 assessment found suboptimal compliance with standards on environmental cleanliness (EC), waste disposal (WD) and personal protective equipment (PPE) use.

Methods: ICAP at Columbia University (ICAP), NIPCU and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) designed and implemented a Rapid Improvement Model (RIM) quality improvement (QI) initiative with a compressed timeframe of 6 months to improve EC, WD and PPE at eight purposively selected health facilities (HFs). Targets were collaboratively developed, and a 37-item checklist was designed to monitor performance. HF teams received QI training and weekly coaching and convened monthly to review progress and exchange best practices. At the final learning session, a "harvest package" of the most effective ideas and tools was developed for use at additional HFs.

Results: The RIM resulted in marked improvement in WD and EC performance and modest improvement in PPE. Aggregate compliance for the 37 indicators increased from 67 to 96% over the course of 4 months, with all HFs showing improvement. Average PPE compliance improved from 85 to 89%, WD from 63 to 99% and EC from 51 to 99%.

Lessons Learned: The RIM QIC approach is feasible and effective in SL's austere health system and led to marked improvement in IPC performance. The best practices are being scaled up and the RIM QIC methodology is being applied to other domains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/intqhc/mzz137DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7186777PMC
April 2020

Creation of a national infection prevention and control programme in Sierra Leone, 2015.

BMJ Glob Health 2019 22;4(3):e001504. Epub 2019 May 22.

Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Prior to the 2014-2016 Ebola epidemic, Sierra Leone's Ministry of Health and Sanitation had no infection prevention and control programme. High rates of Ebola virus disease transmission in healthcare facilities underscored the need for infection prevention and control in the healthcare system. The Ministry of Health and Sanitation led an effort among international partners to rapidly stand up a national infection prevention and control programme to decrease Ebola transmission in healthcare facilities and strengthen healthcare safety and quality. Leadership and ownership by the Ministry of Health and Sanitation was the catalyst for development of the programme, including the presence of an infection prevention and control champion within the ministry. A national policy and guidelines were drafted and approved to outline organisation and standards for the programme. Infection prevention and control focal persons were identified and embedded at public hospitals to manage implementation. The Ministry of Health and Sanitation and international partners initiated training for new infection prevention and control focal persons and committees. Monitoring systems to track infection prevention and control implementation were also established. This is a novel example of rapid development of a national infection prevention and control programme under challenging conditions. The approach to rapidly develop a national infection prevention and control programme in Sierra Leone may provide useful lessons for other programmes in countries or contexts starting from a low baseline for infection prevention and control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2019-001504DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6570974PMC
May 2019

Infection Prevention and Control for Ebola in Health Care Settings - West Africa and United States.

MMWR Suppl 2016 Jul 8;65(3):50-6. Epub 2016 Jul 8.

Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, CDC.

The 2014-2016 Ebola virus disease (Ebola) epidemic in West Africa underscores the need for health care infection prevention and control (IPC) practices to be implemented properly and consistently to interrupt transmission of pathogens in health care settings to patients and health care workers. Training and assessing IPC practices in general health care facilities not designated as Ebola treatment units or centers became a priority for CDC as the number of Ebola virus transmissions among health care workers in West Africa began to affect the West African health care system and increasingly more persons became infected. CDC and partners developed policies, procedures, and training materials tailored to the affected countries. Safety training courses were also provided to U.S. health care workers intending to work with Ebola patients in West Africa. As the Ebola epidemic continued in West Africa, the possibility that patients with Ebola could be identified and treated in the United States became more realistic. In response, CDC, other federal components (e.g., Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response) and public health partners focused on health care worker training and preparedness for U.S. health care facilities. CDC used the input from these partners to develop guidelines on IPC for hospitalized patients with known or suspected Ebola, which was updated based on feedback from partners who provided care for Ebola patients in the United States. Strengthening and sustaining IPC helps health care systems be better prepared to prevent and respond to current and future infectious disease threats.The activities summarized in this report would not have been possible without collaboration with many U.S. and international partners (http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/2014-west-africa/partners.html).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.su6503a8DOI Listing
July 2016

Hepatitis B vaccine stored outside the cold chain setting: a pilot study in rural Lao PDR.

Vaccine 2016 06 31;34(28):3324-30. Epub 2016 Mar 31.

Global Immunization Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, 30329, GA, USA.

Background: Hepatitis B vaccine birth dose (HepB-BD) was introduced in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao-PDR) to prevent perinatal hepatitis B virus transmission. HepB-BD, which is labeled for storage between 2 and 8°C, is not available at all health facilities, because of some lack of functional cold chain; however, previous studies show that HepB-BD is stable if stored outside the cold chain (OCC). A pilot study was conducted in Lao-PDR to evaluate impact of OCC policy on HepB-BD coverage.

Methods: During the six month pilot, HepB-BD was stored OCC for up to 28 days in two intervention districts and stored in cold chain in two comparison districts. In the intervention districts, healthcare workers were educated about HepB-BD and OCC storage. A post-pilot survey compared HepB-BD coverage among children born during the pilot (aged 2-8 months) and children born 1 year before (aged 14-20 months).

Findings: In the intervention districts, 388 children aged 2-8 months and 371 children aged 14-20 months were enrolled in the survey; in the comparison districts, 190 children aged 2-8 months and 184 children aged 14-20 months were enrolled. Compared with the pre-pilot cohort, a 27% median increase in HepB-BD (interquartile range [IQR] 58%, p<0.0001) occurred in the pilot cohort in the intervention districts, compared with a 0% median change (IQR 25%, p=0.03) in comparison districts. No adverse reactions were reported.

Interpretation: OCC storage improved HepB-BD coverage with no increase in adverse reactions. Findings can guide Lao-PDR on implementation and scale-up options of OCC policy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.03.080DOI Listing
June 2016

Progress toward prevention of transfusion-transmitted hepatitis B and hepatitis C infection--sub-Saharan Africa, 2000-2011.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2014 Jul;63(29):613-9

Infections with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are major causes of morbidity and mortality globally, primarily because of sequelae of chronic liver disease including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The risks for HBV and HCV transmission via blood transfusions have been described previously and are believed to be higher in countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Reducing the risk for transfusion-transmitted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), HBV, and HCV infection is a priority for international aid organizations, such as the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), the Global Fund to Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria, and Tuberculosis, and the World Health Organization (WHO). Over the last decade, PEPFAR and the Global Fund have supported blood safety programs in many sub-Saharan African countries with heavy burdens of HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), hepatitis, malaria, and maternal mortality. This report summarizes HBV- and HCV-related surveillance data reported by the blood transfusion services of WHO member states to WHO's Global Database on Blood Safety (GDBS) (4). It also evaluates the performance of blood safety programs in screening for HBV and HCV in 38 sub-Saharan Africa countries. Selected GDBS indicators were compared for the years 2000 and 2004 (referred to as the 2000/2004 period) and 2010 and 2011 (referred to as the 2010/2011 period). From 2000/2004 to 2010/2011, the median of the annual number of units donated per country increased, the number of countries screening at least 95% of blood donations for HBV and HCV increased, and the median of the national prevalence of HBV and HCV marker-reactive blood donations decreased. These findings suggest that during the past decade, more blood has been donated and screened for HBV and HCV, resulting in a safer blood supply. Investments in blood safety should be continued to further increase the availability and safety of blood products in sub-Saharan Africa.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5779426PMC
July 2014

Assessing functional needs sheltering in Pike County, Kentucky: using a community assessment for public health emergency response.

Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2013 Dec;7(6):597-602

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Objective: During 2009-2011, Pike County, Kentucky, experienced a series of severe weather events that resulted in property damage, insufficient potable water, and need for temporary shelters. A Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) survey was implemented for future planning. CASPER assesses household health status, preparedness level, and anticipated demand for shelters.

Methods: We used a 2-stage cluster sampling design to randomly select 210 representative households for in-person interviews. We estimated the proportion of households with children aged 2 years or younger; adults aged 65 years or older; and residents with chronic health conditions, visual impairments, physical limitations, and supplemental oxygen requirements.

Results: Of all households surveyed, 8% included children aged 2 years or younger, and 27% included adults aged 65 years or older. The most common chronic health conditions were heart disease (51%), diabetes (28%), lung disease (23%), and asthma (21%). Visual impairments were reported in 29% of households, physical limitations in 24%, and supplemental oxygen use in 12%.

Conclusions: Pike County residents should be encouraged to maintain an adequate supply of medications and copies of their prescriptions. Emergency response plans should include transportation for persons with physical limitations; and shelter plans should include sufficient medically trained staff and adequate supplies of infant formula, pharmaceuticals, and supplemental oxygen. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2013;7:597-602).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/dmp.2013.110DOI Listing
December 2013

The role of the GAVI Alliance in improving childhood hepatitis B vaccination in China: successes, lessons learned, and future global challenges.

Vaccine 2013 Dec 24;31 Suppl 9:J5-7. Epub 2013 Apr 24.

Division of Viral Hepatitis, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, United States.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.04.022DOI Listing
December 2013
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