Publications by authors named "Amy J Elliott"

56 Publications

The Role of Childhood Asthma in Obesity Development: A Nationwide U.S. Multi-cohort Study.

Epidemiology 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute, Boston MA Department of Pediatrics, Hackensack Meridian School of Medicine, Nutley NJ and the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY Department of Pediatrics, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC Department of Emergency Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN Departments of Pediatrics and Medicine, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO Nell Hodgson Woodruff School of Nursing and Department of Family & Preventive Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA Avera Research Institute, Sioux Falls, SD Kaiser Permanente Northern California Division of Research Department of Psychology The George Washington University, Washington, DC Department of Pediatrics, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States; Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA University of California, Davis, School of Medicine, CA Geisel School of Medicine, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH Department of Pediatrics & Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, WA Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior and Department of Pediatrics, Brown Alpert Medical School and Women and Infants Hospital, Providence, RI. Department of Education, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR Division of Pediatric Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY Department of Pediatrics, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR Division of Clinical Immunology, Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY Departments of Psychiatry, Psychology, Neuroscience and Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Rochester, NY Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonary Medicine, Department of PediatricsSt. Louis Children's Hospital, Washington University School of Medicine St. Louis, MO Departments of Pediatrics, Environmental Medicine and Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, NY Department of Environmental Medicine and Public Health, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY Department of Internal Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT Department of Biostatistics, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY.

Rationale: Asthma and obesity often co-occur. It has been hypothesized that asthma may contribute to childhood obesity onset.

Objectives: To determine if childhood asthma is associated with incident obesity and examine the role of asthma medication in this association.

Methods: We studied 8716 children between ages 6-18.5 years who were non-obese at study entry participating in 18 U.S. cohorts of the Environmental influences on Child Health Outcomes program (among 7299 children with complete covariate data mean [SD] study entry age=7.2 [1.6] years and follow-up=5.3 [3.1] years).

Measurements And Main Results: We defined asthma based on caregiver report of provider diagnosis. Incident obesity was defined as the first documented body mass index ≥95th percentile for age and sex following asthma status ascertainment. Over the study period, 26% of children had an asthma diagnosis and 11% developed obesity. Cox proportional hazards models with sex-specific baseline hazards were fitted to assess the association of asthma diagnosis with obesity incidence. Children with asthma had a 23% (95%CI: 4%, 44%) higher risk for subsequently developing obesity compared to those without asthma. A novel mediation analysis was also conducted to decompose the total asthma effect on obesity into pathways mediated and not mediated by asthma medication use. Use of asthma medication attenuated the total estimated effect of asthma on obesity by 64% (excess HR:-0.64 [95%CI:-1.05,-0.23]).

Conclusions: This nationwide study supports the hypothesis that childhood asthma is associated with later risk of obesity. Asthma medication may reduce this association and merits further investigation as a potential strategy for obesity prevention among children with asthma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/EDE.0000000000001421DOI Listing
September 2021

Disparities in Risks of Inadequate and Excessive Intake of Micronutrients during Pregnancy.

J Nutr 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Pediatrics, New York University Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Inadequate or excessive intake of micronutrients in pregnancy has potential to negatively impact maternal/offspring health outcomes.

Objective: The aim was to compare risks of inadequate or excessive micronutrient intake in diverse females with singleton pregnancies by strata of maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, and prepregnancy BMI.

Methods: Fifteen observational cohorts in the US Environmental influences on Child Health Outcomes (ECHO) Consortium assessed participant dietary intake with 24-h dietary recalls (n = 1910) or food-frequency questionnaires (n = 7891) from 1999-2019. We compared the distributions of usual intake of 19 micronutrients from food alone (15 cohorts; n = 9801) and food plus dietary supplements (10 cohorts with supplement data; n = 7082) to estimate the proportion with usual daily intakes below their age-specific daily Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), above their Adequate Intake (AI), and above their Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL), overall and within sociodemographic and anthropometric subgroups.

Results: Risk of inadequate intake from food alone ranged from 0% to 87%, depending on the micronutrient and assessment methodology. When dietary supplements were included, some women were below the EAR for vitamin D (20-38%), vitamin E (17-22%), and magnesium (39-41%); some women were above the AI for vitamin K (63-75%), choline (7%), and potassium (37-53%); and some were above the UL for folic acid (32-51%), iron (39-40%), and zinc (19-20%). Highest risks for inadequate intakes were observed among participants with age 14-18 y (6 nutrients), non-White race or Hispanic ethnicity (10 nutrients), less than a high school education (9 nutrients), or obesity (9 nutrients).

Conclusions: Improved diet quality is needed for most pregnant females. Even with dietary supplement use, >20% of participants were at risk of inadequate intake of ≥1 micronutrients, especially in some population subgroups. Pregnancy may be a window of opportunity to address disparities in micronutrient intake that could contribute to intergenerational health inequalities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxab273DOI Listing
September 2021

Regional and sociodemographic differences in average BMI among US children in the ECHO program.

Obesity (Silver Spring) 2021 Aug 31. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee, USA.

Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the association of individual-level characteristics (sex, race/ethnicity, birth weight, maternal education) with child BMI within each US Census region and variation in child BMI by region.

Methods: This study used pooled data from 25 prospective cohort studies. Region of residence (Northeast, Midwest, South, West) was based on residential zip codes. Age- and sex-specific BMI z scores were the outcome.

Results: The final sample included 14,313 children with 85,428 BMI measurements, 49% female and 51% non-Hispanic White. Males had a lower average BMI z score compared with females in the Midwest (β = -0.12, 95% CI: -0.19 to -0.05) and West (β = -0.12, 95% CI: -0.20 to -0.04). Compared with non-Hispanic White children, BMI z score was generally higher among children who were Hispanic and Black but not across all regions. Compared with the Northeast, average BMI z score was significantly higher in the Midwest (β = 0.09, 95% CI: 0.05-0.14) and lower in the South (β = -0.12, 95% CI: -0.16 to -0.08) and West (β = -0.14, 95% CI: -0.19 to -0.09) after adjustment for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and birth weight.

Conclusions: Region of residence was associated with child BMI z scores, even after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics. Understanding regional influences can inform targeted efforts to mitigate BMI-related disparities among children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/oby.23235DOI Listing
August 2021

Association of Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Drinking and Smoking With the Risk of Stillbirth.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Aug 2;4(8):e2121726. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Pathology, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts.

Importance: Prenatal smoking is a known modifiable risk factor for stillbirth; however, the contribution of prenatal drinking or the combination of smoking and drinking is uncertain.

Objective: To examine whether prenatal exposure to alcohol and tobacco cigarettes is associated with the risk of stillbirth.

Design, Setting, And Participants: The Safe Passage Study was a longitudinal, prospective cohort study with data collection conducted between August 1, 2007, and January 31, 2015. Pregnant women from Cape Town, South Africa, and the Northern Plains region of the US were recruited and followed up throughout pregnancy. Data analysis was performed from November 1, 2018, to November 20, 2020.

Exposure: Maternal consumption of alcohol and tobacco cigarettes in the prenatal period.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The main outcomes were stillbirth, defined as fetal death at 20 or more weeks' gestation, and late stillbirth, defined as fetal death at 28 or more weeks' gestation. Self-reported alcohol and tobacco cigarette consumption was captured at the recruitment interview and up to 3 scheduled visits during pregnancy. Participants were followed up during pregnancy to obtain delivery outcome.

Results: Of 11663 pregnancies (mean [SD] gestational age at enrollment, 18.6 [6.6] weeks) in 8506 women for whom the pregnancy outcome was known by 20 weeks' gestation or later and who did not terminate their pregnancies, there were 145 stillbirths (12.4 per 1000 pregnancies) and 82 late stillbirths (7.1 per 1000 pregnancies). A total of 59% of pregnancies were in women from South Africa, 59% were in multiracial women, 23% were in White women, 17% were in American Indian women, and 0.9% were in women of other races. A total of 8% were older than 35 years. In 51% of pregnancies, women reported no alcohol or tobacco cigarette exposure (risk of stillbirth, 4 per 1000 pregnancies). After the first trimester, 18% drank and smoked (risk of stillbirth, 15 per 1000 births), 9% drank only (risk of stillbirth, 10 per 1000 pregnancies), and 22% smoked only (risk of stillbirth, 8 per 1000 pregnancies). Compared with the reference group (pregnancies not prenatally exposed or without any exposure after the first trimester), the adjusted relative risk of late stillbirth was 2.78 (98.3% CI, 1.12-6.67) for pregnancies prenatally exposed to drinking and smoking, 2.22 (98.3% CI, 0.78-6.18) for pregnancies prenatally exposed to drinking only after the first trimester, and 1.60 (98.3% CI, 0.64-3.98) for pregnancies prenatally exposed to smoking only after the first trimester. The adjusted relative risk for all stillbirths was 1.75 (98.3% CI, 0.96-3.18) for dual exposure, 1.26 (98.3% CI, 0.58-2.74) for drinking only, and 1.27 (98.3% CI, 0.69-2.35) for smoking only compared with the reference group.

Conclusions And Relevance: These results suggest that combined drinking and smoking after the first trimester of pregnancy, compared with no exposure or quitting before the end of the first trimester, may be associated with a significantly increased risk of late stillbirth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.21726DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8383134PMC
August 2021

Effects of Prenatal Exposure to Alcohol and Smoking on Fetal Heart Rate and Movement Regulation.

Front Physiol 2021 30;12:594605. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY, United States.

Negative associations of prenatal tobacco and alcohol exposure (PTE and PAE) on birth outcomes and childhood development have been well documented, but less is known about underlying mechanisms. A possible pathway for the adverse fetal outcomes associated with PTE and PAE is the alteration of fetal autonomic nervous system development. This study assessed PTE and PAE effects on measures of fetal autonomic regulation, as quantified by heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (SD-HR), movement, and HR-movement coupling in a population of fetuses at ≥ 34 weeks gestational age. Participants are a subset of the Safe Passage Study, a prospective cohort study that enrolled pregnant women from clinical sites in Cape Town, South Africa, and the Northern Plains region, United States. PAE was defined by six levels: no alcohol, low quit early, high quit early, low continuous, moderate continuous, and high continuous; while PTE by 4 levels: no smoking, quit early, low continuous, and moderate/high continuous. Linear regression analyses of autonomic measures were employed controlling for fetal sex, gestational age at assessment, site, maternal education, household crowding, and depression. Analyses were also stratified by sleep state (1F and 2F) and site (South Africa, = 4025, Northern Plains, = 2466). The final sample included 6491 maternal-fetal-dyad assessed in the third trimester [35.21 ± 1.26 (mean ± SD) weeks gestation]. PTE was associated with a decrease in mean HR in state 2F, in a dose dependent fashion, only for fetuses of mothers who continued smoking after the first trimester. In state 1F, there was a significant increase in mean HR in fetuses whose mother quit during the first trimester. This effect was driven by the Norther Plains cohort. PTE was also associated with a significant reduction in fetal movement in the most highly exposed group. In South Africa a significant increase in mean HR both for the high quit early and the high continuous group was observed. In conclusion, this investigation addresses a critical knowledge gap regarding the relationship between PTE and PAE and fetal autonomic regulation. We believe these results can contribute to elucidating mechanisms underlying risk for adverse outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.594605DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8363599PMC
July 2021

Prenatal phthalate exposure measurement: A comparison of metabolites quantified in prenatal maternal urine and newborn's meconium.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Nov 7;796:148898. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

AJ Drexel Autism Institute, Drexel University, 3020 Market St, Suite 560, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA; College of Health and Human Development, Pennsylvania State University, 325 HHD Building, University Park, PA 16802, USA.

Phthalates are chemicals suspected to adversely affect fetal neurodevelopment, but quantifying the fetal exposure is challenging. While prenatal phthalate exposure is commonly quantified in maternal urine, the newborn's meconium may better capture cumulative prenatal exposure. Currently, data on phthalates measured in meconium is sparse. We measured phthalate metabolites in 183 maternal second and 140 third trimester (T2, T3) urine, and in 190 meconium samples collected in an autism enriched-risk pregnancy cohort of 236 mothers. Eleven and eight metabolites were detected in over 90% of urine and meconium samples, respectively. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic metabolites were detected in both biosamples. Most urine phthalate metabolite distributions were similar between T2 and T3. Among metabolites detected in both biosamples, those of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate displayed a similar pattern in magnitude across metabolite type. Specifically, T2 creatinine adjusted distribution [median (25%, 75%)] of urine measured mono(2-ethylhexyl-carboxypentyl) (MECPP), mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) (MEHHP), and mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) were 18.8(11.9, 31.4), 11.8(7.2, 19.1), and 8.9(6.2, 14.2) ng/mg. In meconium these were 16.6(10.9, 23.7), 2.5(1.5, 3.8), and 1.3(0.8, 2.3) ng/g, respectively. Metabolite-to-metabolite correlations were lower in meconium than urine, but patterns were similar. For example, correlation (95% CI) between mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and MECPP was 0.73 (0.66, 0.78), and between MEOHP and MEHHP was 0.96 (0.95, 0.97) in urine as compared to 0.10 (-0.04, 0.24) and 0.31 (0.18, 0.43) respectively in meconium. Correlations between same metabolites measured in urine and meconium were low and differed by metabolite and trimester. Correlation between MEHHP in urine and meconium, for example, was 0.20 (0.008, 0.37) at T3, but 0.05 (-0.12, 0.21) at T2. Our study provides evidence of general population-level prenatal phthalate exposure in a population at high risk for neurodevelopmental disorders and supports the utility of meconium to measure prenatal phthalate exposure but provides little evidence of correlation with exposure measured in prenatal maternal urine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148898DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8440376PMC
November 2021

Developing a common metric for depression across adulthood: Linking PROMIS depression with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale.

Psychol Assess 2021 Jul 31;33(7):610-618. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Medical Social Sciences.

Depression is a leading mental health concern across the U.S. and worldwide. There are myriad assessments to evaluate depressive symptoms, including the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), which is widely used to evaluate women's pre- and postnatal depression but not as prevalent at other timepoints in adulthood, limiting its utility for longitudinal research. As part of the National Institutes of Health's (NIH) Environmental influences on Child Health Outcomes (ECHO) Research Program, the current study sought to develop a common metric so that scores on the EPDS can be converted to the standardized Patient-Reported Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) T-score metric. Drawing on data from the ECHO-Prenatal Alcohol in SIDS and Stillbirth cohort, this study used a single-group linking design, where 1,263 mothers completed the EPDS and PROMIS-Depression measures at the same time. Score linking was conducted using equipercentile and item response theory (IRT) methods. Results showed both linking methods provide robust, congruent results, and subgroup invariance held across age, race, ethnicity, education, and geographic location. The IRT-based unidimensional fixed-parameter calibration was selected due to its model simplicity, and a crosswalk table was established to convert scores from the EPDS to PROMIS T-scores. Overall, this study provides a way to aggregate data across various depression measures and timepoints, such that researchers and clinicians now have the ability to directly compare and combine EPDS data with PROMIS and other depression measures already score-linked to PROMIS. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pas0001009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8284177PMC
July 2021

SPR Perspectives: scientific opportunities in the Environmental influences on Child Health Outcomes Program.

Pediatr Res 2021 May 25. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA.

Drawing upon extant data from existing pediatric cohorts and new follow-up of a diverse set of pediatric cohorts from across the United States, the Environmental influences on Child Health Outcomes (ECHO) Program creates the opportunity for novel and innovative investigations of many previously inaccessible scientific questions in the area of child health. We describe how the large sample size, diversity of participants, emphasis on team science, and infrastructure for improving research methodology make the ECHO Program a major research resource for improving our understanding of early life determinants of childhood health and well-being. Pediatric researchers leverage the unique features of the ECHO Program to address research questions with the potential to yield far-reaching and long-term impacts on child health. IMPACT: The ECHO Program unites pediatric cohorts from across the United States, allowing for investigations of compelling research questions that were previously infeasible due to limited sample sizes or lack of participant diversity. The focus of the ECHO Program on team science, solution-oriented research, and methodological innovation propels novel scientific investigations that are responsive to the needs of a wide range of stakeholders. Features of the ECHO program's infrastructure poise its investigators to rapidly launch research endeavors that are responsive to time-sensitive and critical needs within the realm of pediatric research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41390-021-01577-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8145190PMC
May 2021

Nicotinic Receptors in the Brainstem Ascending Arousal System in SIDS With Analysis of Pre-natal Exposures to Maternal Smoking and Alcohol in High-Risk Populations of the Safe Passage Study.

Front Neurol 2021 10;12:636668. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States.

Pre-natal exposures to nicotine and alcohol are known risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), the leading cause of post-neonatal infant mortality. Here, we present data on nicotinic receptor binding, as determined by I-epibatidine receptor autoradiography, in the brainstems of infants dying of SIDS and of other known causes of death collected from the Safe Passage Study, a prospective, multicenter study with clinical sites in Cape Town, South Africa and 5 United States sites, including 2 American Indian Reservations. We examined 15 pons and medulla regions related to cardiovascular control and arousal in infants dying of SIDS ( = 12) and infants dying from known causes ( = 20, 10 pre-discharge from time of birth, 10 post-discharge). Overall, there was a developmental decrease in I-epibatidine binding with increasing postconceptional age in 5 medullary sites [raphe obscurus, gigantocellularis, paragigantocellularis, centralis, and dorsal accessory olive ( = 0.0002-0.03)], three of which are nuclei containing serotonin cells. Comparing SIDS with post-discharge known cause of death (post-KCOD) controls, we found significant decreased binding in SIDS in the nucleus pontis oralis ( = 0.02), a critical component of the cholinergic ascending arousal system of the rostral pons (post-KCOD, 12.1 ± 0.9 fmol/mg and SIDS, 9.1 ± 0.78 fmol/mg). In addition, we found an effect of maternal smoking in SIDS ( = 11) combined with post-KCOD controls ( = 8) on the raphe obscurus ( = 0.01), gigantocellularis ( = 0.02), and the paragigantocellularis ( = 0.002), three medullary sites found in this study to have decreased binding with age and found in previous studies to have abnormal indices of serotonin neurotransmission in SIDS infants. At these sites, I-epibatidine binding increased with increasing cigarettes per week. We found no effect of maternal drinking on I-epibatidine binding at any site measured. Taken together, these data support changes in nicotinic receptor binding related to development, cause of death, and exposure to maternal cigarette smoking. These data present new evidence in a prospective study supporting the roles of developmental factors, as well as adverse exposure on nicotinic receptors, in serotonergic nuclei of the rostral medulla-a finding that highlights the interwoven and complex relationship between acetylcholine (via nicotinic receptors) and serotonergic neurotransmission in the medulla.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.636668DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7988476PMC
March 2021

Paid maternal leave is associated with better language and socioemotional outcomes during toddlerhood.

Infancy 2021 07 23;26(4):536-550. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Applied Psychology, New York University, New York, NY, USA.

The United States is the only high-income country that does not have a national policy mandating paid leave to working women who give birth. Increased rates of maternal employment post-birth call for greater understanding of the effects of family leave on infant development. This study examined the links between paid leave and toddler language, cognitive, and socioemotional outcomes (24-36 months; N = 328). Results indicate that paid leave was associated with better language outcomes, regardless of socioeconomic status. Additionally, paid leave was correlated with fewer infant behavior problems for mothers with lower levels of educational attainment. Expanding access to policies that support families in need, like paid family leave, may aid in reducing socioeconomic disparities in infant development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/infa.12399DOI Listing
July 2021

Family Environment, Neurodevelopmental Risk, and the Environmental Influences on Child Health Outcomes (ECHO) Initiative: Looking Back and Moving Forward.

Front Psychiatry 2020 19;11:547. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Columbia University, New York, NY, United States.

The family environment, with all its complexity and diverse components, plays a critical role in shaping neurodevelopmental outcomes in children. Herein we review several domains of the family environment (family socioeconomic status, family composition and home environment, parenting behaviors and interaction styles, parental mental health and functioning, and parental substance use) and discuss how these domains influence neurodevelopment, with particular emphasis on mental health outcomes. We also highlight a new initiative launched by the National Institutes of Health, the Environmental influences on Child Health Outcomes (ECHO) program. We discuss the role that ECHO will play in advancing our understanding of the impact of the family environment on children's risk for psychiatric outcomes. Lastly, we conclude with important unanswered questions and controversies in this area of research, highlighting how ECHO will contribute to resolving these gaps in our understanding, clarifying relationships between the family environment and children's mental health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00547DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7318113PMC
June 2020

Better sleep, better life? How sleep quality influences children's life satisfaction.

Qual Life Res 2020 Sep 12;29(9):2465-2474. Epub 2020 May 12.

University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO, USA.

Purpose: To assess the association between children's sleep quality and life satisfaction; and to evaluate the underlying mechanisms of this relationship.

Methods: Three pediatric cohorts in the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Environmental influences on Child Health (ECHO) Research Program administered Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) parent-proxy measures to caregivers (n = 1111) who reported on their 5- to 9-year-old children's (n = 1251) sleep quality, psychological stress, general health, and life satisfaction; extant sociodemographic data were harmonized across cohorts. Bootstrapped path modeling of individual patient data meta-analysis was used to determine whether and to what extent stress and general health mediate the relationship between children's sleep quality and life satisfaction.

Results: Nonparametric bootstrapped path analyses with 1000 replications suggested children's sleep quality was associated with lower levels of stress and better general health, which, in turn, predicted higher levels of life satisfaction. Family environmental factors (i.e., income and maternal mental health) moderated these relationships.

Conclusion: Children who sleep well have happier lives than those with more disturbed sleep. Given the modifiable nature of children's sleep quality, this study offers evidence to inform future interventional studies on specific mechanisms to improve children's well-being.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11136-020-02491-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7442661PMC
September 2020

Association Between Prenatal Exposure to Alcohol and Tobacco and Neonatal Brain Activity: Results From the Safe Passage Study.

JAMA Netw Open 2020 05 1;3(5):e204714. Epub 2020 May 1.

Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, New York.

Importance: Research to date has not determined a safe level of alcohol or tobacco use during pregnancy. Electroencephalography (EEG) is a noninvasive measure of cortical function that has previously been used to examine effects of in utero exposures and associations with neurodevelopment.

Objective: To examine the association of prenatal exposure to alcohol (PAE) and tobacco smoking (PTE) with brain activity in newborns.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This prospective cohort study enrolled mother-newborn dyads from December 2011 through August 2015, with data analyzed from June 2018 through June 2019. Pregnant women were recruited from clinical sites in Cape Town, South Africa, and the Northern Plains region of the US. Participants were a subset of newborns enrolled in the Safe Passage Study. Exclusions included birth at less than 37 or more than 41 weeks' gestation, multiple birth, or maternal use of psychiatric medication during pregnancy.

Exposures: PAE and PTE groups were determined by cluster analysis.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Analyses of covariance were run on EEG spectral power at 12 scalp locations across the frequency spectrum from 1 to 45 Hz in 3-Hz bins by sleep state.

Results: The final sample consisted of 1739 newborns (median [interquartile range] gestational age at birth, 39.29 [1.57] weeks; 886 [50.9%] were female; median [interquartile range] newborn age at assessment, 48.53 [44.96] hours). Newborns whose mothers were in the low continuous (95% CI, -0.379 to -0.031; P < .05; 95% CI, -0.379 to -0.045; P < .05), quit (95% CI, -0.419 to -0.127; P < .001; 95% CI, -0.398 to -0.106; P < .005), and moderate or high continuous (95% CI, -0.430 to -0.124; P < .001; 95% CI, -0.420 to -0.119; P < .005) PAE clusters had increased 4- to 6-Hz and 7- to 9-Hz left-temporal EEG power. Newborns with moderate or high continuous PTE had decreased 19- to 21-Hz (95% CI, 0.034 to 0.327; P < .05) and 22- to 24-Hz (95% CI, 0.022 to 0.316; P < .05) right-central EEG compared with newborns with no PTE. Newborns with moderate or high continuous PTE had significantly decreased 22- to 36-Hz right-central EEG power compared with the quit smoking group (22-24 Hz, 95% CI, 0.001 to 0.579; P < .05; 25-27 Hz, 95% CI, 0.008 to 0.586; P < .05; 28-30 Hz, 95% CI, 0.028 to 0.607; P < .05; 31-33 Hz, 95% CI, 0.038 to 0.617; P < .05; 34-36 Hz, 95% CI, 0.057 to 0.636; P < .05).

Conclusions And Relevance: These findings suggest that even low levels of PAE or PTE are associated with changes in offspring brain development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.4714DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7218492PMC
May 2020

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in a Midwestern City: Child Characteristics, Maternal Risk Traits, and Prevalence.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 04 15;44(4):919-938. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Department of Pediatrics, Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

Objective: To determine the characteristics of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and their mothers in a Midwestern city.

Methods: Case-control samples were drawn from 2 separate first-grade cohorts (combined N = 4,047) in every city school using different methods. In Cohort Sample 1, all consented small children (≤25th centile on height, weight, and/or head circumference) entered the study along with a random sample from all enrolled students. Cohort Sample 2 was drawn totally at random. Child growth, dysmorphology, and neurobehavior were assessed using the Collaboration on FASD Prevalence (CoFASP) criteria, and mothers were interviewed.

Results: For the samples combined, 891 children received dysmorphology examinations, and 692 were case-conferenced for final diagnosis. Forty-four children met criteria for FASD. Total dysmorphology scores differentiated diagnostic groups: fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), 16.7; partial FAS, 11.8; alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND), 6.1; and typically developing controls, 4.2. Neurobehavioral tests distinguished children with FASD from controls, more for behavioral problems than cognitive delay. Children with ARND demonstrated the poorest neurobehavioral indicators. An adjusted regression model of usual prepregnancy drinking indicated that maternal reports of 3 drinks per drinking day (DDD) were significantly associated with a FASD diagnosis (p = 0.020, OR = 10.1, 95% CI = 1.44 to 70.54), as were 5 or more DDD (p < 0.001, OR = 26.47, 95% CI = 4.65 to 150.62). Other significant maternal risk factors included the following: self-reported drinking in any trimester; smoking and cocaine use during pregnancy; later pregnancy recognition and later and less prenatal care; lower maternal weight, body mass index (BMI), and head circumference; and unmarried status. There was no significant difference in FASD prevalence by race, Hispanic ethnicity, or socioeconomic status at this site, where the prevalence of FASD was 14.4 to 41.2 per 1,000 (1.4 to 4.1%).

Conclusion: This city displayed the lowest prevalence of FASD of the 4 CoFASP sites. Nevertheless, FASD were common, and affected children demonstrated a common, recognizable, and measurable array of traits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14314DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7166178PMC
April 2020

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in a Southeastern County of the United States: Child Characteristics and Maternal Risk Traits.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 04 15;44(4):939-959. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Department of Pediatrics, Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

Objective: To detail the characteristic traits of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) and maternal risk factors in a southeastern U.S. County.

Methods: Independent samples were drawn from 2 different cohorts of first-grade students. All consented children (49.8%) were measured for height, weight, and head circumference, and those ≤ 25th centile entered the study along with a random sample drawn from all enrolled students. Study children were examined for physical growth, dysmorphology, and neurobehavior, and their mothers were interviewed.

Results: Total dysmorphology scores discriminated well the physical traits of children across the FASD continuum: fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) = 15.8, partial FAS (PFAS) = 10.8, alcohol-related neurobehavioral disorder (ARND) = 5.2, and typically developing controls = 4.4. Additionally, a neurobehavioral battery distinguished children with each FASD diagnosis from controls. Behavioral problems qualified more children for FASD diagnoses than cognitive traits. Significant proximal maternal risk variables were as follows: reports of prepregnancy drinking, drinking in any trimester, and comorbid use of other drugs in lifetime and during pregnancy, especially alcohol and marijuana (14.9% among mothers of children with FASD vs. 0.4% for controls). Distal maternal risks included reports of other health problems (e.g., depression), living unmarried with a partner during pregnancy, and a lower level of spirituality. Controlling for other drug use during pregnancy, having a child diagnosed with a FASD was 17.5 times greater for women who reported usual consumption of 3 drinks per drinking day prior to pregnancy than for nondrinking mothers (p < 0.001, 95% CI = 5.1 to 59.9). There was no significant difference in the prevalence of FASD by race, Hispanic ethnicity, or socioeconomic status. The prevalence of FASD was not lower than 17.3 per 1,000, and weighted estimated prevalence was 49.0 per 1,000 or 4.9%.

Conclusion: This site had the second lowest rate in the CoFASP study, yet children with FASD are prevalent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14313DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7169982PMC
April 2020

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in a Rocky Mountain Region City: Child Characteristics, Maternal Risk Traits, and Prevalence.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 04 15;44(4):900-918. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Department of Pediatrics, Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

Objective: To document prevalence and traits of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and maternal risk factors in a Rocky Mountain city.

Methods: Variations on active case ascertainment methods were used in 2 first-grade cohorts in all city schools. The consent rate was 59.2%. Children were assessed for physical growth, dysmorphology, and neurobehavior and their mothers interviewed.

Results: Thirty-eight children were diagnosed with FASD and compared with 278 typically developing controls. Total dysmorphology scores summarized well the key physical indicators of FASD and defined specific diagnostic groups. On average, children with FASD performed significantly poorer than controls on intellectual, adaptive, learning, attention, and behavioral tasks. More mothers of children with FASD reported drinking prior to pregnancy and in the first and second trimesters, and had partners with drinking problems than mothers of controls; however, reports of comorbid alcohol use and 6 other drugs were similar for mothers of children with FASD and mothers of controls. Mothers of children with FASD were significantly younger at pregnancy, had lower average weight before pregnancy and less education, initiated prenatal clinic visits later, and reported more health problems (e.g., stomach ulcers and accidents). Children with FASD had significantly lower birth weight and more problems at birth, and were less likely to be living with biological mother and father. Controlling for other drug and tobacco use, a FASD diagnosis is 6.7 times (OR = 6.720, 95% CI = 1.6 to 28.0) more likely among children of women reporting prepregnancy drinking of 3 drinks per drinking day (DDD) and 7.6 times (OR = 7.590, 95% CI = 2.0 to 31.5) more likely at 5 DDD. Prevalence of FAS was 2.9-5.8 per 1,000 children, and total FASD was 34.9 to 82.5 per 1,000 children or 3.5 to 8.3% at this site.

Conclusion: This site had the second highest prevalence of FASD of the 4 Collaboration on FASD Prevalence sites and clearly identifiable child and maternal risk traits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14315DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7166196PMC
April 2020

Concurrent prenatal drinking and smoking increases risk for SIDS: Safe Passage Study report.

EClinicalMedicine 2020 Feb 20;19:100247. Epub 2020 Jan 20.

Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 6710B Rockledge Drive, Room 2305, Bethesda, MD 20892, United States.

Background: Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the leading cause of postneonatal mortality. Although the rate has plateaued, any unexpected death of an infant is a family tragedy thus finding causes and contributors to risk remains a major public health concern. The primary objective of this investigation was to determine patterns of drinking and smoking during pregnancy that increase risk of SIDS.

Methods: The Safe Passage Study was a prospective, multi-center, observational study with 10,088 women, 11,892 pregnancies, and 12,029 fetuses, followed to 1-year post delivery. Subjects were from two sites in Cape Town, South Africa and five United States sites, including two American Indian Reservations. Group-based trajectory modeling was utilized to categorize patterns of drinking and smoking exposure during pregnancy.

Findings: One-year outcome was ascertained in 94·2% infants, with 28 SIDS (2·43/1000) and 38 known causes of death (3·30/1000). The increase in relative risk for SIDS, adjusted for key demographic and clinical characteristics, was 11·79 (98·3% CI: 2·59-53·7,  < 0·001) in infants whose mothers reported both prenatal drinking and smoking beyond the first trimester, 3.95 (98·3% CI: 0·44-35·83,  = 0·14), for drinking only beyond the first trimester and 4·86 (95% CI: 0·97-24·27,  = 0·02) for smoking only beyond the first trimester as compared to those unexposed or reported quitting early in pregnancy.

Interpretation: Infants prenatally exposed to both alcohol and cigarettes continuing beyond the first trimester have a substantially higher risk for SIDS compared to those unexposed, exposed to alcohol or cigarettes alone, or when mother reported quitting early in pregnancy. Given that prenatal drinking and smoking are modifiable risk factors, these results address a major global public health problem.

Funding: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, and the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2019.100247DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7046523PMC
February 2020

Prenatal Drinking in the Northern Plains: Differences Between American Indian and Caucasian Mothers.

Am J Prev Med 2020 04 12;58(4):e113-e121. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Center for Pediatric and Community Research, Avera Health, Sioux Falls, South Dakota; Department of Pediatrics, University of South Dakota, Sioux Falls, South Dakota. Electronic address:

Introduction: Prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. The study characterizes the pattern and risk factors of alcohol use during pregnancy for American Indian and Caucasian mothers in the Northern Plains.

Methods: A general population of pregnant women was recruited from 5 sites, including 2,753 Caucasians and 2,124 American Indians (2006-2017). Alcohol consumption was based on self-report using a modified Timeline Followback interview, administered 3-4 times during pregnancy and 1 month postpartum. Risk for prenatal drinking was calculated using logistic regression models after controlling for demographics, reproductive history, prenatal care, mental health, and SES. The analysis was conducted in 2019.

Results: More Caucasian mothers consumed alcoholic beverages during pregnancy than American Indians (63% vs 52%), whereas more American Indian mothers were binge drinkers than Caucasians (41% vs 28%). American Indian mothers had a lower risk of drinking in the second and third trimesters and postpartum, but a higher risk of binge drinking in the first trimester compared with Caucasians. Frequent relocation increased the risk of prenatal alcohol use among American Indian mothers, whereas age, marriage, income, parity, and fertility treatment affected the risk of prenatal drinking among Caucasian mothers.

Conclusions: Alcohol use was more prevalent among Caucasian mothers. Among those who consumed alcohol during pregnancy, American Indian mothers consumed larger quantities. Change of residence was found to be the sole risk factor for prenatal drinking among American Indian mothers, whereas different and multiple risk factors were found for Caucasian mothers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2019.12.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7089814PMC
April 2020

Transitional objects of grief.

Compr Psychiatry 2020 Jan 11;98:152161. Epub 2020 Jan 11.

Center for Research on End-of-Life Care, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Transitional objects provide security and symbolic connection with valued others when separated from them. Bereaved parents often keep, cherish and visit saved objects of their deceased child. This research examined the hypothesis that these objects behave as transitional objects of grief in bereaved mothers during three years following their infants' deaths from Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

Methods: Questionnaires were administered asking about the presence of kept objects and momentos from their deceased infant, and the frequency, location and emotions experienced during visits to them. Diagnostic criteria for Prolonged Grief Disorder (PGD) were assessed using the Parental Bereavement Questionnaire.

Results: 98.6% of the mothers reported having transitional objects of grief, and most visited them more frequently than once per week regardless of PGD status. Mothers with PGD reported significantly more distress when visiting the objects, especially those visiting them privately. Mothers with PGD who felt comforted by the objects had lower risk for finding life meaningless or finding discussion about the infant intolerable.

Conclusions: Transitional objects of grief are common and associated with key aspects of grief. There is a need to understand the potential therapeutic uses of transitional objects in promoting bereavement adjustment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.comppsych.2020.152161DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7351592PMC
January 2020

Cluster Analysis of Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy in the Safe Passage Study.

Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2019 Jul;2019:1338-1341

Characterization of patterns of alcohol consumption during pregnancy encompasses multiple factors such as magnitude, frequency, and timing of exposure throughout gestation. Traditional statistical models are limited in dealing with multivariate and diverse patterns of exposure as in the context of this analysis. We propose a finite mixture model-based approach to derive clusters of alcohol exposure of participants in the Safe Passage Study (PASS). Daily alcohol consumption data for 11,083 pregnant women have been clustered in 10 different exposed groups. The resulting cluster analysis was able to characterize alcohol consumption in a comprehensive framework capable of taking into account both quantity and timing of exposure as well as the occurrence of binge drinking.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/EMBC.2019.8857428DOI Listing
July 2019

Early-Life Predictors of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

Pediatrics 2019 12 19;144(6). Epub 2019 Nov 19.

Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa;

Background And Objectives: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) comprise the continuum of disabilities associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. Although infancy remains the most effective time for initiation of intervention services, current diagnostic schemes demonstrate the greatest confidence, accuracy, and reliability in school-aged children. Our aims for the current study were to identify growth, dysmorphology, and neurodevelopmental features in infants that were most predictive of FASD at age 5, thereby improving the timeliness of diagnoses.

Methods: A cohort of pregnant South African women attending primary health care clinics or giving birth in provincial hospitals was enrolled in the project. Children were followed longitudinally from birth to 60 months to determine their physical and developmental trajectories ( = 155). Standardized protocols were used to assess growth, dysmorphology, and development at 6 weeks and at 9, 18, 42, and 60 months. A structured maternal interview, including estimation of prenatal alcohol intake, was administered at 42 or 60 months.

Results: Growth restriction and total dysmorphology scores differentiated among children with and without FASD as early as 9 months (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.777; < .001; 95% confidence interval: 0.705-0.849), although children who were severely affected could be identified earlier. Assessment of developmental milestones revealed significant developmental differences emerging among children with and without FASD between 18 and 42 months. Mothers of children with FASD were significantly smaller, with lower BMIs and higher alcohol intake during pregnancy, than mothers of children without FASD.

Conclusions: Assessment of a combination of growth, dysmorphology, and neurobehavioral characteristics allows for accurate identification of most children with FASD as early as 9 to 18 months.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2018-2141DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6889972PMC
December 2019

Physicians Knowledge and Practice of Safe Sleep Recommendations for Infants in South Dakota.

S D Med 2019 Aug;72(8):349-353

Avera Research Institute, Center for Pediatric and Community Research, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

Introduction: Safe sleep recommendations for infants have been evolving over the past three decades. It has been shown that physicians' recommendations strongly influence parents' choice of infant sleep position. However, the proportion of physicians and/or nurses giving infant sleep advice to parents is reportedly low.

Methods: A survey was conducted in South Dakota to evaluate pediatricians' and family practitioners' knowledge of safe sleep recommendations for infants. Survey questions assessed their beliefs regarding risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and their recommendations for safe sleep environments provided to parents/caregivers.

Results: Among the respondents, 98 percent felt that it is important to discuss SIDS with every parent and 80 percent of them indicated a need within their profession to have further information on the topic of SIDS. However, 31 percent of physicians with 16 years or more since training and 64.5 percent of those with less than 16 years since training did provide safe sleep advice to parents and caregivers.

Conclusions: Despite the knowledge of SIDS risk factors, gaps were seen in dissemination of information regarding all risk factors to parents. While sleep position, postnatal exposures and breast feeding were more likely to be addressed, other elements of a safe sleep environment such as bedding surface, bed sharing, pacifier use and room ventilation were less likely to be covered. These findings indicate the need for improved health care provider education/communication in South Dakota.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8329855PMC
August 2019

Neonatal EEG linked to individual differences in socioemotional outcomes and autism risk in toddlers.

Dev Psychobiol 2019 12 11;61(8):1110-1119. Epub 2019 Jun 11.

Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York.

Research using electroencephalography (EEG) as a measure of brain function and maturation has demonstrated links between cortical activity and cognitive processes during infancy and early childhood. The current study examines whether neonatal EEG is correlated with later atypical socioemotional behaviors or neurocognitive delays. Parental report developmental assessments were administered to families with children ages 24 to 36 months who had previously participated in a neonatal EEG study (N = 129). Significant associations were found between neonatal EEG (higher frequencies in the frontal polar, temporal, and parietal brain regions) and BITSEA ASD risk scores. Infants with lower EEG power in these brain areas were more likely to have higher risk of socioemotional problems. When examining sex differences, significant links were found for males but not for females. These results demonstrate some promising associations between early neural biomarkers and later risk for atypical behaviors, which may shape early neurobehavioral development and could lead to earlier identification and intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dev.21870DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6874708PMC
December 2019

General Health and Life Satisfaction in Children With Chronic Illness.

Pediatrics 2019 06 6;143(6). Epub 2019 May 6.

Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

Objectives: To investigate children's general health and life satisfaction in the context of chronic illness.

Methods: Caregivers ( = 1113) from 3 concurrent cohort studies completed the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Parent-Proxy Global Health measure, which is used to assess a child's overall physical, mental, and social health, as well as the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Parent-Proxy Life Satisfaction measure between March 2017 and December 2017 for 1253 children aged 5 to 9 years. We harmonized demographic factors and family environmental stressors (single parent, maternal mental health, and income) to common metrics across the cohorts. To examine associations between chronic illness and children's general health and life satisfaction, we fit linear regression models with cohort fixed effects and accounted for the multilevel data structure of multiple children nested within the same family (ie, twins and other siblings) with generalized estimating equations.

Results: Children with chronic illness had worse general health than those without illness (adjusted β = -1.20; 95% confidence interval: -2.49 to 0.09). By contrast, children with chronic illness had similar levels of life satisfaction (adjusted β = -.19; 95% confidence interval: -1.25 to 0.87). Additionally, children's psychological stress had the strongest negative association with both outcomes, even after adjusting for demographics and family environmental stressors.

Conclusions: Although children with chronic illness have lower parent-reported general health, their life satisfaction appears comparable with that of peers without chronic illness. With this study, we provide evidence that chronic illnesses do not preclude children from leading happy and satisfying lives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2018-2988DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6564050PMC
June 2019

Diet Quality of Pregnant American Indian Women in the Northern Plains.

Prev Chronic Dis 2019 04 25;16:E53. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Introduction: We examined diet quality and intake of pregnancy-specific micronutrients among pregnant American Indian women in the Northern Plains.

Methods: We conducted an analysis of nutrition data from the Prenatal Alcohol and SIDS and Stillbirth (PASS) Network Safe Passage Study and the PASS Diet Screener study (N = 170). Diet intake, including dietary supplementation, was assessed by using three 24-hour recalls conducted on randomly selected, nonconsecutive days. Diet intake data were averaged across the participant's recalls and scored for 2 dietary indices: the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010) and the Alternate Healthy Eating Index for Pregnancy (AHEI-P). We also assessed nutrient adequacy with Dietary Reference Intakes for pregnancy.

Results: On average, participants were aged 26.9 (standard deviation [SD], 5.5) years with a pre-pregnancy body mass index of 29.8 (SD, 7.5) kg/m. Mean AHEI-P and HEI-2010 scores (52.0 [SD, 9.0] and 49.2 [SD, 11.1], respectively) indicated inadequate adherence to dietary recommendations. Micronutrient intake for vitamins D and K, choline, calcium, and potassium were lower than recommended, and sodium intake was higher than recommended.

Conclusion: Our findings that pregnant American Indian women are not adhering to dietary recommendations is consistent with studies in other US populations. Identifying opportunities to partner with American Indian communities is necessary to ensure effective and sustainable interventions to promote access to and consumption of foods and beverages that support the adherence to recommended dietary guidelines during pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd16.180536DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6513482PMC
April 2019

Fetal heart rate, heart rate variability, and heart rate/movement coupling in the Safe Passage Study.

J Perinatol 2019 05 4;39(5):608-618. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, 10032, USA.

Objective: To determine normative values for heart rate patterns in healthy fetuses.

Methods: This research is from the Safe Passage Study conducted by the Prenatal Alcohol and SIDS and Stillbirth (PASS) Network. A standardized protocol assessed fetal heart rate (FHR), heart rate variability (HRV), and movement from 1655 fetuses at three-time points during gestation (20-24 weeks, 28-32 weeks, 34-38 weeks gestation).

Results: FHR decreased while HRV increased over gestation. At the latter two ages, males had significantly lower FHR than females while there were no sex differences in FHR at 20-24 weeks. When accounting for the fetal state during late gestation (34-28 weeks), we found that males had significantly lower FHR than females in the active fetal state only.

Conclusion: Results demonstrate significant state, gestational age, and sex-related changes in cardiac activity, somatic activity, and autonomic function as the fetus approaches birth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41372-019-0342-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6483837PMC
May 2019

Transient Otoacoustic Emissions and Auditory Brainstem Responses in Low-Risk Cohort of Newborn and One-Month-Old Infants: Assessment of Infant Auditory System Physiology in the Prenatal Alcohol in SIDS and Stillbirth Network Safe Passage Study.

J Am Acad Audiol 2018 09;29(8):748-763

C&Y Consultants, LLC, Santa Fe, NM.

Background: The Prenatal Alcohol and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Stillbirth Network, known as the "Safe Passage Study," enrolled approximately 12,000 pregnant women from the United States and South Africa and followed the development of their babies through pregnancy and the infant's first year of life to investigate the role of prenatal alcohol exposure in the risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as stillbirth and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

Purpose: Auditory system tests were included in the physiologic test battery used to study the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on neurophysiology and neurodevelopment, as well as potential causal relationships between neurodevelopmental disorders and SIDS and/or stillbirth. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe normative results when using the auditory test battery applied.

Research Design: The test battery included the auditory brainstem response (ABR) and transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs). Data were collected on individual ears of newborns and 1-month-old infants.

Study Sample: From a cohort of 6,070 with auditory system exams, a normative subsample of 325 infants were selected who were not exposed prenatally to alcohol, cigarette smoke, or drugs nor were they preterm or low birthweight. The subsample is small relative to the overall study because of strict criteria for no exposure to substances known to be associated with SIDS or stillbirth and the exclusion of preterm and low birthweight infants. Expectant mothers were recruited from general maternity at two comprehensive clinical sites, in the northern plains in the United States and in Cape Town, South Africa. These populations were selected for study because both were known to be at high-risk for SIDS and stillbirth.

Data Collection And Analysis: ABR and TEOAE recordings were stored electronically. Peak latency and amplitude analysis of ABRs were determined by study personnel, and results were evaluated for differences by age, sex, test site, race, and ear (left versus right).

Results: TEOAE findings were consistent with existing literature including the increase in signal-to-noise (SNR) over the first month of life. The SNR increase is due to an increase in amplitude of the emission. TEOAE amplitude asymmetry favoring the right ear was found, whereas SNR asymmetry was not, perhaps because of the small sample size. A nonsignificant trend toward larger responses in female babies was found; a result that is generally statistically significant in studies with larger samples. Latencies were found to be shorter in ABRs elicited in the right ear with amplitudes that were slightly bigger on average. An expected decrease in wave V latency was observed from birth to 1-month of age, but the finding was of borderline significance (p = 0.058).

Conclusions: One month is a short time to judge development of the auditory system; however, the ABR and TEOAE findings were consistent with current literature. We conclude that the auditory system data acquired for the Safe Passage Study, as reflected in the data obtained from this cohort of "unexposed" infants, is consistent with published reports of these auditory system measures in the general population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3766/jaaa.17043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8252127PMC
September 2018

The Grief of Mothers After the Sudden Unexpected Death of Their Infants.

Pediatrics 2018 05;141(5)

Center for Research on End-of-Life Care, Weill Cornell Medicine, Cornell University, New York, New York.

: media-1vid110.1542/5741323271001PEDS-VA_2017-3651 BACKGROUND: The loss of a child is associated with elevated grief severity, and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the leading cause of postneonatal mortality in the United States. The diagnosis of prolonged grief disorder (PGD) has gained broader acceptance and use. Little is known about PGD in mothers after SIDS.

Methods: Between May 2013 and July 2016, we assessed 49 SIDS-bereaved mothers living in informal settlements near Cape Town, South Africa, and on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation and 359 SIDS-bereaved mothers affiliated with SIDS parent-support organizations in the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, and the Netherlands. We examined PGD symptom severity and diagnostic prevalence rates between the samples and other significant grief indicators during the period 2 to 48 months after the deaths of their infants.

Results: Extremely high, persistent, and similar rates of PGD were found in both samples at every time interval. The prevalence of PGD was 50.0% in either sample (mean months from loss: 20.5 vs 24.9). Daily, intrusive emotional pain or yearning was found in 68.1% of subjects; yearning was significantly associated with emotional pain ( < .0001). Role confusion and anger were the most prevalent symptoms, reported by the majority at every time interval. Rates of role confusion, anger, and diminished trust in others remained constant. Acceptance was less prevalent than other grief indicators at every interval.

Conclusions: Severe symptoms and heightened risk for PGD was seen in mothers after their infants died of SIDS, with discernible symptom profiles. Given their involvement with families after SIDS, pediatricians may have a unique role in identifying this problem and helping address its consequences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2017-3651DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6173829PMC
May 2018
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