Publications by authors named "Amy Hutchinson"

182 Publications

Genetic regulation of nonsense-mediated decay underlies association with risk of severe COVID-19.

medRxiv 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Genomic regions have been associated with COVID-19 susceptibility and outcomes, including the chr12q24.13 locus encoding antiviral proteins OAS1-3. Here, we report genetic, functional, and clinical insights into genetic associations within this locus. In Europeans, the risk of hospitalized vs. non-hospitalized COVID-19 was associated with a single 19Kb-haplotype comprised of 76 variants included in a 95% credible set within a large genomic fragment introgressed from Neandertals. The risk haplotype was also associated with impaired spontaneous but not treatment-induced SARS-CoV-2 clearance in a clinical trial with pegIFN-λ1. We demonstrate that two exonic variants, rs10774671 and rs1131454, affect splicing and nonsense-mediated decay of . We suggest that genetically-regulated loss of expression contributes to impaired spontaneous clearance of SARS-CoV-2 and elevated risk of hospitalization for COVID-19. Our results provide the rationale for further clinical studies using interferons to compensate for impaired spontaneous SARS-CoV-2 clearance, particularly in carriers of the risk haplotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2021.07.09.21260221DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8288155PMC
July 2021

Clinical Features and Outcomes of Infants with Retinopathy of Prematurity Who Fail Anti-VEGF Therapy.

Retina 2021 Jun 25. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Emory Eye Center, 1365B Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30322.

Purpose: To describe characteristics and outcomes of patients with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) who failed intravitreal anti-VEGF.

Methods: A retrospective case series of 211 eyes (112 patients) treated with anti-VEGF as initial therapy for ROP at a single academic institution between 2011-2019, and an additional 6 eyes (3 patients) referred to us for management of failed anti-VEGF.

Results: Among 211 eyes receiving initial treatment at our institution, 17 (11%) failed. Of the 23 total eyes managed by us for failure, 3 (13%) failed after 50 weeks post-menstrual age (PMA). Failure manifested as recurrent plus in 14 (58%), recurrent stage 3 in 13 (54%) and retinal detachment in 5 eyes (21%). Treatment failures were managed with laser (13 eyes), repeat injection (4 eyes), vitrectomy (2 eyes), or a combination of modalities (4 eyes). Follow-up of >6 months was available for 18 of 23 eyes. The retina was fully attached in 17 and fixation behavior was present in 10 eyes.

Conclusion: The most common manifestations of treatment failure were recurrent plus and stage 3. The failure rate at our institution was 11.0%. A significant proportion of failures occurred after 50 weeks PMA. Most failed eyes had favorable anatomic outcomes and over half demonstrated fixation behavior.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IAE.0000000000003249DOI Listing
June 2021

Rare Germline Variants in Chordoma-Related Genes and Chordoma Susceptibility.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 May 30;13(11). Epub 2021 May 30.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Background: Chordoma is a rare bone cancer with an unknown etiology. TBXT is the only chordoma susceptibility gene identified to date; germline single nucleotide variants and copy number variants in TBXT have been associated with chordoma susceptibility in familial and sporadic chordoma. However, the genetic susceptibility of chordoma remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated rare germline genetic variants in genes involved in TBXT/chordoma-related signaling pathways and other biological processes in chordoma patients from North America and China.

Methods: We identified variants that were very rare in general population and internal control datasets and showed evidence for pathogenicity in 265 genes in a whole exome sequencing (WES) dataset of 138 chordoma patients of European ancestry and in a whole genome sequencing (WGS) dataset of 80 Chinese patients with skull base chordoma.

Results: Rare and likely pathogenic variants were identified in 32 of 138 European ancestry patients (23%), including genes that are part of notochord development, PI3K/AKT/mTOR, Sonic Hedgehog, SWI/SNF complex and mesoderm development pathways. Rare pathogenic variants in COL2A1, EXT1, PDK1, LRP2, TBXT and TSC2, among others, were also observed in Chinese patients.

Conclusion: We identified several rare loss-of-function and predicted deleterious missense variants in germline DNA from patients with chordoma, which may influence chordoma predisposition and reflect a complex susceptibility, warranting further investigation in large studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13112704DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8197919PMC
May 2021

Bispectral Index Alterations and Associations With Autonomic Changes During Hypnosis in Trauma Center Researchers: Formative Evaluation Study.

JMIR Form Res 2021 May 26;5(5):e24044. Epub 2021 May 26.

St Elizabeth Youngstown Hospital, Youngstown, OH, United States.

Background: Previous work performed by our group demonstrated that intermittent reductions in bispectral index (BIS) values were found during neurofeedback following mindfulness instructions. Hypnosis was induced to enhance reductions in BIS values.

Objective: This study aims to assess physiologic relaxation and explore its associations with BIS values using autonomic monitoring.

Methods: Each session consisted of reading a 4-minute baseline neutral script and playing an 18-minute hypnosis tape to 3 researchers involved in the BIS neurofeedback study. In addition to BIS monitoring, autonomic monitoring was performed, and this included measures of electromyography (EMG), skin temperature, skin conductance, respiratory rate, expired carbon dioxide, and heart rate variability. The resulting data were analyzed using two-tailed t tests, correlation analyses, and multivariate linear regression analyses.

Results: We found that hypnosis was associated with reductions in BIS (P<.001), EMG (P<.001), respiratory rate (P<.001), skin conductance (P=.006), and very low frequency power (P=.04); it was also associated with increases in expired carbon dioxide (P<.001), skin temperature (P=.04), high frequency power (P<.001), and successive heart interbeat interval difference (P=.04) values. Decreased BIS values were associated with reduced EMG measures (R=0.76; P<.001), respiratory rate (R=0.35; P=.004), skin conductance (R=0.57; P<.001), and low frequency power (R=0.32; P=.01) and with increased high frequency power (R=-0.53; P<.001), successive heart interbeat interval difference (R=-0.32; P=.009), and heart interbeat interval SD (R=-0.26; P=.04) values.

Conclusions: Hypnosis appeared to induce mental and physical relaxation, enhance parasympathetic neural activation, and attenuate sympathetic nervous system activity, changes that were associated with BIS values. Findings from this preliminary formative evaluation suggest that the current hypnosis model may be useful for assessing autonomic physiological associations with changes in BIS values, thus motivating us to proceed with a larger investigation in trauma center nurses and physicians.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/24044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8190650PMC
May 2021

Radiation-related genomic profile of papillary thyroid carcinoma after the Chernobyl accident.

Science 2021 05 22;372(6543). Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

The 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident increased papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) incidence in surrounding regions, particularly for radioactive iodine (I)-exposed children. We analyzed genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenomic characteristics of 440 PTCs from Ukraine (from 359 individuals with estimated childhood I exposure and 81 unexposed children born after 1986). PTCs displayed radiation dose-dependent enrichment of fusion drivers, nearly all in the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, and increases in small deletions and simple/balanced structural variants that were clonal and bore hallmarks of nonhomologous end-joining repair. Radiation-related genomic alterations were more pronounced for individuals who were younger at exposure. Transcriptomic and epigenomic features were strongly associated with driver events but not radiation dose. Our results point to DNA double-strand breaks as early carcinogenic events that subsequently enable PTC growth after environmental radiation exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.abg2538DOI Listing
May 2021

Lack of transgenerational effects of ionizing radiation exposure from the Chernobyl accident.

Science 2021 05 22;372(6543):725-729. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD 20892, USA.

Effects of radiation exposure from the Chernobyl nuclear accident remain a topic of interest. We investigated germline de novo mutations (DNMs) in children born to parents employed as cleanup workers or exposed to occupational and environmental ionizing radiation after the accident. Whole-genome sequencing of 130 children (born 1987-2002) and their parents did not reveal an increase in the rates, distributions, or types of DNMs relative to the results of previous studies. We find no elevation in total DNMs, regardless of cumulative preconception gonadal paternal [mean = 365 milligrays (mGy), range = 0 to 4080 mGy] or maternal (mean = 19 mGy, range = 0 to 550 mGy) exposure to ionizing radiation. Thus, we conclude that, over this exposure range, evidence is lacking for a substantial effect on germline DNMs in humans, suggesting minimal impact from transgenerational genetic effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.abg2365DOI Listing
May 2021

IFN-λ4 is associated with increased risk and earlier occurrence of several common infections in African children.

Genes Immun 2021 May 13;22(1):44-55. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Laboratory of Malaria Immunology and Vaccinology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA.

Genetic polymorphisms within the IFNL3/IFNL4 genomic region, which encodes type III interferons, have been strongly associated with clearance of hepatitis C virus. We hypothesized that type III interferons might be important for the immune response to other pathogens as well. In a cohort of 914 Malian children, we genotyped functional variants IFNL4-rs368234815, IFNL4-rs117648444, and IFNL3-rs4803217 and analyzed episodes of malaria, gastrointestinal, and respiratory infections recorded at 30,626 clinic visits from birth up to 5 years of age. Compared to children with the rs368234815-TT/TT genotype (IFN-λ4-Null), rs368234815-dG allele was most strongly associated with an earlier time-to-first episode of gastrointestinal infections (p = 0.003). The risk of experiencing an infection episode during the follow-up was also significantly increased with rs368234815-dG allele, with OR = 1.53, 95%CI (1.13-2.07), p = 0.005 for gastrointestinal infections and OR = 1.30, 95%CI (1.02-1.65), p = 0.033 for malaria. All the associations for the moderately linked rs4803217 (r = 0.78 in this set) were weaker and lost significance after adjusting for rs368234815. We also analyzed all outcomes in relation to IFN-λ4-P70S groups. Our results implicate IFN-λ4 and not IFN-λ3 as the primary functional cause of genetic associations with increased overall risk and younger age at first clinical episodes but not with recurrence or intensity of several common pediatric infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41435-021-00127-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8042471PMC
May 2021

Neurodevelopmental outcome of preterm infants enrolled in myo-inositol randomized controlled trial.

J Perinatol 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, McGovern Medical School at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, USA.

Objective: This study evaluates the 24-month follow-up for the NICHD Neonatal Research Network (NRN) Inositol for Retinopathy Trial.

Study Design: Bayley Scales of Infants Development-III and a standardized neurosensory examination were performed in infants enrolled in the main trial. Moderate/severe NDI was defined as BSID-III Cognitive or Motor composite score <85, moderate or severe cerebral palsy, blindness, or hearing loss that prevents communication despite amplification were assessed.

Results: Primary outcome was determined for 605/638 (95%). The mean gestational age was 25.8 ± 1.3 weeks and mean birthweight was 805 ± 192 g. Treatment group did not affect the risk for the composite outcome of death or survival with moderate/severe NDI (60% vs 56%, p = 0.40).

Conclusions: Treatment group did not affect the risk of death or survival with moderate/severe NDI. Despite early termination, this study represents the largest RCT of extremely preterm infants treated with myo-inositol with neurodevelopmental outcome data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41372-021-01018-5DOI Listing
March 2021

The find of COVID-19 vaccine: Challenges and opportunities.

J Infect Public Health 2021 Mar 30;14(3):389-416. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

The Student Science and Technology Online Research Coop, Ontario, Canada; McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), a novel corona virus, causing COVID-19 with Flu-like symptoms is the first alarming pandemic of the third millennium. SARS-CoV-2 belongs to beta coronavirus as Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Pandemic COVID-19 owes devastating mortality and destructively exceptional consequences on Socio-Economics life around the world. Therefore, the current review is redirected to the scientific community to owe comprehensive visualization about SARS-CoV-2 to tackle the current pandemic. As systematically shown through the current review, it indexes unmet medical problem of COVID-19 in view of public health and vaccination discovery for the infectious SARS-CoV-2; it is currently under-investigational therapeutic protocols, and next possible vaccines. Furthermore, the review extensively reports the precautionary measures to achieve" COVID-19/Flatten the curve". It is concluded that vaccines formulation within exceptional no time in this pandemic is highly recommended, via following the same protocols of previous pandemics; MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, and excluding some initial steps of vaccination development process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiph.2020.12.025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7773313PMC
March 2021

Using whole-exome sequencing and protein interaction networks to prioritize candidate genes for germline cutaneous melanoma susceptibility.

Sci Rep 2020 10 14;10(1):17198. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA.

Although next-generation sequencing has demonstrated great potential for novel gene discovery, confirming disease-causing genes after initial discovery remains challenging. Here, we applied a network analysis approach to prioritize candidate genes identified from whole-exome sequencing analysis of 98 cutaneous melanoma patients from 27 families. Using a network propagation method, we ranked candidate genes by their similarity to known disease genes in protein-protein interaction networks and identified gene clusters with functional connectivity. Using this approach, we identified several new candidate susceptibility genes that warrant future investigations such as NGLY1, IL1RN, FABP2, PRKDC, and PROSER2. The propagated network analysis also allowed us to link families that did not have common underlying genes but that carried variants in genes that interact on protein-protein interaction networks. In conclusion, our study provided an analysis perspective for gene prioritization in the context of genetic heterogeneity across families and prioritized top potential candidate susceptibility genes in our dataset.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-74293-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7560829PMC
October 2020

Age-related DNA methylation in paired normal and tumour breast tissue in Chinese breast cancer patients.

Epigenetics 2021 Jun 24;16(6):677-691. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, DHHS, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Age-related DNA methylation is a potential mechanism contributing to breast cancer development. Studies of primarily Caucasian women have identified many CpG sites of age-related methylation in non-diseased breast tissue possibly driving cancer development over time. There is a paucity of studies involving Asian women whose ages at breast cancer onset are usually younger than Caucasians. We identified the 181 most consistent age-related methylation events in non-diseased breast tissue across published studies. Age-related methylation events were measured in adjacent normal and breast tumour tissue in an exclusively Asian population at the previously identified age-related methylation sites. Age-related methylation was found in 118 probes in adjacent normal breast tissue. Methylation of 99% of these sites was increased with age and predominantly located on CpG islands in promoter regions. To ascertain biological relevance to breast cancer, we focused on the 37 sites with overall higher methylation in tumour compared to adjacent normal samples. Some sites positively related to age, including and , inversely correlated with gene expression. Several others have known involvement in suppression of carcinogenesis including and , suggesting that perturbation of epigenetic regulation at these sites due to ageing may contribute to the progression of carcinogenesis. This study highlights an age-related methylation landscape in non-tumour tissue, consistent not just across studies, but also across different populations. We present candidate age-related methylation sites warranting further investigation as potential epigenetic drivers of breast cancer. They may serve as potential targets of site-specific demethylation intervention strategies for the prevention of age-related breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15592294.2020.1819661DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8143246PMC
June 2021

Comparison of Oral Microbiota Collected Using Multiple Methods and Recommendations for New Epidemiologic Studies.

mSystems 2020 Jul 7;5(4). Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Metabolic Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology & Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Epidemiologic studies use various biosample collection methods to study associations between human oral microbiota and health outcomes. However, the agreement between the different methods is unclear. We compared a commercially available OMNIgene ORAL kit to three alternative collection methods: Saccomanno's fixative, Scope mouthwash, and nonethanol mouthwash. Oral samples were collected from 40 individuals over 4 visits. Two samples were collected from each subject per visit: one with OMNIgene and one with an alternative method. DNA was extracted using the DSP DNA Virus Pathogen kit, and the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene was PCR amplified and sequenced using MiSeq. Oral collection methods were compared based on alpha and beta diversity metrics and phylum- and genus-level relative abundances. All alpha diversity metrics were significantly lower for Saccomanno's fixative than for OMNIgene ( < 0.001), whereas the two mouthwashes were more similar to OMNIgene. Principal-coordinate analysis (PCoA) using the Bray-Curtis and weighted UniFrac beta diversity matrices showed large differences in the microbial compositions of samples collected with Saccomanno's compared to those with OMNIgene and the mouthwashes. Clustering by collection method was not observed in unweighted UniFrac PCoA plots, suggesting differences in relative abundances but not specific taxa detected by the collection methods. Relative abundances of most taxa were significantly different between OMNIgene and the other methods at each taxonomic level, with Saccomanno's showing the least agreement with OMNIgene. There were clear differences in oral microbial communities between the four oral collection methods, particularly for Saccomanno's fixative. We compared four different oral collection methods for studying the human oral microbiome: an OMNIgene ORAL kit, Scope mouthwash, nonethanol mouthwash, and Saccomanno's fixative. Our study shows that the type of the collection method can have a large impact on the results of an oral microbiome analysis. We recommend that one consistent oral collection method should be used for all oral microbiome comparisons. While Scope and nonethanol mouthwashes are less expensive and provide results similar to those with OMNIgene, Saccomanno's fixative may be unfavorable due to the microbial differences detected in this study. Our results will help guide the design of future oral microbiome studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSystems.00156-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7343307PMC
July 2020

Field Study of the Possible Effect of Parental Irradiation on the Germline of Children Born to Cleanup Workers and Evacuees of the Chornobyl Nuclear Accident.

Am J Epidemiol 2020 12;189(12):1451-1460

Although transgenerational effects of exposure to ionizing radiation have long been a concern, human research to date has been confined to studies of disease phenotypes in groups exposed to high doses and high dose rates, such as the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Transgenerational effects of parental irradiation can be addressed using powerful new genomic technologies. In collaboration with the Ukrainian National Research Center for Radiation Medicine, the US National Cancer Institute, in 2014-2018, initiated a genomic alterations study among children born in selected regions of Ukraine to cleanup workers and/or evacuees exposed to low-dose-rate radiation after the 1986 Chornobyl (Chernobyl) nuclear accident. To investigate whether parental radiation exposure is associated with germline mutations and genomic alterations in the offspring, we are collecting biospecimens from father-mother-offspring constellations to study de novo mutations, minisatellite mutations, copy-number changes, structural variants, genomic insertions and deletions, methylation profiles, and telomere length. Genomic alterations are being examined in relation to parental gonadal dose, reconstructed using questionnaire and measurement data. Subjects are being recruited in exposure categories that will allow examination of parental origin, duration, and timing of exposure in relation to conception. Here we describe the study methodology and recruitment results and provide descriptive information on the first 150 families (mother-father-child(ren)) enrolled.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa095DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7822640PMC
December 2020

Genome-wide association meta-analyses combining multiple risk phenotypes provide insights into the genetic architecture of cutaneous melanoma susceptibility.

Nat Genet 2020 05 27;52(5):494-504. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Department of Dermatology, Instituto Valenciano de Oncología, Valencia, Spain.

Most genetic susceptibility to cutaneous melanoma remains to be discovered. Meta-analysis genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 36,760 cases of melanoma (67% newly genotyped) and 375,188 controls identified 54 significant (P < 5 × 10) loci with 68 independent single nucleotide polymorphisms. Analysis of risk estimates across geographical regions and host factors suggests the acral melanoma subtype is uniquely unrelated to pigmentation. Combining this meta-analysis with GWAS of nevus count and hair color, and transcriptome association approaches, uncovered 31 potential secondary loci for a total of 85 cutaneous melanoma susceptibility loci. These findings provide insights into cutaneous melanoma genetic architecture, reinforcing the importance of nevogenesis, pigmentation and telomere maintenance, together with identifying potential new pathways for cutaneous melanoma pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-020-0611-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7255059PMC
May 2020

Short-term Outcomes After Very Low-Dose Intravitreous Bevacizumab for Retinopathy of Prematurity.

JAMA Ophthalmol 2020 06;138(6):698-701

Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Importance: Intravitreous bevacizumab (0.25 mg to 0.625 mg) is commonly used to treat type 1 retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), but there are concerns about systemic toxicity, particularly the risk of neurodevelopmental delay. A much lower dose may be effective for ROP while reducing systemic risk. Previously, after testing doses of 0.25 mg to 0.031 mg, doses as low as 0.031 mg were found to be effective in small cohorts of infants.

Objective: To find the lowest dose of intravitreous bevacizumab effective for severe ROP.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Between April 2017 and May 2019, 59 premature infants with type 1 ROP in 1 or both eyes were enrolled in a masked, multicenter, dose de-escalation study. In cohorts of 10 to 14 infants, 1 eye per infant received 0.016 mg, 0.008 mg, 0.004 mg, or 0.002 mg of intravitreous bevacizumab. Diluted bevacizumab was prepared by individual research pharmacies and delivered using 300-µL syringes with 5/16-inch, 30-guage fixed needles. Analysis began July 2019.

Interventions: Bevacizumab intravitreous injections at 0.016 mg, 0.008 mg, 0.004 mg, or 0.002 mg.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Success was defined as improvement by 4 days postinjection and no recurrence of type 1 ROP or severe neovascularization requiring additional treatment within 4 weeks.

Results: Fifty-five of 59 enrolled infants had 4-week outcomes completed; the mean (SD) birth weight was 664 (258) g, and the mean (SD) gestational age was 24.8 (1.6) weeks. A successful 4-week outcome was achieved for 13 of 13 eyes (100%) receiving 0.016 mg, 9 of 9 eyes (100%) receiving 0.008 mg, 9 of 10 eyes (90%) receiving 0.004 mg, but only 17 of 23 eyes (74%) receiving 0.002 mg.

Conclusions And Relevance: These data suggest that 0.004 mg may be the lowest dose of bevacizumab effective for ROP. Further investigation is warranted to confirm effectiveness of very low-dose intravitreous bevacizumab and its effect on plasma vascular endothelial growth factor levels and peripheral retinal vascularization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2020.0334DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7180729PMC
June 2020

Accuracy of Autorefraction in Children: A Report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology.

Ophthalmology 2020 09 18;127(9):1259-1267. Epub 2020 Apr 18.

Department of Ophthalmology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California.

Purpose: The purpose of this assessment is to evaluate the accuracy of autorefraction compared with cycloplegic retinoscopy in children.

Methods: Literature searches were last conducted in October 2019 in the PubMed and the Cochrane Library databases for studies published in English. The combined searches yielded 118 citations, of which 53 were reviewed in full text. Of these, 31 articles were deemed appropriate for inclusion in this assessment and subsequently assigned a level of evidence rating by the panel methodologists. Four articles were rated level I, 11 were rated level II, and 16 were rated level III articles. The 16 level III articles were excluded from this review.

Results: Thirteen of the 15 studies comparing cycloplegic autorefraction with cycloplegic retinoscopy found a mean difference in spherical equivalent or sphere of less than 0.5 diopters (D); most were less than 0.25 D. Even lower mean differences were found when evaluating the cylindrical component of cycloplegic autorefraction versus cycloplegic retinoscopy. Despite low mean variability, there was significant individual measurement variability; the 95% limits of agreement were wide and included clinically relevant differences. Comparisons of noncycloplegic with cycloplegic autorefractions found that noncyloplegic refraction tends to over minus by 1 to 2 D.

Conclusions: Cycloplegic autorefraction is appropriate to use in pediatric population-based studies. Cycloplegic retinoscopy can be valuable in individual clinical cases to confirm the accuracy of cycloplegic autorefraction, particularly when corrected visual acuity is worse than expected or the autorefraction results are not consistent with expected findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2020.03.004DOI Listing
September 2020

Frequency of Pathogenic Germline Variants in Cancer-Susceptibility Genes in Patients With Osteosarcoma.

JAMA Oncol 2020 05;6(5):724-734

Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Stanmore, Middlesex, United Kingdom.

Importance: Osteosarcoma, the most common malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents, occurs in a high number of cancer predisposition syndromes that are defined by highly penetrant germline mutations. The germline genetic susceptibility to osteosarcoma outside of familial cancer syndromes remains unclear.

Objective: To investigate the germline genetic architecture of 1244 patients with osteosarcoma.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Whole-exome sequencing (n = 1104) or targeted sequencing (n = 140) of the DNA of 1244 patients with osteosarcoma from 10 participating international centers or studies was conducted from April 21, 2014, to September 1, 2017. The results were compared with the DNA of 1062 individuals without cancer assembled internally from 4 participating studies who underwent comparable whole-exome sequencing and 27 173 individuals of non-Finnish European ancestry who were identified through the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) database. In the analysis, 238 high-interest cancer-susceptibility genes were assessed followed by testing of the mutational burden across 736 additional candidate genes. Principal component analyses were used to identify 732 European patients with osteosarcoma and 994 European individuals without cancer, with outliers removed for patient-control group comparisons. Patients were subsequently compared with individuals in the ExAC group. All data were analyzed from June 1, 2017, to July 1, 2019.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The frequency of rare pathogenic or likely pathogenic genetic variants.

Results: Among 1244 patients with osteosarcoma (mean [SD] age at diagnosis, 16 [8.9] years [range, 2-80 years]; 684 patients [55.0%] were male), an analysis restricted to individuals with European ancestry indicated a significantly higher pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant burden in 238 high-interest cancer-susceptibility genes among patients with osteosarcoma compared with the control group (732 vs 994, respectively; P = 1.3 × 10-18). A pathogenic or likely pathogenic cancer-susceptibility gene variant was identified in 281 of 1004 patients with osteosarcoma (28.0%), of which nearly three-quarters had a variant that mapped to an autosomal-dominant gene or a known osteosarcoma-associated cancer predisposition syndrome gene. The frequency of a pathogenic or likely pathogenic cancer-susceptibility gene variant was 128 of 1062 individuals (12.1%) in the control group and 2527 of 27 173 individuals (9.3%) in the ExAC group. A higher than expected frequency of pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants was observed in genes not previously linked to osteosarcoma (eg, CDKN2A, MEN1, VHL, POT1, APC, MSH2, and ATRX) and in the Li-Fraumeni syndrome-associated gene, TP53.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this study, approximately one-fourth of patients with osteosarcoma unselected for family history had a highly penetrant germline mutation requiring additional follow-up analysis and possible genetic counseling with cascade testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2020.0197DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7082769PMC
May 2020

Reply.

Ophthalmol Retina 2020 01 1;4(1):e1-e2. Epub 2019 Oct 1.

Emory Eye Center, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oret.2019.09.013DOI Listing
January 2020

Immune gene expression profiling reveals heterogeneity in luminal breast tumors.

Breast Cancer Res 2019 12 19;21(1):147. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD, USA.

Background: Heterogeneity of immune gene expression patterns of luminal breast cancer (BC), which is clinically heterogeneous and overall considered as low immunogenic, has not been well studied especially in non-European populations. Here, we aimed at characterizing the immune gene expression profile of luminal BC in an Asian population and associating it with patient characteristics and tumor genomic features.

Methods: We performed immune gene expression profiling of tumor and adjacent normal tissue in 92 luminal BC patients from Hong Kong using RNA-sequencing data and used unsupervised consensus clustering to stratify tumors. We then used luminal patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA, N = 564) and a Korean breast cancer study (KBC, N = 112) as replication datasets.

Results: Based on the expression of 130 immune-related genes, luminal tumors were stratified into three distinct immune subtypes. Tumors in one subtype showed higher level of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), characterized by T cell gene activation, higher expression of immune checkpoint genes, higher nonsynonymous mutation burden, and higher APOBEC-signature mutations, compared with other luminal tumors. The high-TIL subtype was also associated with lower ESR1/ESR2 expression ratio and increasing body mass index. The comparison of the immune profile in tumor and matched normal tissue suggested a tumor-derived activation of specific immune responses, which was only seen in high-TIL patients. Tumors in a second subtype were characterized by increased expression of interferon-stimulated genes and enrichment for TP53 somatic mutations. The presence of three immune subtypes within luminal BC was replicated in TCGA and KBC, although the pattern was more similar in Asian populations. The germline APOBEC3B deletion polymorphism, which is prevalent in East Asian populations and was previously linked to immune activation, was not associated with immune subtypes in our study. This result does not support the hypothesis that the germline APOBEC3B deletion polymorphism is the driving force for immune activation in breast tumors in Asian populations.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that immune gene expression and associated genomic features could be useful to further stratify luminal BC beyond the current luminal A/B classification and a subset of luminal BC patients may benefit from checkpoint immunotherapy, at least in Asian populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13058-019-1218-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6924001PMC
December 2019

Oral microbial community composition is associated with pancreatic cancer: A case-control study in Iran.

Cancer Med 2020 01 21;9(2):797-806. Epub 2019 Nov 21.

Digestive Oncology Research Center, Digestive Diseases Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Oral microbiota may be related to pancreatic cancer risk because periodontal disease, a condition linked to multiple specific microbes, has been associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer. We evaluated the association between oral microbiota and pancreatic cancer in Iran.

Methods: A total of 273 pancreatic adenocarcinoma cases and 285 controls recruited from tertiary hospitals and a specialty clinic in Tehran, Iran provided saliva samples and filled out a questionnaire regarding demographics and lifestyle characteristics. DNA was extracted from saliva and the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene was PCR amplified and sequenced on the MiSeq. The sequencing data were processed using the DADA2 plugin in QIIME 2 and taxonomy was assigned against the Human Oral Microbiome Database. Logistic regression and MiRKAT models were calculated with adjustment for potential confounders.

Results: No association was observed for alpha diversity with an average of 91.11 (standard deviation [SD] 2.59) sequence variants for cases and 89.42 (SD 2.58) for controls. However, there was evidence for an association between beta diversity and case status. The association between the Bray-Curtis dissimilarity and pancreatic cancer was particularly strong with a MiRKAT P-value of .000142 and specific principal coordinate vectors had strong associations with cancer risk. Several specific taxa were also associated with case status after adjustment for multiple comparisons.

Conclusion: The overall microbial community appeared to differ between pancreatic cancer cases and controls. Whether these reflect differences evident before development of pancreatic cancer will need to be evaluated in prospective studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.2660DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6970053PMC
January 2020

Medial rectus plication for consecutive exotropia in a patient with stretched scar syndrome.

J AAPOS 2020 02 14;24(1):36-37. Epub 2019 Nov 14.

Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia. Electronic address:

We report a case of stretched scar syndrome in a 12-year-old girl with consecutive exotropia who had previously been treated with bilateral medial rectus muscle recessions. Stretched scar syndrome was confirmed intraoperatively, and bilateral medial rectus muscle plication was performed, successfully restoring normal alignment. Use of plication rather than resection of rectus muscles (stretched scar) can reduce the risk of a lost or slipped muscle and reduce surgical trauma and bleeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaapos.2019.10.002DOI Listing
February 2020

Binocular Treatment of Amblyopia: A Report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology.

Ophthalmology 2020 02 13;127(2):261-272. Epub 2019 Oct 13.

Department of Ophthalmology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California.

Purpose: To review the published literature assessing the efficacy of binocular therapy for the treatment of amblyopia compared with standard treatments.

Methods: Literature searches with no date restrictions and limited to the English language were conducted in January 2018 and updated in April 2019 in the PubMed database and the Cochrane Library database with no restrictions. The search yielded 286 citations, and the full text of 50 articles was reviewed. Twenty articles met the inclusion criteria for this assessment and were assigned a level of evidence rating by the panel methodologist. Six studies were rated level I, 1 study was rated level II, and 13 studies were rated level III because of the impact on the development and popularization of this technology.

Results: Two of the level I and II studies reviewed described a significant improvement in visual acuity in the binocular group versus standard patching standard treatment (the total number of patients in these 2 studies was 147). However, the 5 studies that failed to show a visual improvement from binocular therapy compared with standard treatments were larger and more rigorously designed (the total number of patients in these 5 studies was 813). Level I and II studies also failed to show a significant improvement over baseline in sensory status, including depth of suppression and stereopsis of those treated with binocular therapy. Several smaller level III case series (total number of patients in these 13 studies was 163) revealed more promising results than the binocular treatments studied in the level I and II studies, especially using treatments that are more engaging and are associated with better compliance.

Conclusions: There is no level I evidence to support the use of binocular treatment as a substitute for current therapies for amblyopia (including patching and optical treatment). Furthermore, 2 large randomized controlled trials showed inferior performance compared with standard patching treatment. On the basis of this review of the published literature, binocular therapy cannot be recommended as a replacement for standard amblyopia therapy. However, more research is needed to determine the potential benefits of proposed binocular treatments in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2019.08.024DOI Listing
February 2020

Brainwave Self-Regulation During Bispectral Index Neurofeedback in Trauma Center Nurses and Physicians After Receiving Mindfulness Instructions.

Front Psychol 2019 26;10:2153. Epub 2019 Sep 26.

Pastoral Services, St. Charles Borromeo Catholic Church, Boardman, OH, United States.

Fifty-seven level I trauma center nurses/physicians participated in a 4-day intervention to learn relaxed alertness using mindfulness-based instructions and EEG neurofeedback. Neurofeedback was provided by a Bispectral Index (BIS) system that continuously displays a BIS value (0-100) on the monitor screen. Reductions in the BIS value indicate that power in a high-frequency band (30-47 Hz) is decreased and power in an intermediate band (11-20 Hz) is increased. A wellbeing tool with four positive affect and seven negative affect items based on a 5-category Likert scale was used. The wellbeing score is the sum of the positive affect items (positive affect score) and the reverse-scored negative affect items (non-stress score). Of functional concern were four negative affect items rated as moderately, quite a bit, or extremely in a large percent. Of greater concern were all four positive affect items rated as very slightly or none at all, a little, or moderately in over half of the participants. Mean and nadir BIS values were markedly decreased during neurofeedback when compared to baseline values. Post-session relaxation scores were higher than pre-session relaxation scores. Post-session relaxation scores had an inverse relationship with mean and nadir BIS values. Mean and nadir BIS values were inversely associated with NFB cognitive states (i.e., widening the visual field, decreasing effort, attention to space, and relaxed alertness). For all participants, the wellbeing score was higher on day 4 than on day 1. Participants had a higher wellbeing score on day 4 than a larger group of nurses/physicians who did not participate in the BIS neurofeedback trial. Eighty percent of participants demonstrated an improvement in the positive affect or non-stress score on day 4, when compared to day 1; the wellbeing, non-stress, and positive affect scores were substantially higher on day 4 than on day 1. Additionally, for that 80% of participants, the improvements in wellbeing and non-stress were associated with reductions in day 3 BIS values. These findings indicate that trauma center nurses/physicians participating in an EEG neurofeedback trial with mindfulness instructions had improvements in wellbeing. www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT03152331. Registered May 15, 2017.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02153DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6775210PMC
September 2019

Tuberculosis infection and lung adenocarcinoma: Mendelian randomization and pathway analysis of genome-wide association study data from never-smoking Asian women.

Genomics 2020 03 12;112(2):1223-1232. Epub 2019 Jul 12.

Guangdong Lung Cancer Institute, Medical Research Center and Cancer Center of Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, China.

We investigated whether genetic susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB) influences lung adenocarcinoma development among never-smokers using TB genome-wide association study (GWAS) results within the Female Lung Cancer Consortium in Asia. Pathway analysis with the adaptive rank truncated product method was used to assess the association between a TB-related gene-set and lung adenocarcinoma using GWAS data from 5512 lung adenocarcinoma cases and 6277 controls. The gene-set consisted of 31 genes containing known/suggestive associations with genetic variants from previous TB-GWAS. Subsequently, we followed-up with Mendelian Randomization to evaluate the association between TB and lung adenocarcinoma using three genome-wide significant variants from previous TB-GWAS in East Asians. The TB-related gene-set was associated with lung adenocarcinoma (p = 0.016). Additionally, the Mendelian Randomization showed an association between TB and lung adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.66, p = 0.027). Our findings support TB as a causal risk factor for lung cancer development among never-smoking Asian women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygeno.2019.07.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6954985PMC
March 2020

Intraocular Lens Implantation during Early Childhood: A Report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology.

Ophthalmology 2019 10 21;126(10):1454-1461. Epub 2019 Jun 21.

Department of Ophthalmology, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Purpose: To compare the visual outcomes and adverse events associated with optical correction using an intraocular lens (IOL), contact lenses, or spectacles after cataract surgery in children 2 years of age or younger.

Methods: Literature searches were conducted in PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and the databases of clinical trials in February 2019, without date or language restrictions. The search resulted in 194 potentially relevant citations, and 34 were selected for full-text review. Fourteen studies were determined to be relevant to the assessment criteria and were selected for inclusion in this assessment. The panel methodologist then assigned a level of evidence rating to these studies.

Results: Intraocular lenses were associated with visual outcomes similar to outcomes for contact lenses or spectacles for children who had both bilateral and unilateral cataracts. Intraocular lenses were also associated with an increased risk of visual axis opacities. All treatments were associated with a similar incidence of glaucoma. Although ocular growth was similar for all treatments, infants younger than 6 months who underwent IOL implantation had large myopic shifts that often resulted in high myopia or severe anisometropia later in childhood. Corneal endothelial cell counts were lower in eyes that underwent IOL implantation. The incidence of strabismus was similar with all treatments.

Conclusions: Intraocular lens implantation is not recommended for children 6 months of age or younger because there is a higher incidence of visual axis opacities with this treatment compared with aphakia. The best available evidence suggests that IOL implantation can be done safely with acceptable side effects in children older than 6 months of age. However, the unpredictability of ocular growth means that these children will often have large refractive errors later in childhood that may necessitate an IOL exchange or wearing spectacles or contact lenses with a large refractive correction. In addition, the training and experience of the surgeon as well as ocular and systemic comorbidities should be taken into consideration when deciding whether IOL implantation would be appropriate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2019.05.009DOI Listing
October 2019

Blood DNA methylation and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis of four prospective cohort studies.

Breast Cancer Res 2019 05 17;21(1):62. Epub 2019 May 17.

Divison of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, USA.

Background: Environmental and genetic factors play an important role in the etiology of breast cancer. Several small blood-based DNA methylation studies have reported risk associations with methylation at individual CpGs and average methylation levels; however, these findings require validation in larger prospective cohort studies. To investigate the role of blood DNA methylation on breast cancer risk, we conducted a meta-analysis of four prospective cohort studies, including a total of 1663 incident cases and 1885 controls, the largest study of blood DNA methylation and breast cancer risk to date.

Methods: We assessed associations with methylation at 365,145 CpGs present in the HumanMethylation450 (HM450K) Beadchip, after excluding CpGs that did not pass quality controls in all studies. Each of the four cohorts estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between each individual CpG and breast cancer risk. In addition, each study assessed the association between average methylation measures and breast cancer risk, adjusted and unadjusted for cell-type composition. Study-specific ORs were combined using fixed-effect meta-analysis with inverse variance weights. Stratified analyses were conducted by age at diagnosis (< 50, ≥ 50), estrogen receptor (ER) status (+/-), and time since blood collection (< 5, 5-10, > 10 years). The false discovery rate (q value) was used to account for multiple testing.

Results: The average age at blood draw ranged from 52.2 to 62.2 years across the four cohorts. Median follow-up time ranged from 6.6 to 8.4 years. The methylation measured at individual CpGs was not associated with breast cancer risk (q value > 0.59). In addition, higher average methylation level was not associated with risk of breast cancer (OR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.85, 1.05; P = 0.26; P for study heterogeneity = 0.86). We found no evidence of modification of this association by age at diagnosis (P = 0.17), ER status (P = 0.88), time since blood collection (P = 0.98), or CpG location (P = 0.98).

Conclusions: Our data indicate that DNA methylation measured in the blood prior to breast cancer diagnosis in predominantly postmenopausal women is unlikely to be associated with substantial breast cancer risk on the HM450K array. Larger studies or with greater methylation coverage are needed to determine if associations exist between blood DNA methylation and breast cancer risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13058-019-1145-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6525390PMC
May 2019

Fluorescein Angiography in Retinopathy of Prematurity: Comparison of Infants Treated with Bevacizumab to Those with Spontaneous Regression.

Ophthalmol Retina 2019 05 31;3(5):436-443. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Department of Ophthalmology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia. Electronic address:

Objective: Medium- and long-term sequelae of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) for type 1 retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) are uncertain. Our aim was to describe the fluorescein angiography (FA) findings in patients who received IVB as primary treatment for type 1 ROP and compare them to findings in patients with ROP that spontaneously regressed.

Design: Retrospective cohort.

Participants: Twenty-eight patients with a history of ROP who underwent fluorescein angiography between December 1, 2013, and July 31, 2018. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on whether they had received IVB or had ROP that spontaneously regressed.

Methods: We reviewed the angiograms in the 2 groups for neovascularization (NV) and other abnormal vascular patterns in both the periphery and the posterior pole.

Main Outcome Measures: Fluorescein angiography findings, including NV, peripheral, and macular vascular abnormalities.

Results: Forty eyes of 20 infants were included in the IVB group and 16 eyes of 8 infants in the untreated group. Median gestational age at birth was similar in the 2 groups (24.5 and 24.7 weeks, respectively; P = 0.44), as was the median birth weight (648.5 and 560.0 g, respectively; P = 0.26). Median postmenstrual age at the time of FA was 65.1 and 83.9 weeks, respectively (P = 0.0002). Review of angiograms demonstrated NV in 30.0% and 37.5% in the IVB and untreated cohorts, respectively (P = 0.75). Abnormal vascular patterns in the periphery were similar in both groups (100.0%), whereas posterior pole findings of vessels encroaching onto the fovea were more prevalent in the IVB cohort (65.0% vs. 25.0%; P = 0.009).

Conclusions: Fluorescein angiography after bevacizumab for ROP reveals abnormal vascular patterns in all eyes and NV in approximately one-third. Similar abnormal vascular patterns on FA are seen at a similar prevalence after spontaneous regression of ROP. These findings suggest that the abnormal vascular patterns identified by FA in patients with ROP result from the disease process itself rather than as a result of exposure to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor medications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oret.2019.01.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6501804PMC
May 2019

Use of Orthokeratology for the Prevention of Myopic Progression in Children: A Report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology.

Ophthalmology 2019 04 23;126(4):623-636. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Department of Ophthalmology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California.

Purpose: To review the published evidence to evaluate the ability of orthokeratology (Ortho-K) treatment to reduce myopic progression in children and adolescents compared with the use of spectacles or daytime contact lenses for standard refractive correction.

Methods: Literature searches of the PubMed database, the Cochrane Library, and the databases of clinical trials were last conducted on August 21, 2018, with no date restrictions but limited to articles published in English. These searches yielded 162 citations, of which 13 were deemed clinically relevant for full-text review and inclusion in this assessment. The panel methodologist then assigned a level of evidence rating to the selected studies.

Results: The 13 articles selected for inclusion include 3 prospective, randomized clinical trials; 7 nonrandomized, prospective comparative studies; and 3 retrospective case series. One study provided level I evidence, 11 studies provided level II evidence, and 1 study provided level III evidence. Most studies were performed in populations of Asian ethnicity. Change in axial length was the primary outcome for 10 of 13 studies and change in refraction was the primary outcome for 3 of 13 studies. In these studies, Ortho-K typically reduced axial elongation by approximately 50% over a 2-year study period. This corresponds to average axial length change values of approximately 0.3 mm for Ortho-K patients compared with 0.6 mm for control patients, which corresponds to a typical difference in refraction of approximately 0.5 diopters (D). Younger age groups and individuals with larger than average pupil size may have a greater effect with Ortho-K. Rebound can occur after discontinuation or change to alternative refractive treatment.

Conclusions: Orthokeratology may be effective in slowing myopic progression for children and adolescents, with a potentially greater effect when initiated at an early age (6-8 years). Safety remains a concern because of the risk of potentially blinding microbial keratitis from contact lens wear.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2018.11.026DOI Listing
April 2019

Effects of Myo-inositol on Type 1 Retinopathy of Prematurity Among Preterm Infants <28 Weeks' Gestational Age: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA 2018 10;320(16):1649-1658

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Iowa, Iowa City.

Importance: Previous studies of myo-inositol in preterm infants with respiratory distress found reduced severity of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and less frequent ROP, death, and intraventricular hemorrhage. However, no large trials have tested its efficacy or safety.

Objective: To test the adverse events and efficacy of myo-inositol to reduce type 1 ROP among infants younger than 28 weeks' gestational age.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Randomized clinical trial included 638 infants younger than 28 weeks' gestational age enrolled from 18 neonatal intensive care centers throughout the United States from April 17, 2014, to September 4, 2015; final date of follow-up was February 12, 2016. The planned enrollment of 1760 participants would permit detection of an absolute reduction in death or type 1 ROP of 7% with 90% power. The trial was terminated early due to a statistically significantly higher mortality rate in the myo-inositol group.

Interventions: A 40-mg/kg dose of myo-inositol was given every 12 hours (initially intravenously, then enterally when feeding; n = 317) or placebo (n = 321) for up to 10 weeks.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Type 1 ROP or death before determination of ROP outcome was designated as unfavorable. The designated favorable outcome was survival without type 1 ROP.

Results: Among 638 infants (mean, 26 weeks' gestational age; 50% male), 632 (99%) received the trial drug or placebo and 589 (92%) had a study outcome. Death or type 1 ROP occurred more often in the myo-inositol group vs the placebo group (29% vs 21%, respectively; adjusted risk difference, 7% [95% CI, 0%-13%]; adjusted relative risk, 1.41 [95% CI, 1.08-1.83], P = .01). All-cause death before 55 weeks' postmenstrual age occurred in 18% of the myo-inositol group and in 11% of the placebo group (adjusted risk difference, 6% [95% CI, 0%-11%]; adjusted relative risk, 1.66 [95% CI, 1.14-2.43], P = .007). The most common serious adverse events up to 7 days of receiving the ending dose were necrotizing enterocolitis (6% for myo-inositol vs 4% for placebo), poor perfusion or hypotension (7% vs 4%, respectively), intraventricular hemorrhage (10% vs 9%), systemic infection (16% vs 11%), and respiratory distress (15% vs 13%).

Conclusions And Relevance: Among premature infants younger than 28 weeks' gestational age, treatment with myo-inositol for up to 10 weeks did not reduce the risk of type 1 ROP or death vs placebo. These findings do not support the use of myo-inositol among premature infants; however, the early termination of the trial limits definitive conclusions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2018.14996DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6233812PMC
October 2018