Publications by authors named "Amy Goldstein"

90 Publications

Reply to "Pediatric Leigh Syndrome: Neuroimaging Features and Genetic Correlations".

Ann Neurol 2021 Mar 5;89(3):631-633. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.25999DOI Listing
March 2021

Increasing collaboration and translation in epidemiology and intervention research.

Psychol Addict Behav 2020 Dec;34(8):890-893

Division of Epidemiology, Services and Prevention Research, National Institute on Drug Abuse.

Epidemiologic research serves as an important foundation for intervention research. In this way, it can contribute to vast improvements in public health. However, to fully capitalize on what is learned through epidemiology, collaborations must ensure the translation of epidemiologic findings into both treatment and prevention interventions. This commentary suggests some ways in which epidemiology can inform intervention research and how intervention research can be backtranslated so that epidemiological studies are designed to better inform intervention design. The commentary does this by using as examples the original contributions in this special section on the intergenerational transmission of cannabis use. These studies identify several ways in which epidemiology can inform intervention and discuss mechanisms of risk transmission from one generation to the next, such as parental monitoring, parent norms around substance use or parenting strategies, poor inhibitory control, or perceptions of harm from substance use. Targeting these mechanisms could be important for effective intervention. The papers further explore factors that might mitigate or amplify the association between parental and offspring use of cannabis, such as active coping or harsh parenting. Finally, to ensure bridging between substance abuse epidemiology and intervention research, this article considers research training practices. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/adb0000641DOI Listing
December 2020

Primary Mitochondrial Disorders of the Pediatric Central Nervous System: Neuroimaging Findings.

Radiographics 2020 Nov-Dec;40(7):2042-2067

From the Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology (F.G.G., C.A.P.F.A., S.R.T., J.S.M.S., S.A., A.V.), Department of Pathology (A.N.V.), and Mitochondrial Medicine Frontier Program, Division of Human Genetics, Department of Pediatrics (B.H., J.P., A.G.), Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, 3401 Civic Center Blvd, Philadelphia, PA 19104-4399; and Departments of Pediatrics (A.G.) and Radiology (S.A., A.V.), University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine (A.N.V.), Philadelphia, Pa.

Primary mitochondrial disorders (PMDs) constitute the most common cause of inborn errors of metabolism in children, and they frequently affect the central nervous system. Neuroimaging findings of PMDs are variable, ranging from unremarkable and nonspecific to florid and highly suggestive. An overview of PMDs, including a synopsis of the basic genetic concepts, main clinical symptoms, and neuropathologic features, is presented. In addition, eight of the most common PMDs that have a characteristic imaging phenotype in children are reviewed in detail. . RSNA, 2020.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/rg.2020200052DOI Listing
November 2020

Seeking impact: Global perspectives on outcome measure selection for translational and clinical research for primary mitochondrial disorders.

J Inherit Metab Dis 2020 Oct 5. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

Metabolic Unit, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Primary mitochondrial disorders (PMDs) are challenging due to overall poor outcomes, no proven treatments, and a history of failed clinical trials, leading to a critical need to design future trials that can prove efficacy of an intervention. Selection of outcome measures for PMDs is complicated by extreme clinical, biochemical and genetic heterogeneity; PMDs are effectively a collection of nearly 400 individually ultrarare diseases. In clinical trials, outcome measures aim to evaluate, and ideally quantitate, the efficacy of an intervention in ameliorating clinical phenotype(s). The heterogeneity and multisystemic nature of PMDs makes it unlikely that a universal outcome measure will be applicable to all PMDs. Instead, a composite score of the individual's most worrisome symptoms may be a preferable endpoint. A further challenge arises from the tension between finding outcomes suitable for use in clinical trials (able to produce a measurable change in a relatively short period of time, namely the duration of a clinical trial) vs measures that are clinically meaningful to individual patients. A number of clinical rating scales and proposed biomarkers have emerged to capture the features of PMDs for natural history and interventional trials. Here we review our collective experiences with clinical rating scales, patient-reported outcome measures, and physiological, imaging, biochemical and muscle phenotypes as outcome measures in paediatric and adult PMDs in natural history studies and recent clinical trials. There is a pressing need to agree on a set of validated, robust, clinically meaningful outcome measures internationally, to facilitate the multicentre international clinical trials needed for optimal evaluation of novel therapies for these ultrarare diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jimd.12320DOI Listing
October 2020

A Tale of Two Brothers: Familial Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel Autoimmune Encephalitis.

Cureus 2020 Jun 20;12(6):e8723. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Pediatrics, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, USA.

This is the first reported case of familial voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) autoimmune encephalitis. The symptoms of autoimmune encephalitis can mimic infectious encephalitis with headache, fatigue, and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Autoimmunity is emerging as a distinct cause of encephalitis in the children. Prompt recognition, diagnosis, and treatment are important to prevent brain damage. Two brothers presented two years apart with different symptoms. The explanation for their distinct symptoms lies in the multifactorial development of autoimmunity. The presentation of autoimmune encephalitis can depend on the offending antibodies. The most common are antibodies against the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor and the VGKC complex. Antibodies to the VGKC complex are divided into three different groups depending on their antigenic target: leucine-rich glioma-inactivated protein 1 (LGI1), contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2), or neither. Anti-VGKC antibodies in children are associated with neuroinflammation and encephalitis. Autoimmunity to LGI1 and CASPR2 antigens is associated with distinct human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles. Different HLA isotypes are involved in antigen processing and presentation and can lead to a genetic predisposition to autoimmunity. VGKC autoimmune encephalitis can present with memory changes, psychiatric symptoms, and motor abnormalities. Both brothers presented with these symptoms in their own unique way. Efficient diagnosis and immunosuppression helped improve their outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.8723DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7372199PMC
June 2020

User-Centered Psychiatric Epidemiology.

JAMA Psychiatry 2020 10;77(10):992-993

Prevention Research Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda, Maryland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2020.1361DOI Listing
October 2020

Pediatric Leigh Syndrome: Neuroimaging Features and Genetic Correlations.

Ann Neurol 2020 08 13;88(2):218-232. Epub 2020 Jun 13.

Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

The neurodiagnostic criteria of Leigh syndrome have not yet been clearly redefined based on the expanding of molecular etiologies. We aimed to analyze 20 years of clinical, genetic, and magnetic resonance studies from our Leigh syndrome cohort to provide a detailed description of central nervous system lesions in Leigh syndrome and their biological evolution in view of their genetic and clinical findings. Our study adds new neurodiagnostic insights to the current knowledge of Leigh syndrome, including association with overlapping syndromes, and the correlation of pathogenic genetic variants with neuroimaging phenotypes. ANN NEUROL 2020;88:218-232.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.25789DOI Listing
August 2020

Phenotypic and Imaging Spectrum Associated With WDR45.

Pediatr Neurol 2020 08 11;109:56-62. Epub 2020 Mar 11.

Division of Neurology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Background: Mutations in the X-linked gene WDR45 cause neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation type 5. Global developmental delay occurs at an early age with slow progression to dystonia, parkinsonism, and dementia due to progressive iron accumulation in the brain.

Methods: We present 17 new cases and reviewed 106 reported cases of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation type 5. Detailed information related to developmental history and key time to event measures was collected.

Results: Within this cohort, there were 19 males. Most individuals were molecularly diagnosed by whole-exome testing. Overall 10 novel variants were identified across 11 subjects. All individuals were affected by developmental delay, most prominently in verbal skills. Most individuals experienced a decline in motor and cognitive skills. Although most individuals were affected by seizures, the spectrum ranged from provoked seizures to intractable epilepsy. The imaging findings varied as well, often evolving over time. The classic iron accumulation in the globus pallidus and substantia nigra was noted in half of our cohort and was associated with older age of image acquisition, whereas myelination abnormalities were associated with younger age.

Conclusions: WDR45 mutations lead to a progressive and evolving disorder whose diagnosis is often delayed. Developmental delay and seizures predominate in early childhood, followed by a progressive decline of neurological function. There is variable expressivity in the clinical phenotypes of individuals with WDR45 mutations, suggesting that this gene should be considered in the diagnostic evaluation of children with myelination abnormalities, iron deposition, developmental delay, and epilepsy depending on the age at evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2020.03.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7387198PMC
August 2020

Mitochondrial diseases in North America: An analysis of the NAMDC Registry.

Neurol Genet 2020 Apr 2;6(2):e402. Epub 2020 Mar 2.

Department of Neurology (E.B., V.E., S.D., K.E., X.Q.R., M.H.), Columbia University Medical Center, New York; Department of Biostatistics (Y.L., V.C., J.K., J. Grier, R.B., J.L.P.T.), Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York; Radboudumc (R.S.), Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Department of Pediatrics (B.H.C.), Northeast Ohio Medical University and Akron Children's Hospital; Genetics Unit (A.K.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Department of Pediatrics (G.D.V.), State University of New York at Buffalo; Departments of Neurosciences and Pediatrics (R.H.), University of California at San Diego; Department of Pediatrics (J.L.K.V.H., A.L.), University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora; Department of Molecular and Human Genetics (F.S.), Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX; Texas Children's Hospital (F.S.), Houston; Joint BCM-CUHK Center of Medical Genetics (F.S.), Prince of Wales Hospital, ShaTin, New Territories, Hong Kong; Department of Neurology (S.P.), Cleveland Clinic, OH; Departments of Genetics and Genome Sciences and Pediatrics (J.K.B., S.D.D.), and Center for Human Genetics, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University, OH; Departments of Neurology and Clinical Genomics (R.H.G.), Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN; Department of Neurology (R.P.S.), University of Washington, Seattle Children's Hospital; Department of Pediatrics (G.M.E.), Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA; Department of Medicine (P.W.S.), University of Florida at Gainesville; Genetics and Genomic Sciences at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai (J. Ganesh), New York; Mitochondrial Medicine Frontier Program (Z.Z.-C., M.J.F., A.C.G.), Division of Human Genetics, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine; University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine (Z.Z.-C.), Philadelphia; Department of Neurology (M.T.), McMasters University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Department of Neurology (A.G.), Children's National Health Network, Washington, DC; Office of Dietary Supplements (K.C.), National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD; and Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (D.K.), National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.

Objective: To describe clinical, biochemical, and genetic features of participants with mitochondrial diseases (MtDs) enrolled in the North American Mitochondrial Disease Consortium (NAMDC) Registry.

Methods: This cross-sectional, multicenter, retrospective database analysis evaluates the phenotypic and molecular characteristics of participants enrolled in the NAMDC Registry from September 2011 to December 2018. The NAMDC is a network of 17 centers with expertise in MtDs and includes both adult and pediatric specialists.

Results: One thousand four hundred ten of 1,553 participants had sufficient clinical data for analysis. For this study, we included only participants with molecular genetic diagnoses (n = 666). Age at onset ranged from infancy to adulthood. The most common diagnosis was multisystemic disorder (113 participants), and only a minority of participants were diagnosed with a classical mitochondrial syndrome. The most frequent classical syndromes were Leigh syndrome (97 individuals) and mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (71 individuals). Pathogenic variants in the mitochondrial DNA were more frequently observed (414 participants) than pathogenic nuclear gene variants (252 participants). Pathogenic variants in 65 nuclear genes were identified, with and being the most commonly affected. Pathogenic variants in 38 genes were reported only in single participants.

Conclusions: The NAMDC Registry data confirm the high variability of clinical, biochemical, and genetic features of participants with MtDs. This study serves as an important resource for future enhancement of MtD research and clinical care by providing the first comprehensive description of participant with MtD in North America.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/NXG.0000000000000402DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7164977PMC
April 2020

First report of childhood progressive cerebellar atrophy due to compound heterozygous MTFMT variants.

Clin Genet 2020 05 5;97(5):793-794. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Department of Neurology, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cge.13708DOI Listing
May 2020

A randomized crossover trial of elamipretide in adults with primary mitochondrial myopathy.

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2020 08 25;11(4):909-918. Epub 2020 Feb 25.

Department of Pediatrics, Rebecca D. Considine Research Institute, Akron Children's Hospital, Akron, OH, USA.

Background: This study aims to evaluate the effect of subcutaneous (SC) elamipretide dosing on exercise performance using the 6 min walk test (6MWT), patient-reported outcomes measuring fatigue, functional assessments, and safety to guide the development of the Phase 3 trial.

Methods: MMPOWER-2 was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial that enrolled participants (N = 30) with genetically confirmed primary mitochondrial myopathy. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to 40 mg/day SC elamipretide for 4 weeks followed by placebo SC for 4 weeks, separated by a 4-week washout period, or the opposite sequence. The primary endpoint was the distance walked on the 6MWT.

Results: The distance walked on the 6MWT by the elamipretide-treated participants was 398.3 (±134.16) meters compared with 378.5 (±125.10) meters in the placebo-treated group, a difference of 19.8 m (95% confidence interval, -2.8, 42.5; P = 0.0833). The results of the Primary Mitochondrial Myopathy Symptom Assessment Total Fatigue and Total Fatigue During Activities scores showed that participants treated with elamipretide reported less fatigue and muscle complaints compared with placebo (P = 0.0006 and P = 0.0018, respectively). Additionally, the Neuro-QoL Fatigue Short Form and Patient Global Assessment showed reductions in symptoms (P = 0.0115 and P = 0.0421, respectively). In this 4-week treatment period, no statistically significant change was observed in the Physician Global Assessment (P = 0.0636), the Triple Timed Up and Go (P = 0.8423) test, and wrist/hip accelerometry (P = 0.9345 and P = 0.7326, respectively). Injection site reactions were the most commonly reported adverse events with elamipretide (80%), the majority of which were mild. No serious adverse events or deaths were reported.

Conclusions: Participants who received a short-course treatment of daily SC elamipretide for 4 weeks experienced a clinically meaningful change in the 6MWT, which did not achieve statistical significance as the primary endpoint of the study. Secondary endpoints were suggestive of an elamipretide treatment effect compared with placebo. Nominal statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvements were seen in patient-reported outcomes. The results of this trial provided an efficacy signal and data to support the initiation of MMPOWER-3, a 6-month long, Phase 3 treatment trial in patients with primary mitochondrial myopathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcsm.12559DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7432581PMC
August 2020

Safety and efficacy of omaveloxolone in patients with mitochondrial myopathy: MOTOR trial.

Neurology 2020 02 2;94(7):e687-e698. Epub 2020 Jan 2.

From Copenhagen Neuromuscular Center (K.L.M., A.E.B., J.V.), Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Denmark; Akron Children's Hospital (B.H.C.), OH; Mitochondrial Medicine Frontier Program, Department of Pediatrics (M.J.F., C.C.M., Z.Z.C.), The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia; University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine (M.J.F., Z.Z.C.), Philadelphia; Reata Pharmaceuticals (A. Goldsberry, C.M., M.O.), Irving, TX; University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine (A. Goldstein, J.V.), Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, PA; Genetics Unit (A.K.), Massachusetts General, Boston; University of Texas Medical School (M.K.K.); Baylor College of Medicine (F.S.); Texas Children's Hospital (F.S.), Houston; BCM-CUHK Center of Medical Genetics (F.S.), Prince of Wales Hospital, ShaTin, New Territories, Hong Kong; University of California Los Angeles (P.B.S.); and University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center and Neuromuscular Center (R.G.H.), Institute for Exercise & Environmental Medicine, Dallas.

Objective: To investigate the safety and efficacy of escalating doses of the semi-synthetic triterpenoid omaveloxolone in patients with mitochondrial myopathy.

Methods: In cohorts of 8-13, 53 participants were randomized double-blind to 12 weeks of treatment with omaveloxolone 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, or 160 mg, or placebo. Outcome measures were change in peak cycling exercise workload (primary), in 6-minute walk test (6MWT) distance (secondary), and in submaximal exercise heart rate and plasma lactate (exploratory).

Results: No differences in peak workload or 6MWT were observed at week 12 with omaveloxolone treatment vs placebo for all omaveloxolone dose groups. In contrast, omaveloxolone 160 mg reduced heart rate at week 12 by 12.0 ± 4.6 bpm (SE) during submaximal exercise vs placebo, = 0.01, and by 8.7 ± 3.5 bpm (SE) vs baseline, = 0.02. Similarly, blood lactate was 1.4 ± 0.7 mM (SE) lower vs placebo, = 0.04, and 1.6 ± 0.5 mM (SE) lower vs baseline at week 12, = 0.003, with omaveloxolone 160 mg treatment. Adverse events were generally mild and infrequent.

Conclusions: Omaveloxolone 160 mg was well-tolerated, and did not lead to change in the primary outcome measure, but improved exploratory endpoints lowering heart rate and lactate production during submaximal exercise, consistent with improved mitochondrial function and submaximal exercise tolerance. Therefore, omaveloxolone potentially benefits patients with mitochondrial myopathy, which encourages further investigations of omaveloxolone in this patient group.

Clinicaltrialsgov Identifier: NCT02255422.

Classification Of Evidence: This study provides Class II evidence that, for patients with mitochondrial myopathy, omaveloxolone compared to placebo did not significantly change peak exercise workload.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000008861DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7176297PMC
February 2020

Broadening the phenotypic spectrum of Pearson syndrome: Five new cases and a review of the literature.

Am J Med Genet A 2020 02 11;182(2):365-373. Epub 2019 Dec 11.

Division of Human Genetics, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Pearson syndrome (PS) is a multisystem mitochondrial respiratory chain disorder typically characterized by sideroblastic anemia and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. PS is caused by a single large-scale mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletion. PS classically presents in the first year of life and may be fatal in infancy. Children who survive PS may progress to develop Kearns-Sayre syndrome later in life. The full phenotypic spectrum and prognosis of the condition continue to evolve. Here we report five new patients with PS with unique clinical presentations, including four patients with onset later than previously reported in the literature, and one patient with prenatal onset of symptoms. The timing and unique features of these presentations support an expanded phenotypic spectrum of single large-scale mtDNA deletion syndromes (SLSMDS) and reinforce the importance of including SLSMDS in the differential for children with complex multisystem presentations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.61433DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7183758PMC
February 2020

Fatigue in primary genetic mitochondrial disease: No rest for the weary.

Neuromuscul Disord 2019 11 25;29(11):895-902. Epub 2019 Sep 25.

Mitochondrial Disease Program, Genetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States.

Rates of perceived fatigue, anxiety, depression, sleepiness and mitochondrial disease severity were assessed prospectively in 2017-2018 using established validated questionnaires in 48 adult patients with genetically confirmed primary mitochondrial disease. Fatigue was found to be very common among patients with primary mitochondrial disease, with 34 to 48 (71-100%) patients reporting fatigue depending on the measure used, and the severity of fatigue correlating with the severity of disease. Moderate-to-severe depression (10/48; 20.8%) anxiety (28/48; 58.3%) and sleep problems (16/48; 33.3%) were frequent in our patients with fatigue and these conditions were even more prevalent in those with severe fatigue. In conclusion, perceived fatigue was common in patients with primary mitochondrial disease and appeared to correlate with disease severity. Depression, anxiety and sleep disorders were more common in the cohort than those with other chronic diseases but with rates similar to that seen in multiple sclerosis. The severity of perceived fatigue correlated with an increased risk of these comorbid conditions. The Fatigue Severity Scale may more selectively measure non-anxiety/sleep-related fatigue in primary mitochondrial disease and additional testing is planned.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nmd.2019.09.012DOI Listing
November 2019

Characterization of the renal phenotype in RMND1-related mitochondrial disease.

Mol Genet Genomic Med 2019 12 30;7(12):e973. Epub 2019 Sep 30.

Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: The nuclear encoded gene RMND1 (Required for Meiotic Nuclear Division 1 homolog) has recently been linked to RMND1-related mitochondrial disease (RRMD). This autosomal recessive condition characteristically presents with an infantile-onset multisystem disease characterized by severe hypotonia, global developmental delay, failure to thrive, sensorineural hearing loss, and lactic acidosis. Renal disease, however, appears to be one of the more prominent features of RRMD, affecting patients at significantly higher numbers compared to other mitochondrial diseases. We report the clinical, histological, and molecular findings of four RRMD patients across three academic institutions with a focus on the renal manifestations.

Methods: Four patients were identified for the purpose of this study, all of whom had molecular confirmation at the time of inclusion, which included the common pathogenic variant c.713A>G (p.N238S) as well as the three rare variants: c.485delC (p.P162fs), c.533C>T (p.T178M), and c.1317 + 1G>C splice donor variant. Medical history and laboratory findings were collected from the medical records and medical providers.

Results: In this study, all four patients developed renal disease characterized as tubulopathy (3/4), renal tubular acidosis (2/4), interstitial nephritis (1/4), and/or end-stage renal disease (4/4) necessitating renal transplantation (2/4). Histological evaluation of renal biopsy specimens revealed generalized tubular atrophy and on electron microscopy, abundant mitochondria with pleomorphism and abnormal cristae.

Conclusion: Our experience with RRMD demonstrates a specific pattern of renal disease manifestations and clinical course. Patients are unlikely to respond to traditional chronic kidney disease (CKD) treatments, making early diagnosis and consideration of renal transplantation paramount to the management of RRMD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mgg3.973DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6900359PMC
December 2019

Primary mitochondrial disease in the US: Data from patients and physicians' perspective on health care delivery.

Data Brief 2019 Aug 30;25:104343. Epub 2019 Jul 30.

Neurogenetics, Center for Pediatric Neurology, Cleveland Clinic Children's Hospital, Cleveland, OH, USA.

This article presents data that examine the patient's perception of health care delivery for mitochondrial disease in the US. It also presents the opinions of mitochondrial disease expert physicians about creating a specialised network of clinics to oversee the care of patients with this disease within the US. Two separate electronic surveys were developed; one for mitochondrial disease patients and their families ascertaining their satisfaction with their current health care and the challenges they face. The other for the physicians group assessing the usefulness, feasibility and readiness to develop specialized care clinics for mitochondrial disease in the US. Survey responses and descriptive analysis are presented here. The data in this article is supplemental, and supports the information presented in the research article "Harmonizing care for rare diseases: How we developed the mitochondrial care network in the United States." Karaa et al., 2019.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2019.104343DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6727191PMC
August 2019

Mitochondrial single-stranded DNA binding protein novel de novo SSBP1 mutation in a child with single large-scale mtDNA deletion (SLSMD) clinically manifesting as Pearson, Kearns-Sayre, and Leigh syndromes.

PLoS One 2019 3;14(9):e0221829. Epub 2019 Sep 3.

Mitochondrial Medicine Frontier Program, Division of Human Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, United States of America.

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome integrity is essential for proper mitochondrial respiratory chain function to generate cellular energy. Nuclear genes encode several proteins that function at the mtDNA replication fork, including mitochondrial single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSBP1), which is a tetrameric protein that binds and protects single-stranded mtDNA (ssDNA). Recently, two studies have reported pathogenic variants in SSBP1 associated with hearing loss, optic atrophy, and retinal degeneration. Here, we report a 14-year-old Chinese boy with severe and progressive mitochondrial disease manifestations across the full Pearson, Kearns-Sayre, and Leigh syndromes spectrum, including infantile anemia and bone marrow failure, growth failure, ptosis, ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, severe retinal dystrophy of the rod-cone type, sensorineural hearing loss, chronic kidney disease, multiple endocrine deficiencies, and metabolic strokes. mtDNA genome sequencing identified a single large-scale 5 kilobase mtDNA deletion (m.8629_14068del5440), present at 68% and 16% heteroplasmy in the proband's fibroblast cell line and blood, respectively, suggestive of a mtDNA maintenance defect. On trio whole exome blood sequencing, the proband was found to harbor a novel de novo heterozygous mutation c.79G>A (p.E27K) in SSBP1. Size exclusion chromatography of p.E27K SSBP1 revealed it remains a stable tetramer. However, differential scanning fluorimetry demonstrated p.E27K SSBP1 relative to wild type had modestly decreased thermostability. Functional assays also revealed p.E27K SSBP1 had altered DNA binding. Molecular modeling of SSBP1 tetramers with varying combinations of mutant subunits predicted general changes in surface accessible charges, strength of inter-subunit interactions, and protein dynamics. Overall, the observed changes in protein dynamics and DNA binding behavior suggest that p.E27K SSBP1 can interfere with DNA replication and precipitate the introduction of large-scale mtDNA deletions. Thus, a single large-scale mtDNA deletion (SLSMD) with manifestations across the clinical spectrum of Pearson, Kearns-Sayre, and Leigh syndromes may result from a nuclear gene disorder disrupting mitochondrial DNA replication.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0221829PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6719858PMC
March 2020

Redefining the Etiologic Landscape of Cerebellar Malformations.

Am J Hum Genet 2019 09 29;105(3):606-615. Epub 2019 Aug 29.

Center for Integrative Brain Research, Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, WA 98101, USA; Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105, USA; Department of Neurology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105, USA. Electronic address:

Cerebellar malformations are diverse congenital anomalies frequently associated with developmental disability. Although genetic and prenatal non-genetic causes have been described, no systematic analysis has been performed. Here, we present a large-exome sequencing study of Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM) and cerebellar hypoplasia (CBLH). We performed exome sequencing in 282 individuals from 100 families with DWM or CBLH, and we established a molecular diagnosis in 36 of 100 families, with a significantly higher yield for CBLH (51%) than for DWM (16%). The 41 variants impact 27 neurodevelopmental-disorder-associated genes, thus demonstrating that CBLH and DWM are often features of monogenic neurodevelopmental disorders. Though only seven monogenic causes (19%) were identified in more than one individual, neuroimaging review of 131 additional individuals confirmed cerebellar abnormalities in 23 of 27 genetic disorders (85%). Prenatal risk factors were frequently found among individuals without a genetic diagnosis (30 of 64 individuals [47%]). Single-cell RNA sequencing of prenatal human cerebellar tissue revealed gene enrichment in neuronal and vascular cell types; this suggests that defective vasculogenesis may disrupt cerebellar development. Further, de novo gain-of-function variants in PDGFRB, a tyrosine kinase receptor essential for vascular progenitor signaling, were associated with CBLH, and this discovery links genetic and non-genetic etiologies. Our results suggest that genetic defects impact specific cerebellar cell types and implicate abnormal vascular development as a mechanism for cerebellar malformations. We also confirmed a major contribution for non-genetic prenatal factors in individuals with cerebellar abnormalities, substantially influencing diagnostic evaluation and counseling regarding recurrence risk and prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.07.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6731369PMC
September 2019

Redefining the Etiologic Landscape of Cerebellar Malformations.

Am J Hum Genet 2019 09 29;105(3):606-615. Epub 2019 Aug 29.

Center for Integrative Brain Research, Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, WA 98101, USA; Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105, USA; Department of Neurology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105, USA. Electronic address:

Cerebellar malformations are diverse congenital anomalies frequently associated with developmental disability. Although genetic and prenatal non-genetic causes have been described, no systematic analysis has been performed. Here, we present a large-exome sequencing study of Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM) and cerebellar hypoplasia (CBLH). We performed exome sequencing in 282 individuals from 100 families with DWM or CBLH, and we established a molecular diagnosis in 36 of 100 families, with a significantly higher yield for CBLH (51%) than for DWM (16%). The 41 variants impact 27 neurodevelopmental-disorder-associated genes, thus demonstrating that CBLH and DWM are often features of monogenic neurodevelopmental disorders. Though only seven monogenic causes (19%) were identified in more than one individual, neuroimaging review of 131 additional individuals confirmed cerebellar abnormalities in 23 of 27 genetic disorders (85%). Prenatal risk factors were frequently found among individuals without a genetic diagnosis (30 of 64 individuals [47%]). Single-cell RNA sequencing of prenatal human cerebellar tissue revealed gene enrichment in neuronal and vascular cell types; this suggests that defective vasculogenesis may disrupt cerebellar development. Further, de novo gain-of-function variants in PDGFRB, a tyrosine kinase receptor essential for vascular progenitor signaling, were associated with CBLH, and this discovery links genetic and non-genetic etiologies. Our results suggest that genetic defects impact specific cerebellar cell types and implicate abnormal vascular development as a mechanism for cerebellar malformations. We also confirmed a major contribution for non-genetic prenatal factors in individuals with cerebellar abnormalities, substantially influencing diagnostic evaluation and counseling regarding recurrence risk and prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.07.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6731369PMC
September 2019

Partial Loss of USP9X Function Leads to a Male Neurodevelopmental and Behavioral Disorder Converging on Transforming Growth Factor β Signaling.

Authors:
Brett V Johnson Raman Kumar Sabrina Oishi Suzy Alexander Maria Kasherman Michelle Sanchez Vega Atma Ivancevic Alison Gardner Deepti Domingo Mark Corbett Euan Parnell Sehyoun Yoon Tracey Oh Matthew Lines Henrietta Lefroy Usha Kini Margot Van Allen Sabine Grønborg Sandra Mercier Sébastien Küry Stéphane Bézieau Laurent Pasquier Martine Raynaud Alexandra Afenjar Thierry Billette de Villemeur Boris Keren Julie Désir Lionel Van Maldergem Martina Marangoni Nicola Dikow David A Koolen Peter M VanHasselt Marjan Weiss Petra Zwijnenburg Joaquim Sa Claudia Falcao Reis Carlos López-Otín Olaya Santiago-Fernández Alberto Fernández-Jaén Anita Rauch Katharina Steindl Pascal Joset Amy Goldstein Suneeta Madan-Khetarpal Elena Infante Elaine Zackai Carey Mcdougall Vinodh Narayanan Keri Ramsey Saadet Mercimek-Andrews Loren Pena Vandana Shashi Kelly Schoch Jennifer A Sullivan Filippo Pinto E Vairo Pavel N Pichurin Sarah A Ewing Sarah S Barnett Eric W Klee M Scott Perry Mary Kay Koenig Catherine E Keegan Jane L Schuette Stephanie Asher Yezmin Perilla-Young Laurie D Smith Jill A Rosenfeld Elizabeth Bhoj Paige Kaplan Dong Li Renske Oegema Ellen van Binsbergen Bert van der Zwaag Marie Falkenberg Smeland Ioana Cutcutache Matthew Page Martin Armstrong Angela E Lin Marcie A Steeves Nicolette den Hollander Mariëtte J V Hoffer Margot R F Reijnders Serwet Demirdas Daniel C Koboldt Dennis Bartholomew Theresa Mihalic Mosher Scott E Hickey Christine Shieh Pedro A Sanchez-Lara John M Graham Kamer Tezcan G B Schaefer Noelle R Danylchuk Alexander Asamoah Kelly E Jackson Naomi Yachelevich Margaret Au Luis A Pérez-Jurado Tjitske Kleefstra Peter Penzes Stephen A Wood Thomas Burne Tyler Mark Pierson Michael Piper Jozef Gécz Lachlan A Jolly

Biol Psychiatry 2020 01 29;87(2):100-112. Epub 2019 Jun 29.

University of Adelaide and Robinson Research Institute, Adelaide, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: The X-chromosome gene USP9X encodes a deubiquitylating enzyme that has been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders primarily in female subjects. USP9X escapes X inactivation, and in female subjects de novo heterozygous copy number loss or truncating mutations cause haploinsufficiency culminating in a recognizable syndrome with intellectual disability and signature brain and congenital abnormalities. In contrast, the involvement of USP9X in male neurodevelopmental disorders remains tentative.

Methods: We used clinically recommended guidelines to collect and interrogate the pathogenicity of 44 USP9X variants associated with neurodevelopmental disorders in males. Functional studies in patient-derived cell lines and mice were used to determine mechanisms of pathology.

Results: Twelve missense variants showed strong evidence of pathogenicity. We define a characteristic phenotype of the central nervous system (white matter disturbances, thin corpus callosum, and widened ventricles); global delay with significant alteration of speech, language, and behavior; hypotonia; joint hypermobility; visual system defects; and other common congenital and dysmorphic features. Comparison of in silico and phenotypical features align additional variants of unknown significance with likely pathogenicity. In support of partial loss-of-function mechanisms, using patient-derived cell lines, we show loss of only specific USP9X substrates that regulate neurodevelopmental signaling pathways and a united defect in transforming growth factor β signaling. In addition, we find correlates of the male phenotype in Usp9x brain-specific knockout mice, and further resolve loss of hippocampal-dependent learning and memory.

Conclusions: Our data demonstrate the involvement of USP9X variants in a distinctive neurodevelopmental and behavioral syndrome in male subjects and identify plausible mechanisms of pathogenesis centered on disrupted transforming growth factor β signaling and hippocampal function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2019.05.028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6925349PMC
January 2020

Harmonizing care for rare diseases: How we developed the mitochondrial care network in the United States.

Mol Genet Metab 2019 06 23;127(2):122-127. Epub 2019 May 23.

Neurogenetics, Center for Pediatric Neurology, Cleveland Clinic Children's Hospital, Cleveland, OH, United States of America.

The mitochondrial medicine society (MMS) has previously highlighted the clinical landscape and physician practice patterns of mitochondrial medicine in the US and attempted to develop consensus criteria for diagnosis and management to improve patient coordinated care. Most recently, and in collaboration with US-based patient advocacy groups, we developed a clinical care network to formally unify US-based clinicians who provide medical care to individuals with mitochondrial disease; to define, design and implement best practices in mitochondrial medicine building on the current consensus guidelines and to improve patients' clinical outcomes. Here we review the steps taken in collaboration with several stakeholders to develop goals and expectations for a mitochondrial care network (MCN), criteria for MCN site selection and formal launch of the network.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgme.2019.05.012DOI Listing
June 2019

Mutations in ELAC2 associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy impair mitochondrial tRNA 3'-end processing.

Hum Mutat 2019 10 18;40(10):1731-1748. Epub 2019 Jun 18.

MRC Mitochondrial Biology Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Mutations in either the mitochondrial or nuclear genomes are associated with a diverse group of human disorders characterized by impaired mitochondrial respiration. Within this group, an increasing number of mutations have been identified in nuclear genes involved in mitochondrial RNA metabolism, including ELAC2. The ELAC2 gene codes for the mitochondrial RNase Z, responsible for endonucleolytic cleavage of the 3' ends of mitochondrial pre-tRNAs. Here, we report the identification of 16 novel ELAC2 variants in individuals presenting with mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiency, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and lactic acidosis. We provide evidence for the pathogenicity of the novel missense variants by studying the RNase Z activity in an in vitro system. We also modeled the residues affected by a missense mutation in solved RNase Z structures, providing insight into enzyme structure and function. Finally, we show that primary fibroblasts from the affected individuals have elevated levels of unprocessed mitochondrial RNA precursors. Our study thus broadly confirms the correlation of ELAC2 variants with severe infantile-onset forms of HCM and mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction. One rare missense variant associated with the occurrence of prostate cancer (p.Arg781His) impairs the mitochondrial RNase Z activity of ELAC2, suggesting a functional link between tumorigenesis and mitochondrial RNA metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.23777DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6764886PMC
October 2019

Mutations in ACTL6B Cause Neurodevelopmental Deficits and Epilepsy and Lead to Loss of Dendrites in Human Neurons.

Am J Hum Genet 2019 05 25;104(5):815-834. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

CHU-Sainte Justine Research Centre, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC H3T 1C5, Canada. Electronic address:

We identified individuals with variations in ACTL6B, a component of the chromatin remodeling machinery including the BAF complex. Ten individuals harbored bi-allelic mutations and presented with global developmental delay, epileptic encephalopathy, and spasticity, and ten individuals with de novo heterozygous mutations displayed intellectual disability, ambulation deficits, severe language impairment, hypotonia, Rett-like stereotypies, and minor facial dysmorphisms (wide mouth, diastema, bulbous nose). Nine of these ten unrelated individuals had the identical de novo c.1027G>A (p.Gly343Arg) mutation. Human-derived neurons were generated that recaptured ACTL6B expression patterns in development from progenitor cell to post-mitotic neuron, validating the use of this model. Engineered knock-out of ACTL6B in wild-type human neurons resulted in profound deficits in dendrite development, a result recapitulated in two individuals with different bi-allelic mutations, and reversed on clonal genetic repair or exogenous expression of ACTL6B. Whole-transcriptome analyses and whole-genomic profiling of the BAF complex in wild-type and bi-allelic mutant ACTL6B neural progenitor cells and neurons revealed increased genomic binding of the BAF complex in ACTL6B mutants, with corresponding transcriptional changes in several genes including TPPP and FSCN1, suggesting that altered regulation of some cytoskeletal genes contribute to altered dendrite development. Assessment of bi-alleic and heterozygous ACTL6B mutations on an ACTL6B knock-out human background demonstrated that bi-allelic mutations mimic engineered deletion deficits while heterozygous mutations do not, suggesting that the former are loss of function and the latter are gain of function. These results reveal a role for ACTL6B in neurodevelopment and implicate another component of chromatin remodeling machinery in brain disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.03.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6507050PMC
May 2019

MT-ATP6 mitochondrial disease variants: Phenotypic and biochemical features analysis in 218 published cases and cohort of 14 new cases.

Hum Mutat 2019 05 4;40(5):499-515. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Mitochondrial Medicine Frontier Program, Division of Human Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Mitochondrial complex V (CV) generates cellular energy as adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Mitochondrial disease caused by the m.8993T>G pathogenic variant in the CV subunit gene MT-ATP6 was among the first described human mitochondrial DNA diseases. Due to a lack of clinically available functional assays, validating the definitive pathogenicity of additional MT-ATP6 variants remains challenging. We reviewed all reportedMT-ATP6 disease cases ( n = 218) to date, to assess for MT-ATP6 variants, heteroplasmy levels, and inheritance correlation with clinical presentation and biochemical findings. We further describe the clinical and biochemical features of a new cohort of 14 kindreds with MT-ATP6 variants of uncertain significance. Despite extensive overlap in the heteroplasmy levels of MT-ATP6 variant carriers with and without a wide range of clinical symptoms, previously reported symptomatic subjects had significantly higher heteroplasmy load (p = 2.2 x 10 ). Pathogenic MT-ATP6 variants resulted in diverse biochemical features. The most common findings were reduced ATP synthesis rate, preserved ATP hydrolysis capacity, and abnormally increased mitochondrial membrane potential. However, no single biochemical feature was universally observed. Extensive heterogeneity exists among both clinical and biochemical features of distinct MT-ATP6 variants. Improved mechanistic understanding and development of consistent biochemical diagnostic analyses are needed to permit accurate pathogenicity assessment of variants of uncertain significance in MT-ATP6.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.23723DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6506718PMC
May 2019

Mitochondrial disorders.

Ann Transl Med 2018 Dec;6(24):475

Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Primary mitochondrial disorders are a group of clinically variable and heterogeneous inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs), resulting from defects in cellular energy, and can affect every organ system of the body. Clinical presentations vary and may include symptoms of fatigue, skeletal muscle weakness, exercise intolerance, short stature, failure to thrive, blindness, ptosis and ophthalmoplegia, nystagmus, hearing loss, hypoglycemia, diabetes mellitus, learning difficulties, intellectual disability, seizures, stroke-like episodes, spasticity, dystonia, hypotonia, pain, neuropsychiatric symptoms, gastrointestinal reflux, dysmotility, gastrointestinal pseudo-obstruction, cardiomyopathy, cardiac conduction defects, and other endocrine, renal, cardiac, and liver problems. Most phenotypic manifestations are multi-systemic, with presentations varying at different age of onset and may show great variability within members of the same family; making these truly complex IEMs. Most primary mitochondrial diseases are autosomal recessive (AR); but maternally-inherited [from mitochondrial (mt) DNA], autosomal dominant and X-linked inheritance are also known. Mitochondria are unique energy-generating cellular organelles, geared for survival and contain their own unique genetic coding material, a circular piece of mtDNA about 16,000 base pairs in size. Additional nuclear (n)DNA encoded genes maintain mitochondrial biogenesis by supervising mtDNA replication, repair and synthesis, which is modified during increased energy demands or physiological stress. Despite our growing knowledge of the hundreds of genetic etiologies for this group of disorders, diagnosis can also remain elusive due to unique aspects of mitochondrial genetics. Though cure and FDA-approved therapies currently elude these IEMs, and current suggested therapies which include nutritional supplements and vitamins are of questionable efficacy; multi-center, international clinical trials are in progress for primary mitochondrial disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm.2018.12.13DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6331360PMC
December 2018

Diagnosis of 'possible' mitochondrial disease: an existential crisis.

J Med Genet 2019 03 25;56(3):123-130. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Mitochondrial Research Group, UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, London, UK.

Primary genetic mitochondrial diseases are often difficult to diagnose, and the term 'possible' mitochondrial disease is used frequently by clinicians when such a diagnosis is suspected. There are now many known phenocopies of mitochondrial disease. Advances in genomic testing have shown that some patients with a clinical phenotype and biochemical abnormalities suggesting mitochondrial disease may have other genetic disorders. In instances when a genetic diagnosis cannot be confirmed, a diagnosis of 'possible' mitochondrial disease may result in harm to patients and their families, creating anxiety, delaying appropriate diagnosis and leading to inappropriate management or care. A categorisation of , together with a specific description of the metabolic or genetic abnormalities identified, is preferred when a mitochondrial disease cannot be genetically confirmed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2018-105800DOI Listing
March 2019

Prophylactic pacemaker placement at first signs of conduction disease in Kearns-Sayre syndrome.

Cardiol Young 2018 Dec 17;28(12):1487-1488. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

1Department of Cardiology,Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC,Pittsburgh, PA,USA.

Cardiac conduction disease affects patients with Kearns-Sayre syndrome. We report a young asymptomatic patient with Kearns-Sayre syndrome with abnormal conduction on electrocardiogram and Holter monitor, although not advanced atrioventricular block. She underwent prophylactic pacemaker placement, and rapidly developed complete atrioventricular block, which resulted in 100% ventricular pacing. It may be reasonable to consider prophylactic pacemaker implantation in patients with Kearns-Sayre syndrome with evidence of cardiac conduction disease even without overt atrioventricular block given its unpredictable progression to complete atrioventricular block.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1047951118001609DOI Listing
December 2018

Neuroimaging of Mitochondrial Cytopathies.

Top Magn Reson Imaging 2018 Aug;27(4):219-240

Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Director of Pediatric Neuroradiology, Children Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.

Mitochondrial diseases are a complex and heterogeneous group of genetic disorders that occur as a result of either nuclear DNA or mitochondrial DNA pathogenic variants, leading to a decrease in oxidative phosphorylation and cellular energy (ATP) production. Increasing knowledge about molecular, biochemical, and genetic abnormalities related to mitochondrial dysfunction has expanded the neuroimaging phenotypes of mitochondrial disorders. As a consequence of this growing field, the imaging recognition patterns of mitochondrial cytopathies are continually evolving. In this review, we describe the main neuroimaging characteristics of pediatric mitochondrial diseases, ranging from classical to more recent and challenging features. Due to the increased knowledge about the imaging findings of mitochondrial cytopathies, the pediatric neuroradiologist plays a crucial role in the diagnosis and evaluation of these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RMR.0000000000000173DOI Listing
August 2018

A Newborn With Hyperlactatemia and Epileptic Encephalopathy.

Semin Pediatr Neurol 2018 07 23;26:104-107. Epub 2017 May 23.

Division of Pediatric Neurology, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA.

The etiology of hyperlactatemia in newborns could be a challenging diagnosis. In this article we are discussing a diagnostic paradigm using the clinical history, laboratory results, and brain imaging that could be helpful in directing the work up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.spen.2017.05.004DOI Listing
July 2018