Publications by authors named "Amy A Hutchinson"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Frequency of Pathogenic Germline Variants in Cancer-Susceptibility Genes in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

JNCI Cancer Spectr 2021 Apr 23;5(2):pkab007. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Basic Research Subdirection, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología (INCan), Mexico City, Mexico.

Background: Pediatric cancers are the leading cause of death by disease in children despite improved survival rates overall. The contribution of germline genetic susceptibility to pediatric cancer survivors has not been extensively characterized. We assessed the frequency of pathogenic or likely pathogenic (P/LP) variants in 5451 long-term pediatric cancer survivors from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

Methods: Exome sequencing was conducted on germline DNA from 5451 pediatric cancer survivors (cases who survived ≥5 years from diagnosis; n = 5105 European) and 597 European cancer-free adults (controls). Analyses focused on comparing the frequency of rare P/LP variants in 237 cancer-susceptibility genes and a subset of 60 autosomal dominant high-to-moderate penetrance genes, for both case-case and case-control comparisons.

Results: Of European cases, 4.1% harbored a P/LP variant in high-to-moderate penetrance autosomal dominant genes compared with 1.3% in controls (2-sided  = 3 × 10). The highest frequency of P/LP variants was in genes typically associated with adult onset rather than pediatric cancers, including , , , , and . A statistically significant excess of P/LP variants, after correction for multiple tests, was detected in patients with central nervous system cancers (, , , ), Wilms tumor (, ), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (), and soft tissue sarcomas (, , , , ) compared with other pediatric cancers.

Conclusion: In long-term pediatric cancer survivors, we identified P/LP variants in cancer-susceptibility genes not previously associated with pediatric cancer as well as confirmed known associations. Further characterization of variants in these genes in pediatric cancer will be important to provide optimal genetic counseling for patients and their families.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jncics/pkab007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8023430PMC
April 2021

Genetic regulation of nonsense-mediated decay underlies association with risk of severe COVID-19.

medRxiv 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Genomic regions have been associated with COVID-19 susceptibility and outcomes, including the chr12q24.13 locus encoding antiviral proteins OAS1-3. Here, we report genetic, functional, and clinical insights into genetic associations within this locus. In Europeans, the risk of hospitalized vs. non-hospitalized COVID-19 was associated with a single 19Kb-haplotype comprised of 76 variants included in a 95% credible set within a large genomic fragment introgressed from Neandertals. The risk haplotype was also associated with impaired spontaneous but not treatment-induced SARS-CoV-2 clearance in a clinical trial with pegIFN-λ1. We demonstrate that two exonic variants, rs10774671 and rs1131454, affect splicing and nonsense-mediated decay of . We suggest that genetically-regulated loss of expression contributes to impaired spontaneous clearance of SARS-CoV-2 and elevated risk of hospitalization for COVID-19. Our results provide the rationale for further clinical studies using interferons to compensate for impaired spontaneous SARS-CoV-2 clearance, particularly in carriers of the risk haplotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2021.07.09.21260221DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8288155PMC
July 2021

IFN-λ4 is associated with increased risk and earlier occurrence of several common infections in African children.

Genes Immun 2021 05 13;22(1):44-55. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Laboratory of Malaria Immunology and Vaccinology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA.

Genetic polymorphisms within the IFNL3/IFNL4 genomic region, which encodes type III interferons, have been strongly associated with clearance of hepatitis C virus. We hypothesized that type III interferons might be important for the immune response to other pathogens as well. In a cohort of 914 Malian children, we genotyped functional variants IFNL4-rs368234815, IFNL4-rs117648444, and IFNL3-rs4803217 and analyzed episodes of malaria, gastrointestinal, and respiratory infections recorded at 30,626 clinic visits from birth up to 5 years of age. Compared to children with the rs368234815-TT/TT genotype (IFN-λ4-Null), rs368234815-dG allele was most strongly associated with an earlier time-to-first episode of gastrointestinal infections (p = 0.003). The risk of experiencing an infection episode during the follow-up was also significantly increased with rs368234815-dG allele, with OR = 1.53, 95%CI (1.13-2.07), p = 0.005 for gastrointestinal infections and OR = 1.30, 95%CI (1.02-1.65), p = 0.033 for malaria. All the associations for the moderately linked rs4803217 (r = 0.78 in this set) were weaker and lost significance after adjusting for rs368234815. We also analyzed all outcomes in relation to IFN-λ4-P70S groups. Our results implicate IFN-λ4 and not IFN-λ3 as the primary functional cause of genetic associations with increased overall risk and younger age at first clinical episodes but not with recurrence or intensity of several common pediatric infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41435-021-00127-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8042471PMC
May 2021

Frequency of Pathogenic Germline Variants in Cancer-Susceptibility Genes in Patients With Osteosarcoma.

JAMA Oncol 2020 05;6(5):724-734

Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Stanmore, Middlesex, United Kingdom.

Importance: Osteosarcoma, the most common malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents, occurs in a high number of cancer predisposition syndromes that are defined by highly penetrant germline mutations. The germline genetic susceptibility to osteosarcoma outside of familial cancer syndromes remains unclear.

Objective: To investigate the germline genetic architecture of 1244 patients with osteosarcoma.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Whole-exome sequencing (n = 1104) or targeted sequencing (n = 140) of the DNA of 1244 patients with osteosarcoma from 10 participating international centers or studies was conducted from April 21, 2014, to September 1, 2017. The results were compared with the DNA of 1062 individuals without cancer assembled internally from 4 participating studies who underwent comparable whole-exome sequencing and 27 173 individuals of non-Finnish European ancestry who were identified through the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) database. In the analysis, 238 high-interest cancer-susceptibility genes were assessed followed by testing of the mutational burden across 736 additional candidate genes. Principal component analyses were used to identify 732 European patients with osteosarcoma and 994 European individuals without cancer, with outliers removed for patient-control group comparisons. Patients were subsequently compared with individuals in the ExAC group. All data were analyzed from June 1, 2017, to July 1, 2019.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The frequency of rare pathogenic or likely pathogenic genetic variants.

Results: Among 1244 patients with osteosarcoma (mean [SD] age at diagnosis, 16 [8.9] years [range, 2-80 years]; 684 patients [55.0%] were male), an analysis restricted to individuals with European ancestry indicated a significantly higher pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant burden in 238 high-interest cancer-susceptibility genes among patients with osteosarcoma compared with the control group (732 vs 994, respectively; P = 1.3 × 10-18). A pathogenic or likely pathogenic cancer-susceptibility gene variant was identified in 281 of 1004 patients with osteosarcoma (28.0%), of which nearly three-quarters had a variant that mapped to an autosomal-dominant gene or a known osteosarcoma-associated cancer predisposition syndrome gene. The frequency of a pathogenic or likely pathogenic cancer-susceptibility gene variant was 128 of 1062 individuals (12.1%) in the control group and 2527 of 27 173 individuals (9.3%) in the ExAC group. A higher than expected frequency of pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants was observed in genes not previously linked to osteosarcoma (eg, CDKN2A, MEN1, VHL, POT1, APC, MSH2, and ATRX) and in the Li-Fraumeni syndrome-associated gene, TP53.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this study, approximately one-fourth of patients with osteosarcoma unselected for family history had a highly penetrant germline mutation requiring additional follow-up analysis and possible genetic counseling with cascade testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2020.0197DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7082769PMC
May 2020

Effect of pre-analytic variables on the reproducibility of qPCR relative telomere length measurement.

PLoS One 2017 8;12(9):e0184098. Epub 2017 Sep 8.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute (NCI), Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America.

Telomeres, long nucleotide repeats and a protein complex at chromosome ends, shorten with each cell division and are susceptible to oxidative damage. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) is a widely-used technique to measure relative telomere length (RTL) in DNA samples but is challenging to optimize and significant lab-to-lab variability has been reported. In this study, we evaluated factors that may contribute to qPCR RTL measurement variability including DNA extraction methods, methods used for removing potential residual PCR inhibitors, sample storage conditions, and sample location in the PCR plate. Our results show that the DNA extraction and purification techniques, as well as sample storage conditions introduce significant variability in qPCR RTL results. We did not find significant differences in results based on sample location in the PCR plate or qPCR instrument used. These data suggest that lack of reproducibility in published association studies of RTL could be, in part, due to methodological inconsistencies. This study illustrates the importance of uniform sample handling, from DNA extraction through data generation and analysis, in using qPCR to determine RTL.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0184098PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5590866PMC
October 2017

Telomere length varies by DNA extraction method: implications for epidemiologic research-letter.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2014 Jun 5;23(6):1129-30. Epub 2014 May 5.

Authors' Affiliations: Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda; Cancer Genomics Research Laboratory, NCI-DCEG, Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc., Frederick, Maryland; Department of Human Genetics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah; Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Center for Genetics and Complex Traits, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and Vascular and Genomic Research Center, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua, Taiwan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-14-0145DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4051398PMC
June 2014

Common obesity-related genetic variants and papillary thyroid cancer risk.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2012 Dec 11;21(12):2268-71. Epub 2012 Oct 11.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, EPS 7056, 6120 Executive Blvd, Rockville, MD 20852, USA.

Background: Epidemiologic studies have shown consistent associations between obesity and increased thyroid cancer risk, but, to date, no studies have investigated the relationship between thyroid cancer risk and obesity-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP).

Methods: We evaluated 575 tag SNPs in 23 obesity-related gene regions in a case-control study of 341 incident papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) cases and 444 controls of European ancestry. Logistic regression models, adjusted for attained age, year of birth, and sex were used to calculate ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) with SNP genotypes, coded as 0, 1, and 2 and modeled continuously to calculate P(trend).

Results: Nine of 10 top-ranking SNPs (P(trend) < 0.01) were located in the FTO (fat mass and obesity associated) gene region, whereas the other was located in INSR (insulin receptor). None of the associations were significant after correcting for multiple testing.

Conclusions: Our data do not support an important role of obesity-related genetic polymorphisms in determining the risk of PTC.

Impact: Factors other than selected genetic polymorphisms may be responsible for the observed associations between obesity and increased PTC risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-12-0790DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3518668PMC
December 2012

Common genetic variants in sex hormone pathway genes and papillary thyroid cancer risk.

Thyroid 2012 Feb 6;22(2):151-6. Epub 2012 Jan 6.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-7238, USA.

Background: Hormonal differences are hypothesized to contribute to the approximately ≥2-fold higher thyroid cancer incidence rates among women compared with men worldwide. Although thyroid cancer cells express estrogen receptors and estrogen has a proliferative effect on papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) cells in vitro, epidemiologic studies have not found clear associations between thyroid cancer and female hormonal factors. We hypothesized that polymorphic variation in hormone pathway genes is associated with the risk of developing papillary thyroid cancer.

Methods: We evaluated the association between PTC and 1151 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 58 candidate gene regions involved in sex hormone synthesis and metabolism, gonadotropins, and prolactin in a case-control study of 344 PTC cases and 452 controls, frequency matched on age and sex. Odds ratios and p-values for the linear trend for the association between each SNP genotype and PTC risk were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. SNPs in the same gene region or pathway were aggregated using adaptive rank-truncated product methods to obtain gene region-specific or pathway-specific p-values. To account for multiple comparisons, we applied the false discovery rate method.

Results: Seven SNPs had p-values for linear trend <0.01, including four in the CYP19A1 gene, but none of the SNPs remained significant after correction for multiple comparisons. Results were similar when restricting the dataset to women. p-values for examined gene regions and for all genes combined were ≥0.09.

Conclusions: Based on these results, SNPs in selected hormone pathway genes do not appear to be strongly related to PTC risk. This observation is in accord with the lack of consistent associations between hormonal factors and PTC risk in epidemiologic studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/thy.2011.0309DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3271376PMC
February 2012

Common genetic variants related to genomic integrity and risk of papillary thyroid cancer.

Carcinogenesis 2011 Aug 3;32(8):1231-7. Epub 2011 Jun 3.

Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health/DHHS, 6120 Executive Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20852-7244, USA.

DNA damage is an important mechanism in carcinogenesis, so genes related to maintaining genomic integrity may influence papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) risk. Candidate gene studies targeting some of these genes have identified only a few polymorphisms associated with risk of PTC. Here, we expanded the scope of previous candidate studies by increasing the number and coverage of genes related to maintenance of genomic integrity. We evaluated 5077 tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 340 candidate gene regions hypothesized to be involved in DNA repair, epigenetics, tumor suppression, apoptosis, telomere function and cell cycle control and signaling pathways in a case-control study of 344 PTC cases and 452 matched controls. We estimated odds ratios for associations of single SNPs with PTC risk and combined P values for SNPs in the same gene region or pathway to obtain gene region-specific or pathway-specific P values using adaptive rank-truncated product methods. Nine SNPs had P values <0.0005, three of which were in HDAC4 and were inversely related to PTC risk. After multiple comparisons adjustment, no SNPs remained associated with PTC risk. Seven gene regions were associated with PTC risk at P < 0.01, including HUS1, ALKBH3, HDAC4, BAK1, FAF1_CDKN2C, DACT3 and FZD6. Our results suggest a possible role of genes involved in maintenance of genomic integrity in relation to risk of PTC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgr100DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3166197PMC
August 2011

Polymorphisms in oxidative stress and inflammation pathway genes, low-dose ionizing radiation, and the risk of breast cancer among US radiologic technologists.

Cancer Causes Control 2010 Nov 15;21(11):1857-66. Epub 2010 Aug 15.

Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, DHHS, 6120 Executive Blvd MSC 7238, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Objective: Ionizing radiation, an established breast cancer risk factor, has been shown to induce oxidative damage and chronic inflammation. Polymorphic variation in oxidative stress and inflammatory-mediated pathway genes may modify radiation-related breast cancer risk.

Methods: We estimated breast cancer risk for 28 common variants in 16 candidate genes involved in these pathways among 859 breast cancer cases and 1,083 controls nested within the US Radiologic Technologists cohort. We estimated associations between occupational and personal diagnostic radiation exposures with breast cancer by modeling the odds ratio (OR) as a linear function in logistic regression models and assessed heterogeneity of the dose-response across genotypes.

Results: There was suggestive evidence of an interaction between the rs5277 variant in PTGS2 and radiation-related breast cancer risk. The excess OR (EOR)/Gy from occupational radiation exposure = 5.5 (95%CI 1.2-12.5) for the GG genotype versus EOR/Gy < 0 (95%CI < 0-3.8) and EOR/Gy < 0 (95%CI < 0-14.8) for the GC and CC genotypes, respectively, (p (interaction) = 0.04). The association between radiation and breast cancer was not modified by other SNPs examined.

Conclusions: This study suggests that variation in PTGS2 may modify the breast cancer risk from occupational radiation exposure, but replication in other populations is needed to confirm this result.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10552-010-9613-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3076104PMC
November 2010

Variants in interferon-alpha pathway genes and response to pegylated interferon-Alpha2a plus ribavirin for treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection in the hepatitis C antiviral long-term treatment against cirrhosis trial.

Hepatology 2009 Jun;49(6):1847-58

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Unlabelled: Combination treatment with pegylated-interferon-alpha (PEG IFN-alpha) and ribavirin, the current recommended therapy for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, results in a sustained virological response (SVR) in only about half of patients. Because genes involved in the interferon-alpha pathway may affect antiviral responses, we analyzed the relationship between variants in these genes and SVR among participants in the Hepatitis C Antiviral Long-Term treatment Against Cirrhosis (HALT-C) trial. Patients had advanced chronic hepatitis C that had previously failed to respond to interferon-based treatment. Participants were treated with peginterferon-alpha2a and ribavirin during the trial. Subjects with undetectable HCV RNA at week 72 were considered to have had an SVR. Subjects with detectable HCV RNA at week 20 were considered nonresponders. We used TaqMan assays to genotype 56 polymorphisms found in 13 genes in the interferon-alpha pathway. This analysis compares genotypes for participants with an SVR to nonresponders. The primary analysis was restricted to European American participants because a priori statistical power was low among the small number (n = 131) of African American patients. We used logistic regression to control the effect of other variables that are associated with treatment response. Among 581 European American patients, SVR was associated with IFNAR1 IVS1-22G (adjusted odds ratio, 0.57; P = 0.02); IFNAR2 Ex2-33C (adjusted odds ratio, 2.09; P = 0.02); JAK1 IVS22+112T (adjusted odds ratio, 1.66; P = 0.04); and ADAR Ex9+14A (adjusted odds ratio, 1.67; P = 0.03). For the TYK2-2256A promoter region variant, a borderline association was present among European American participants (OR, 1.51; P = 0.05) and a strong relationship among African American patients; all 10 with SVR who were genotyped for TYK2 -2256 carried the A variant compared with 68 of 120 (57%) nonresponders (P = 0.006).

Conclusion: Genetic polymorphisms in the interferon-alpha pathway may affect responses to antiviral therapy of chronic hepatitis C.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.22877DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2692559PMC
June 2009

DNA fingerprinting of the NCI-60 cell line panel.

Mol Cancer Ther 2009 Apr;8(4):713-24

Genomics and Bioinformatics Group, Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

The National Cancer Institute's NCI-60 cell line panel, the most extensively characterized set of cells in existence and a public resource, is frequently used as a screening tool for drug discovery. Because many laboratories around the world rely on data from the NCI-60 cells, confirmation of their genetic identities represents an essential step in validating results from them. Given the consequences of cell line contamination or misidentification, quality control measures should routinely include DNA fingerprinting. We have, therefore, used standard DNA microsatellite short tandem repeats to profile the NCI-60, and the resulting DNA fingerprints are provided here as a reference. Consistent with previous reports, the fingerprints suggest that several NCI-60 lines have common origins: the melanoma lines MDA-MB-435, MDA-N, and M14; the central nervous system lines U251 and SNB-19; the ovarian lines OVCAR-8 and OVCAR-8/ADR (also called NCI/ADR); and the prostate lines DU-145, DU-145 (ATCC), and RC0.1. Those lines also show that the ability to connect two fingerprints to the same origin is not affected by stable transfection or by the development of multidrug resistance. As expected, DNA fingerprints were not able to distinguish different tissues-of-origin. The fingerprints serve principally as a barcodes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-08-0921DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4020356PMC
April 2009

Asparagine synthetase is a predictive biomarker of L-asparaginase activity in ovarian cancer cell lines.

Mol Cancer Ther 2008 Oct;7(10):3123-8

Genomics and Bioinformatics Group, Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

We recently used RNA interference to show that a negative correlation of L-asparaginase (L-ASP) chemotherapeutic activity with asparagine synthetase (ASNS) expression in the ovarian subset of the NCI-60 cell line panel is causal. To determine whether that relationship would be sustained in a larger, more diverse set of ovarian cell lines, we have now measured ASNS mRNA expression using microarrays and a branched-DNA RNA assay, ASNS protein expression using an electrochemiluminescent immunoassay, and L-ASP activity using an MTS assay on 19 human ovarian cancer cell lines. Contrary to our previous findings, L-ASP activity was only weakly correlated with ASNS mRNA expression; Pearson's correlation coefficients were r = -0.21 for microarray data and r = -0.39 for the branched-DNA RNA assay, with just the latter being marginally statistically significant (P = 0.047, one-tailed). ASNS protein expression measured by liquid-phase immunoassay exhibited a much stronger correlation (r = -0.65; P = 0.0014, one-tailed). We conclude that ASNS protein expression measured by immunoassay is a strong univariate predictor of L-ASP activity in ovarian cancer cell lines. These findings provide rationale for evaluation of ASNS protein expression as a predictive biomarker of clinical L-ASP activity in ovarian cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-08-0589DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4123961PMC
October 2008

Genetic variation in insulin-like growth factors and brain tumor risk.

Neuro Oncol 2008 Aug 18;10(4):553-9. Epub 2008 Jun 18.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892-7238, USA.

Many studies support a role for insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) in the regulation of tumor cell biology. We hypothesized that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IGF genes are risk factors for glioma and meningioma. To test the hypothesis, we examined associations of brain tumor risk with nine variants in five IGF genes in a hospital-based case-control study. The study was conducted at hospitals in Boston, Phoenix, and Pittsburgh between 1994 and 1998. Eligible cases were individuals (18 years or older) newly diagnosed with glioma or meningioma. Controls were selected among patients who were admitted to the same hospitals for a variety of nonmalignant conditions and frequency matched to cases by hospital, age, sex, race, and distance from residence. The present analysis was restricted to non-Hispanic whites. DNA was extracted from blood samples collected from 354 glioma cases, 133 meningioma cases, and 495 control individuals. We evaluated nine SNPs in five IGF genes (IGF1, IGF1R, IGF2, IGF2R, and IGFBP3). The majority of the analyzed IGF SNPs did not display statistically significant associations with glioma or meningioma. For glioma, one IGF1R SNP (rs2272037) indicated a possible association. No indications of association were seen for glioblastoma, but for low-grade gliomas, the odds ratio under a dominant model was 0.56 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.35-0.90) for IGF1 rs6220, 2.98 (95% CI, 1.65-5.38) for IGF1R rs2272037, and 1.60 (95% CI, 0.90-2.83) for IGF1R rs2016347. Overall, our results do not provide strong evidence of associations of brain tumor risk with IGF polymorphic variants but identify several associations for glioma that warrant further examination in other, larger studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1215/15228517-2008-026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2666228PMC
August 2008

Whole-genome amplification of oral rinse self-collected DNA in a population-based case-control study of breast cancer.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2007 Aug;16(8):1610-4

Center for Human Genetics Research and Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

The availability of large amounts of genomic DNA (gDNA) is the limiting factor for many of the molecular biology assays in genetic epidemiologic studies. Whole-genome amplification using multiple displacement amplification is used to amplify a representative sample of gDNA from small amounts of gDNA to optimize gDNA yield. We collected oral rinse DNA samples through the mail from 3,377 women enrolled in a population-based U.S. breast cancer case-control study and did whole-genome amplification by multiple displacement amplification. Genotyping was done for 66 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 18 candidate susceptibility genes using amplified DNA with genomic replicates included for quality control. The concordance rates (percentages of agreement) in 95 quality control replicates of gDNA and amplified DNA for 66 SNPs ranged from 88% to 100% (median, 97%). The average allelic error rate was 0.9%. However, in further analyses based on the full control series (n = 1,492), >60% of the SNPs failed tests for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P < 0.05), with evidence of heterozygote loss in the great majority. Even eliminating the 9% of samples with lower quality or input DNA, tests for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium indicated persistent allele bias in nearly a third of the SNPs. Whole-genome amplification may introduce substantial allele amplification bias in gDNA collected using a common protocol in population-based epidemiologic studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-07-0110DOI Listing
August 2007

Polymorphisms in inflammation-related genes and risk of gastric cancer (Finland).

Cancer Causes Control 2006 Feb;17(1):117-25

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, US National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892-7232, USA.

Helicobacter pylori infection is an important risk factor for gastric cancer, but <3% of carriers of this organism will ever develop gastric cancer. Since inflammation plays a significant role in gastric carcinogenesis, it has been suggested that polymorphisms in genes involved in inflammatory response may partly explain why only a subgroup of patients infected with H. pylori develop gastric cancer. We compared relative frequencies of 17 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in eight inflammation-related genes between 112 gastric cancer patients and 208 controls. Cases and controls were selected from a large cohort of Finnish male smokers who were recruited into the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study. The studied SNPs were IL-1A (-889 C/T), IL-1B (-511 C/T and -31 T/C), IL-6 (-174 G/C and -597 G/A), IL-8 (-251 T/A, +396 T/G and +781 C/T), IL-8RA (Ex2 +860 G/C), IL-8RB (Exon 3 +1235 T/C, Exon 3 +811 C/T, and Exon 3 +1010 G/A), IL-10 (-819 C/T, -592 C/A, -1082 A/G), and TNF A (-308 G/A, -238 G/A). We found no statistically significant association between any of these SNPs, or the number of pro-inflammatory polymorphisms, with risk of gastric cancer. Our results do not support the hypothesis that polymorphisms in genes involved in the inflammatory response confer differences in gastric cancer risk among different individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10552-005-0439-7DOI Listing
February 2006
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