Publications by authors named "Amrita Y Krishnan"

20 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Long-term survival of 1338 MM patients treated with tandem autologous vs. autologous-allogeneic transplantation.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 09 14;55(9):1810-1816. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

University of Torino, Torino, Italy.

Contrary to tandem autologous transplant (auto-auto), autologous followed by reduced intensity conditioning allogenic transplantation (auto-allo) offers graft-versus-myeloma (GVM) effect but with higher toxicity. Trials comparing these two strategies relied on availability of HLA-matched sibling donors for arm allocation (biological randomization) and yielded conflicting results. A pooled analysis of multiple trials with extended follow up provides an opportunity to compare these strategies. We obtained individual patient data from participants of four trials comparing auto-auto vs. auto-allo after induction therapy. There were 899 patients in auto-auto and 439 in auto-allo. Median follow up of survivors was 118.5 months. Median overall survival (OS) was 78.0 months in auto-auto and 98.3 months in auto-allo (HR = 0.84, P = 0.02). OS was 36.4% vs. 44.1% at 10 years (P = 0.01) for auto-auto and auto-allo, respectively. Progression-free survival was also improved in auto-allo (HR = 0.84, P = 0.004). Risk of non-relapse mortality was higher in auto-allo (10 year 8.3% vs. 19.7%, P < 0.001), while risk of disease progression was higher in auto-auto (10 year 77.2% vs. 61.6%, P < 0.001). Median post relapse survival was 41.5 months in auto-auto and 62.3 months in auto-allo (HR = 0.71, P < 0.001). This supports the existence of durable GVM effect enhancing myeloma control with subsequent therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-0887-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7483973PMC
September 2020

Phase I study of the anti-FcRH5 antibody-drug conjugate DFRF4539A in relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma.

Blood Cancer J 2019 02 4;9(2):17. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Nashville, TN, USA.

FcRH5 is a cell surface marker enriched on malignant plasma cells when compared to other hematologic malignancies and normal tissues. DFRF4539A is an anti-FcRH5 antibody-drug conjugated to monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE), a potent anti-mitotic agent. This phase I study assessed safety, tolerability, maximum tolerated dose (MTD), anti-tumor activity, and pharmacokinetics of DFRF4539A in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma. DFRF4539A was administered at 0.3-2.4 mg/kg every 3 weeks or 0.8-1.1 mg/kg weekly as a single-agent by intravenous infusion to 39 patients. Exposure of total antibody and antibody-conjugate-MMAE analytes was linear across the doses tested. There were 37 (95%) adverse events (AEs), 8 (21%) serious AEs, and 15 (39%) AEs ≥ grade 3. Anemia (n = 10, 26%) was the most common AE considered related to DFRF4539A. Two cases of grade 3 acute renal failure were attributed to DFRF4539A. There were no deaths; the MTD was not reached. DFRF4539A demonstrated limited activity in patients at the doses tested with 2 (5%) partial response, 1 (3%) minimal response, 18 (46%) stable disease, and 16 (41%) progressive disease. FcRH5 was confirmed to be expressed and occupied by antibody post-treatment and thus remains a valid myeloma target. Nevertheless, this MMAE-based antibody-drug-conjugate targeting FcRH5 was unsuccessful for myeloma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41408-019-0178-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6362066PMC
February 2019

Results of an early access treatment protocol of daratumumab in United States patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma.

Cancer 2018 11 5;124(22):4342-4349. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.

Background: Daratumumab is a human CD38-directed monoclonal antibody indicated for the treatment of relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma (MM).

Methods: A multicenter, open-label treatment protocol provided early access to daratumumab for patients who had progressive MM after they received ≥3 prior lines of therapy that included a proteasome inhibitor and an immunomodulatory agent or if they were refractory to both a proteasome inhibitor and an immunomodulatory agent. Patients received daratumumab 16 mg/kg weekly for 8 weeks, every other week for 16 weeks, and monthly until they developed disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, or 60 days after the drug gained US approval. Treatment-emergent grade ≥3 adverse events (AEs), serious AEs, and AEs of special interest were collected.

Results: Three hundred forty-eight patients were enrolled at 39 US sites between June and December 2015. Patients received study therapy for a median of 1.9 months (range, 0.03-6.0 months). Fifty-two percent of patients transitioned to commercially-available daratumumab and 37% discontinued because of progressive disease. Grade ≥3 AEs occurred in 50% of patients, including thrombocytopenia (15%) and anemia (14%). Serious AEs occurred in 35% of patients (12% were drug-related), including infections (11%). Infusion reactions occurred in 56%, 2%, and 2% of patients during the first, second, and all subsequent infusions, respectively; respiratory symptoms (cough, dyspnea, throat irritation, nasal congestion) were common. The infusion reaction rate for the first infusion was 38% in 50 patients at 2 sites who received montelukast as premedication for their first infusion and 59% in patients who did not receive montelukast.

Conclusions: The current findings are consistent with previously reported trials and confirm the safety profile of daratumumab in heavily pretreated US patients who have relapsed or refractory MM. Cancer 2018;124:000-000.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.31706DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6587745PMC
November 2018

Lenalidomide Enhances the Function of CS1 Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Redirected T Cells Against Multiple Myeloma.

Clin Cancer Res 2018 01 23;24(1):106-119. Epub 2017 Oct 23.

Department of Hematology and Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, City of Hope, Duarte, California.

Multiple myeloma remains an incurable malignancy of plasma cells despite considerable advances in treatment. The purpose of the study was to develop novel chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) for the treatment of multiple myeloma and explore combinatorial therapy using CAR T cells and immunomodulatory drugs such as lenalidomide for increasing treatment efficacy. We redirected central memory T cells to express second-generation CAR-specific for CS1 and adoptively transferred them into multiple myeloma tumor-bearing mice to test their anti-multiple myeloma activity. CS1 CAR T cells were transduced and expanded in the presence of lenalidomide The phenotype and effector function of CS1 CAR T cells treated with and without lenalidomide were compared. Finally, CS1 CAR T cells and lenalidomide were administered to treat multiple myeloma-bearing mice as combinatorial therapy. CS1 CAR T cells exhibited efficient antitumor activity when adoptively transferred into mice. Mechanistic studies indicated that the addition of lenalidomide during CS1 CAR T-cell expansion enhanced the immune functions of CS1 CAR T cells, including cytotoxicity, memory maintenance, Th1 cytokine production, and immune synapse formation. Furthermore, lenalidomide enhanced the antitumor activity and persistence of adoptively transferred CS1 CAR T cells The study demonstrates that lenalidomide improves the anti-multiple myeloma properties of CS1-directed CAR T cells and provides a basis for a planned clinical trial using the combination of lenalidomide with engineered T cells against CS1 in relapsed myeloma. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-17-0344DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5991104PMC
January 2018

Phase II Study of Yttrium-90 Ibritumomab Tiuxetan Plus High-Dose BCNU, Etoposide, Cytarabine, and Melphalan for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: The Role of Histology.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2017 Jun 4;23(6):922-929. Epub 2017 Mar 4.

Department of Hematology and Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, City of Hope, Duarte, California.

Standard-dose yttrium-ibritumomab tiuxetan (.4 mci/kg) together with high-dose BEAM (BCNU, etoposide, cytarabine, and melphalan) (Z-BEAM) has been shown to be a well-tolerated autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation preparative regimen for non-Hodgkin lymphoma. We report the outcomes of a single-center, single-arm phase II trial of Z-BEAM conditioning in high-risk CD20 non-Hodgkin lymphoma histologic strata: diffuse large B cell (DLBCL), mantle cell, follicular, and transformed. Robust overall survival and notably low nonrelapse mortality rates (.9% at day +100 for the entire cohort), with few short- and long-term toxicities, confirm the safety and tolerability of the regimen. In addition, despite a high proportion of induction failure patients (46%), the promising response and progression-free survival (PFS) rates seen in DLBCL (3-year PFS: 71%; 95% confidence interval, 55 to 82%), support the premise that the Z-BEAM regimen is particularly effective in this histologic subtype. The role of Z-BEAM in other strata is less clear in the context of the emergence of novel agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2017.03.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5646666PMC
June 2017

NCCN Guidelines Insights: Multiple Myeloma, Version 3.2016.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2016 04;14(4):389-400

National Comprehensive Cancer Network

These NCCN Guidelines Insights highlight the important updates/changes specific to the 2016 version of the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Multiple Myeloma. These changes include updated recommendations to the overall management of multiple myeloma from diagnosis and staging to new treatment options.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6016087PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.6004/jnccn.2016.0046DOI Listing
April 2016

Multiple Myeloma, Version 2.2016: Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2015 Nov;13(11):1398-435

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant neoplasm of plasma cells that accumulate in bone marrow, leading to bone destruction and marrow failure. Recent statistics from the American Cancer Society indicate that the incidence of MM is increasing. The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) included in this issue address management of patients with solitary plasmacytoma and newly diagnosed MM.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4891187PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.6004/jnccn.2015.0167DOI Listing
November 2015

New cancers after autotransplantations for multiple myeloma.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2015 Apr 31;21(4):738-45. Epub 2014 Dec 31.

Department of Medicine, Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Electronic address:

We describe baseline incidence and risk factors for new cancers in 4161 persons receiving autotransplants for multiple myeloma in the United States from 1990 to 2010. Observed incidence of invasive new cancers was compared with expected incidence relative to the US population. The cohort represented 13,387 person-years at-risk. In total, 163 new cancers were observed, for a crude incidence rate of 1.2 new cancers per 100 person-years and cumulative incidences of 2.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.09 to 3.17), 4.2% (95% CI, 3.49 to 5.00), and 6.1% (95% CI, 5.08 to 7.24) at 3, 5, and 7 years, respectively. The incidence of new cancers in the autotransplantation cohort was similar to age-, race-, and gender-adjusted comparison subjects with an observed/expected (O/E) ratio of 1.00 (99% CI, .81 to 1.22). However, acute myeloid leukemia and melanoma were observed at higher than expected rates with O/E ratios of 5.19 (99% CI, 1.67 to 12.04; P = .0004), and 3.58 (99% CI, 1.82 to 6.29; P < .0001), respectively. Obesity, older age, and male gender were associated with increased risks of new cancers in multivariate analyses. This large data set provides a baseline for comparison and defines the histologic type specific risk for new cancers in patients with MM receiving postautotransplantation therapies, such as maintenance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2014.12.028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4359647PMC
April 2015

Autologous transplantation for transformed non-Hodgkin lymphoma using an yttrium-90 ibritumomab tiuxetan conditioning regimen.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2014 Dec 29;20(12):2072-5. Epub 2014 Jul 29.

Department of Hematology/HCT, City of Hope, Duarte, California. Electronic address:

Transformation from indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) to diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has historically been associated with a poor prognosis. A small series of autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) studies using conventional conditioning regimens has demonstrated durable progression-free survival (PFS) rates ranging from 25% to 47%, but data in the rituximab era are lacking. Here we report the results of a multicenter retrospective trial evaluating ASCT in patients with transformed lymphoma using the Z-BEAM conditioning regimen, which combines yttrium-90-labeled ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin) with high-dose BEAM (carmustine, etoposide, cytarabine, melphalan) chemotherapy. Sixty-three patients from 4 institutions were treated between 2003 and 2011. Histological confirmation of transformation was required and defined as a diagnosis of DLBCL in patients with either a prior history or concomitant diagnosis of low-grade B cell NHL. Median patient age at ASCT was 59.5 years, median number of prior regimens was 2, and all patients were exposed to rituximab. Disease status at ASCT was as follows: first complete remission (CR) (n = 30), first partial remission (n = 11), first relapse (n = 14), and at least second CR (n = 8). The median time from diagnosis of histological transformation to ASCT was 7.5 months (range, 2.8 to 116). Two-year nonrelapse mortality was 0%. Median follow-up for living patients was 28 months (range, 5 to 103). Two-year PFS was 68% (95% confidence interval, 58% to 75%), and overall survival was 90% (95% confidence interval, 80% to 95%). In conclusion, the Z-BEAM conditioning regimen for ASCT is well tolerated by patients with transformed lymphoma and demonstrates encouraging clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2014.07.028DOI Listing
December 2014

Older patients with myeloma derive similar benefit from autologous transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2014 Nov 18;20(11):1796-803. Epub 2014 Jul 18.

Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research, Department of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Electronic address:

Autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) for plasma cell myeloma is performed less often in people >70 years old than in people ≤70 years old. We analyzed 11,430 AHCT recipients for plasma cell myeloma prospectively reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research between 2008 and 2011, representing the majority of US AHCT activity during this period. Survival (OS) was compared in 3 cohorts: ages 18 to 59 years (n = 5818), 60 to 69 years (n = 4666), and >70 years (n = 946). Median OS was not reached for any cohort. In multivariate analysis, increasing age was associated with mortality (P = .0006). Myeloma-specific mortality was similar among cohorts at 12%, indicating an age-related effect on nonmyeloma mortality. Analyses were performed in a representative subgroup comparing relapse rate, progression-free survival (PFS), and nonrelapse mortality (NRM). One-year NRM was 0% for age >70 years and 2% for other ages (P = not significant). The three-year relapse rate was 56% in age 18 to 59 years, 61% in age 60 to 69 years, and 63% age >70 (P = not significant). Three-year PFS was similar at 42% in age 18 to 59 years, 38% in age 60 to 69 years, and 33% in age >70 years (P = not significant). Postrelapse survival was significantly worse for the older cohort (P = .03). Older subjects selected for AHCT derived similar antimyeloma benefit without worse NRM, relapse rate, or PFS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2014.07.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4194262PMC
November 2014

Hematopoietic cell transplant comorbidity index is predictive of survival after autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation in multiple myeloma.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2014 Mar 14;20(3):402-408.e1. Epub 2013 Dec 14.

Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Electronic address:

Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHCT) improves survival in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) but is associated with morbidity and nonrelapse mortality (NRM). Hematopoietic cell transplant comorbidity index (HCT-CI) was shown to predict risk of NRM and survival after allogeneic transplantation. We tested the utility of HCT-CI as a predictor of NRM and survival in patients with MM undergoing AHCT. We analyzed outcomes of 1156 patients of AHCT after high-dose melphalan reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research. Individual comorbidities were prospectively collected at the time of AHCT. The impact of HCT-CI and other potential prognostic factors, including Karnofsky performance score (KPS), on NRM and survival were studied in multivariate Cox regression models. HCT-CI score was 0, 1, 2, 3, and >3 in 42%, 18%, 13%, 13%, and 14% of the study cohort, respectively. Subjects were stratified into 3 risk groups: HCT-CI score of 0 (42%) versus HCT-CI score of 1 to 2 (32%) versus HCT-CI score > 2 (26%). Higher HCT-CI was associated with lower KPS < 90 (33% of subjects score of 0 versus 50% in HCT-CI score > 2). HCT-CI score > 2 was associated with melphalan dose reduction (22% versus 10% in score 0 cohort). One-year NRM was low at 2% (95% confidence interval, 1% to 4%) and did not correlate with HCT-CI score (P = .9). On multivariate analysis, overall survival was inferior in groups with HCT-CI score of 1 to 2 (relative risk, 1.37, [95% confidence interval, 1.01 to 1.87], P = .04) and HCT-CI score > 2 (relative risk, 1.5 [95% confidence interval, 1.09 to 2.08], P = .01). Overall survival was also inferior with KPS < 90 (P < .001), IgA subtype (P ≤ .001), those receiving >1 pretransplant induction regimen (P = .007), and those with resistant disease at the time of AHCT (P < .001). AHCT for MM is associated with low NRM, and death is predominantly related to disease progression. Although a higher HCT-CI score did not predict NRM, it was associated with inferior survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2013.12.557DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3961011PMC
March 2014

Multiple myeloma, version 1.2013.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2013 Jan;11(1):11-7

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center.

These NCCN Guidelines Insights highlight the important updates/changes specific to the management of relapsed or progressive disease in the 2013 version of the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Multiple Myeloma. These changes include the addition of new regimens as options for salvage therapy and strategies to mitigate the adverse effects and risks associated with newer regimens for the treatment of multiple myeloma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6004/jnccn.2013.0004DOI Listing
January 2013

Late relapses following reduced intensity allogeneic transplantation in patients with multiple myeloma: a long-term follow-up study.

Br J Haematol 2013 Jan 15;160(2):199-206. Epub 2012 Nov 15.

Department of Hematology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA 91010, USA.

We analysed the long-term outcomes of 60 multiple myeloma patients who underwent reduced intensity allogeneic stem cell transplantation between August 2000 and March 2008. Regimens included fludarabine and melphalan conditioning (flu-mel regimen) for allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) or a planned tandem regimen consisting of high-dose melphalan conditioning for autograft followed by low-dose total body irradiation conditioning for allogeneic HCT (auto-allo regimen). Donors included human-leucocyte-antigen-matched siblings (n = 55) or matched unrelated donors (n = 5). With a median follow-up of 9·8 years, 7-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were 60% and 31%, respectively. By multivariate Cox regression analysis, disease status of complete response (CR) or partial response (PR) at transplant and the presence of chronic graft-versus-host disease were significantly associated with improved OS. Only disease status was significantly associated with improved PFS. We noted a surprising number of very late relapses, with six patients (10%) relapsing between 6 and 12 years post-transplant. Among the six late relapse patients, all were transplanted within 14 months of diagnosis, five had normal karyotypes, and five were in CR/PR. Our data provide additional evidence that, while survival may be extended by reduced intensity allogeneic transplant, ultimately, it may not offer a cure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.12123DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3542410PMC
January 2013

Second primary malignancies after autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation for multiple myeloma.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2013 Feb 13;19(2):260-5. Epub 2012 Oct 13.

Department of Hematology and Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, City of Hope, Duarte, California 91010, USA.

Recent studies demonstrate an increased risk of second primary malignancies (SPMs) in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) receiving maintenance lenalidomide after autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). We explored the possibility of other risk factors driving post-ASCT SPMs in patients with MM through analysis of our large transplantation database in conjunction with our Long-Term Follow-Up Program. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 841 consecutive patients with MM who underwent ASCT at City of Hope between 1989 and 2009, as well as a nested case-control analysis evaluating the role of all therapeutic exposures before, during, and after ASCT. Median duration of follow-up for the entire cohort was 3.4 years (range, 0.3-19.9 years). Sixty cases with a total of 70 SPMs were identified. The overall cumulative incidence of SPMs was 7.4% at 5 years and 15.9% at 10 years when nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) were included and 5.3% at 5 years and 11.2% at 10 years when NMSCs were excluded. Multivariate analysis of the entire cohort revealed associations of both older age (≥55 years; relative risk, 2.3; P < .004) and race (non-Hispanic white; relative risk, 2.4; P = .01) with an increased risk of SPM. Furthermore, thalidomide exposure demonstrated a trend toward increased risk (odds ratio, 3.5; P = .15); however, an insufficient number of patients were treated with lenalidomide to allow us to accurately assess the risk of this agent. Exclusion of NMSCs retained the association with these variables but was accompanied by loss of statistical significance. This large single-institution analysis identified associations between race and older age and increased risk of developing SPM. The trend toward increased risk with thalidomide exposure suggests a class effect from immunomodulatory drugs that might not be restricted to lenalidomide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2012.09.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3553262PMC
February 2013

Waldenström's macroglobulinemia/lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, version 2.2013.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2012 Oct;10(10):1211-9

Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center.

These NCCN Guidelines Insights highlight the important updates/changes specific to the management of Waldenström's Macroglobulinemia/Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma. These include the addition of regimens containing novel agents as primary and salvage therapy options, inclusion of the updated summary of response categories and criteria from the sixth international workshop on Waldenström's Macroglobulinemia, and a section on management of peripheral neuropathy in the accompanying discussion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6004/jnccn.2012.0128DOI Listing
October 2012

Sequential bortezomib, dexamethasone, and thalidomide maintenance therapy after single autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation in patients with multiple myeloma.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2012 Mar 22;18(3):486-92. Epub 2011 Dec 22.

Department of Hematology and HCT, City of Hope, Duarte, California 91010, USA.

We report feasibility and response results of a phase II study investigating prolonged weekly bortezomib and dexamethasone followed by thalidomide and dexamethasone as maintenance therapy after single autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in patients with multiple myeloma. Within 4 to 8 weeks of ASCT, patients received weekly bortezomib and dexamethasone for six cycles, followed by thalidomide and dexamethasone for six more cycles. Thalidomide alone was continued until disease progression. Forty-five patients underwent ASCT. Forty patients started maintenance therapy; of these, 36 patients received four cycles, and 32 completed six cycles of maintenance bortezomib. Of these 40 patients, nine (22%) were in complete response (CR) before ASCT, 13 (32%) achieved CR after ASCT but before bortezomib maintenance therapy, and 21 (53%) achieved CR after bortezomib maintenance therapy. Nine patients not previously in CR (33%) upgraded their response to CR with bortezomib maintenance. At 1 year post-ASCT, 20 patients achieved CR, and two achieved very good partial response. Twenty-seven patients experienced peripheral neuropathy during bortezomib therapy, all grade 1 or 2. Our findings indicate that prolonged sequential weekly bortezomib, dexamethasone, and thalidomide maintenance therapy after single ASCT is feasible and well tolerated. Bortezomib maintenance treatment upgraded post-ASCT CR responses with no severe grade 3/4 peripheral neuropathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2011.12.580DOI Listing
March 2012

Tanespimycin and bortezomib combination treatment in patients with relapsed or relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma: results of a phase 1/2 study.

Br J Haematol 2011 Jun 28;153(6):729-40. Epub 2011 Apr 28.

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 44 Binney Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

This open-label, dose escalation, multicentre phase 1/2 trial was undertaken to determine the safety and tolerability of the heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibitor tanespimycin (100-340 mg/m(2) )+ bortezomib (0·7-1·3 mg/m(2) ) given on days 1, 4, 8 and 11 in each 21-d cycle. Phase 2 expansion occurred at the highest tested dose of tanespimycin at 340 mg/m(2) and bortezomib at 1·3 mg/m(2) . Seventy-two patients (median age, 60 years) with relapsed or relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma (MM) were enrolled; 63 patients (89%) completed the study. Tanespimycin in combination with bortezomib was well tolerated; few patients experienced significant neutropenia, constipation and anorexia (<10%), and no patients developed severe peripheral neuropathy. Among 67 efficacy-evaluable patients, there were 2 (3%) complete responses and 8 (12%) partial responses, for an objective response rate (ORR) of 27%, including 8 (12%) minimal responses. Response rates were highest among bortezomib-naive patients and proved durable in all patient subgroups, including those with bortezomib-refractory disease. Pharmacodynamic analyses indicated that tanespimycin plus bortezomib effectively inhibited the proteasome, as evidenced by decreased 20S proteasome activity, and inhibited HSP90, as reflected by increased HSP70 expression. The results of this study support additional studies of this combination approach in MM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2141.2011.08664.xDOI Listing
June 2011

A phase II pilot study of tacrolimus/sirolimus GVHD prophylaxis for sibling donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation using 3 conditioning regimens.

Blood 2010 Feb 19;115(5):1098-105. Epub 2009 Nov 19.

Department of Hematology/Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA 91010, USA.

Combination tacrolimus and sirolimus graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis for allogeneic transplant in patients conditioned with a fractionated total body irradiation-based regimen has shown encouraging results. We studied this prophylaxis combination in 85 patients receiving a matched-sibling transplant conditioned with 3 different regimens:fludarabine-melphalan (n = 46); total body irradiation-etoposide (n = 28), and busulfan-cyclophosphamide (n = 11). The conditioning regimens were completed on day -4. Sirolimus and tacrolimus were started on day -3 to avoid overlap with conditioning therapy. All patients engrafted, with a median time to neutrophil engraftment of 15 days. The cumulative incidence of acute GVHD grades II to IV and III to IV was 43% and 19%, respectively, with no significant difference by conditioning regimen. The 2-year cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was 46%. With a median follow-up of 26 months, disease-free survival was 58% and overall survival, 66%. The day-100 and 2-year nonrelapse mortality was 4.8% and 10.2%, respectively. The overall incidence of thrombotic microangiopathy was 19%, and it was significantly higher with busulfan/cyclophosphamide (55%, P = .005). Tacrolimus plus sirolimus is an effective combination for acute GVHD prophylaxis and is associated with very low nonrelapse mortality. Thrombotic microangiopathy is a significant complication with this regimen, particularly in patients receiving busulfan/cyclophosphamide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2009-03-207563DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2817636PMC
February 2010