Publications by authors named "Amrendra Kumar Mandal"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Outcomes of diverticulitis in patients with tobacco smoking: a propensity-matched analysis of nationwide inpatient sample.

Int J Colorectal Dis 2021 May 7;36(5):1033-1042. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Gastroenterology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY, USA.

Background: Recent data shows a significantly increased risk of diverticulosis among smokers. There is limited data on the association between tobacco smoking and diverticulitis. We aim to determine in-hospital outcomes, length of hospital stay, and resource utilization in a contemporary cohort of diverticulitis patients based on tobacco smoking status.

Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed by utilizing the National Inpatient Sample database (2016 and 2017) and the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision codes to identify the patients with the principal diagnosis of diverticulitis and smoking. We assessed all-cause in-hospital mortality, morbidity, length of hospital stay (LOS), and total costs between propensity-matched groups of tobacco smokers vs. nonsmokers with diverticulitis.

Results: We identified 442,273 diverticulitis patients, of whom 96,864 were tobacco smokers, and 345,409 were nonsmokers. Between the two groups, in-hospital mortality was not significant (OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.38-2.6; P = 0.98). Tobacco smokers with diverticulitis have higher odds of lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB) (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.4-3.8; P = 0.01), peritonitis (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.9-3.3; P = 0.00), intestinal obstruction (OR 1.6, 95% CI 2.8-7.6; P = 0.00), sepsis (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.05-4.4; P = 0.03), and shock requiring vasopressor (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-2.2; P = 0.00). In tobacco smokers with complicated diverticulitis, there were higher odds of LGIB (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2-1.6; P = 0.00), sepsis (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.05-4.4; P = 0.03), and colectomy (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.2; P = 0.00). In-hospital mortality was not significant in smokers with complicated diverticulitis (OR 1.2, 95% CI 0.78-1.9; P = 0.3).

Conclusions: In this propensity-matched analysis, there was no difference in in-hospital mortality between tobacco smokers vs. nonsmokers with diverticulitis. Smoking has been associated with an increased incidence of complications in diverticulitis with a higher length of hospital stay and resource utilization.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00384-020-03805-6DOI Listing
May 2021

Outcomes of in Patients with Vitamin D Deficiency: A Propensity-Matched National Inpatient Sample Analysis.

South Med J 2020 Nov;113(11):593-599

From the Department of Internal Medicine, Interfaith Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York, the Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, Ashland Bellefonte Cancer Center, Ashland, Kentucky, the Division of Nephrology, The Nephrology Group, Fresno, California, and the Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, Adventist Medical Center, Hanford, California.

Objectives: We aimed to determine in-hospital outcomes, length of hospital stay, and resource utilization in a contemporary cohort of infection (CDI) and vitamin D deficiency (VDD).

Methods: The National Inpatient Sample database for 2016 and 2017 was used for data analysis using () codes to identify the patients with the principal diagnosis of CDI and VDD. We assessed the all-cause in-hospital mortality, morbidity, length of hospital stay (LOS), and total costs between propensity-matched groups of CDI without VDD versus CDI with VDD.

Results: We identified 202,234 patients with CDI, 4515 of whom were patients with VDD and 197,719 of whom were without VDD. After propensity matching, there was no difference in the in-hospital mortality between the two groups (odds ratio [OR] 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.58-4.3; = 0.90). CDI with VDD has a higher odds of sepsis (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.3-1.9; = 0.0), and peritonitis (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.4-3.8; = 0.01). Mean LOS (5.9 ± 1.8 vs 5.4 ± 2, < 0.01) and mean total charges ($11,500 vs $9971, < 0.04) were higher in CDI with VDD. The factors affecting the LOS were acute coronary syndrome ( = 0.04), mechanical ventilation ( = 0.03), obesity ( = 0.004), acute kidney injury ( = 0.04), and sepsis ( = 0.05).

Conclusions: In this large cohort in a propensity-matched analysis, VDD does not increase the in-hospital mortality in CDI. VDD increases the odds of complications with a higher LOS and resource utilization. These findings may be clinically relevant to guide clinicians to routinely monitor vitamin D status and supplement in patients at risk of CDI.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14423/SMJ.0000000000001168DOI Listing
November 2020

Outcomes of Direct-Acting Antiviral Treatment of Psychiatric Patients with Comorbid Hepatitis C Virus Infection.

Dig Dis 2020 6;38(3):232-239. Epub 2019 Sep 6.

Department of Medicine and Gastroenterology, Interfaith Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York, USA.

Background: The highest burden of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is seen in patients with psychiatric disorders who have been excluded from traditional treatments with Interferon due to treatment-emergent neuropsychiatric adverse effects. The goal of this study is to determine the tolerability, treatment retention, and efficacy of direct-acting antivirals with psychiatric disorders and comorbid substance use disorders in real-life settings.

Methods: This is a retrospective cohort observational study of HCV patients treated with direct-acting antivirals between January 2016 and December 2018. Patients were stratified and sub-stratified based on their psychiatric diagnosis and substance use. The primary assessment was the sustained virologic response at 12 weeks post-treatment (SVR12).

Results: Among the 291 patients analyzed, patients with psychiatric diagnosis and non-psychiatric patients made up 51.2% (n = 149) and 48.8% (n = 142) respectively. Majority of the patients included in the study were African-Americans (68.7%, n = 200). Overall, 95.3% (142/149) and 94.4% (134/142) of psychiatric and non-psychiatric patients, respectively, achieved SVR12 and treatment response was similar between the groups (p = 0.72). Among psychiatric patients, only the prior treatment status was identified as a predictor of treatment response (OR 0.153, 95% CI 0.03-0.79; p = 0.05). No statistical difference was observed among the patients with SVR12 based on their primary psychiatric diagnoses or by comorbid substance abuse.

Conclusion: The results of our study show that direct-acting antiviral treatments are well tolerated in psychiatric patients, and an overwhelming majority of patients achieved SVR12. Our study highlights the need to integrate HCV screening with treatment linkage in psychiatry and primary care practice.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000502514DOI Listing
July 2020

Gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with bilateral adrenal metastasis.

BMJ Case Rep 2019 Jul 3;12(7). Epub 2019 Jul 3.

American University of Antigua College of Medicine, New York City, New York, USA.

Extranodal adrenal involvement in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is very rare, estimated to be around less than 0.2%. Most common sites involved are stomach, intestine and testis. It is very rare for adrenal tumours to present as primary adrenal insufficiency, with an incidence of around 1.2% in patients diagnosed with adrenal masses. Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBL) originating from the stomach and metastasizing to bilateral adrenal glands is an extremely uncommon occurrence with only three cases found on review of the literature. We present a case of a 62-year-old African-American man who presented with nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and hypotension, later being diagnosed as DLBL of the gastric antrum metastasized to bilateral adrenal glands. Initial laboratory workup revealed including hormonal analysis and cosyntropin test revealed adrenal insufficiency. The patient later died during the hospitalisation after developing respiratory failure, severe hypotension refractory to vasopressors and severe metabolic acidosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2019-229758DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6613958PMC
July 2019

Real-world study of hepatitis C treatment with direct-acting antivirals in patients with drug abuse and opioid agonist therapy.

Scand J Gastroenterol 2019 May 23;54(5):646-655. Epub 2019 May 23.

c Department of Medicine and Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology , New York-Presbyterian Brooklyn Methodist Hospital , Brooklyn , NY , USA.

Limited data exist evaluating the treatment outcomes with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) in patients with drug use in the community setting. We aim to assess the treatment response of DAAs in this subset of patients with or without the opioid agonist therapy (OAT). All the hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected patients treated with DAAs were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were stratified into two groups by the presence or absence of abusing alcohol, cocaine and heroin. All the patients who were assigned to the abuser group had positive urine toxicology with one of the drugs during the DAA treatment. The primary assessment was the sustained virologic response (SVR12) at 12 weeks post-treatment (SVR12). Among the 314 patients, 152, 128 and 58 were patients with drug use, non-drug use and receiving OAT. Among the patients with injectable or non-injectable drug use treatment, completion rate was 99% (151/152) and SVR12 was 93.4%. Among the patients with no drug use treatment, completion rate was 95% (122/128) and SVR12 was 88.3%. Among patients receiving OAT alone, SVR12 was 100%, and in patients with OAT + other drug use, SVR12 was 96.5%. None of the patients included in this study discontinued the treatment due to adverse events associated with treatment medications. In this community-based study, DAAs are safe, effective with high overall SVR12 in patients with active drug use (injectable and non-injectable) and OAT enrolled patients. These results support the removal of drug use as a barrier to DAA therapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00365521.2019.1617893DOI Listing
May 2019

Twenty-Eight-Day-Long Delirium Tremens.

J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep 2019 Jan-Dec;7:2324709619847228

1 Interfaith Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY, USA.

Refractory alcohol withdrawal delirium is uncommon in day-to-day clinical practice. This case report presents a rare case of delirium tremens of unusually long duration that was complicated by the difficulty in tapering down benzodiazepines despite adding midazolam drip as well as phenobarbitone to the management regimen and excluding other possible diagnoses.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2324709619847228DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6505229PMC
May 2020

An association of infection with endoscopic and histological findings in the Nepalese population.

J Family Med Prim Care 2019 Mar;8(3):1227-1231

Department of Internal Medicine, Interfaith Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY, USA.

Background: () is one of the most common human infections worldwide particularly in the developing countries. We aimed to study an association of infection with endoscopic and histological findings in the Nepalese population.

Materials And Methods: We conducted a study between Oct 2014 and Jan 2015 after meeting inclusion and exclusion criteria. Institutional Review Board approval was obtained from National Academy of Medical Sciences. Endoscopic findings and histopathological diagnosis were documented and data were analysed.

Results: A total of 113 patients who had complete endoscopy were enrolled. The prevalence of infections recorded was 27 (23.9%) patients. There were 17 (62%) male and 10 (37%) female infected with ( = 0.33). All biopsied specimens were sent to pathology lab for examination. The most common endoscopic findings was erythematous antral gastritis (40.7%) followed by erosive gastritis 34 (30.1%), pangastritis 10 (8.8%), duodenal ulcer 13 (11.5%), gastric ulcer 9 (8%), erosive fundal gastritis 2 (1.8%), reflux esophagitis 10 (37%) ( < 0.04). Histology revealed that 23 (85.2%) patients had chronic active gastritis (CAG); ( < 0.001).

Conclusions: Our study revealed that infection is strongly associated with chronic active gastritis (CAG) and Reflux esophagitis in Nepalese adults.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_82_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6482781PMC
March 2019

Acute Pancreatitis Causing Descending Colonic Stricture: A Rare Sequelae.

J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep 2019 Jan-Dec;7:2324709619834594

1 Interfaith Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY, USA.

An isolated descending colonic stricture is an unlikely complication of acute pancreatitis, with the nonspecific symptoms of colonic stricture making the overall diagnosis difficult. Crohn's disease (CD) and tuberculosis (TB) are the two common etiologies of an isolated colonic stricture and may present similarly to colonic stricture related to acute pancreatitis. Unfortunately, colonoscopy and biopsy often cannot determine the etiology, and surgical resection may be needed to provide both symptomatic relief and confirm the diagnosis. As a result, descending colonic stricture may produce a diagnostic dilemma with CD and TB as all 3 conditions may be radiologically and endoscopically indistinguishable. We describe a young male with weight loss and abdominal pain. TB testing was negative, with radiography and ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) testing supporting a diagnosis of the CD. The patient was initiated on sulfasalazine but worsened over the next month. Further investigations revealed that the patient had descending colonic stricture without CD. Therefore, the stricture's etiology was most likely related to an episode of acute pancreatitis the patient had 2 months before admission and was found to have left colonic segment adherent to the pancreas eventually requiring segmentectomy. Although the pathophysiology of colonic stricture after pancreatitis is unclear, we speculate that inflammatory injury to the colon is an important component. Finally, we emphasize that colonic stricture is a rare complication of pancreatitis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2324709619834594DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6440023PMC
June 2020

Valproic acid induced acute liver injury resulting in hepatic encephalopathy- a case report and literature review.

J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect 2018 15;8(5):311-314. Epub 2018 Oct 15.

Department of Medicine, Wayne State University/Detroit Medical center, Detroit, MI, USA.

Valproic acid (VPA) is a commonly used agent in the management of seizures and psychiatric disorders. Hyperammonemia is a common complication of VPA with 27.8% of patients having elevated levels - that is unrelated to hepatotoxicity and normal transaminases. Common side effects include obesity, insulin resistance, metabolic disorder and severe forms of hepatotoxicity. Other rare and idiosyncratic reactions have been reported, one of which is presented in our case. A 27-year old patient presented with hyperammonemia and encephalopathy as a consequence of idiosyncratic VPA reaction causing drug-induced liver injury (DILI) with severely elevated transaminases. DILI is commonly overlooked when investigating encephalopathy in the setting of VPA. Physicians should consider DILI in the context of hyperammonemia and transaminitis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20009666.2018.1514933DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6197012PMC
October 2018

Moderate Hypertriglyceridemia Causing Recurrent Pancreatitis: A Case Report and the Literature Review.

Case Rep Gastrointest Med 2018 24;2018:8714390. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Department of Medicine, Wayne State University/Detroit Medical Center, Detroit, MI, USA.

Recurrent acute pancreatitis secondary to hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) with levels below 1000 mg/dL has been rarely reported in the literature. HTG is the third most common cause of acute pancreatitis and has been established in the literature as a risk factor when levels are greater than 1000 mg/dL. A 43-year-old patient presented to the hospital with severe epigastric abdominal pain. Initial laboratory investigations were significant for a lipase level of 4143 U/L and a triglyceride level of 600 mg/dL. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen showed diffuse enlargement of the pancreas consistent with pancreatitis. A diagnosis of severe acute pancreatitis secondary to high triglycerides was made based on the revised Atlanta classification 2012. The patient was initially managed with intravenous boluses of normal saline followed by continuous insulin infusion. Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) was ruled out due to a past medical history of diabetes. Her clinical course was complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation. During the course, she improved symptomatically and was extubated. She was started on nasogastric feeding initially and subsequently switched to oral diet as tolerated. After initial management of HTG with insulin infusion, oral gemfibrozil was started for long-term treatment of HTG. Emerging literature implicates HTG as an independent indicator of poor prognosis in acute pancreatitis (AP). Despite the paucity of data, the risk of developing AP must be considered even at triglyceride levels lower than 1000 mg/dL.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/8714390DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6174808PMC
September 2018

A Rare Case of Acute Pancreatitis Due to Very Severe Hypertriglyceridemia (>10 000 mg/dL) Successfully Resolved With Insulin Therapy Alone: A Case Report and Literature Review.

J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep 2018 Jan-Dec;6:2324709618798399. Epub 2018 Sep 1.

Interfaith Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.

A 48-year-old male presented to the psychiatric emergency room for dysmorphic mood. He was admitted to medical service for the management of hyponatremia, which was discovered in his initial laboratory workup. After the first day of admission, he developed abdominal pain and fever, and subsequent laboratory work revealed a triglyceride level of 10 612 mg/dL (reference range = 0-194 mg/dL). Computed tomography scan of the abdomen and pelvis revealed a hypodense lesion in the pancreas surrounded by a moderate amount of peripancreatic fluid suggestive of hemorrhagic pancreatitis. Based on the laboratory findings and imaging, we diagnosed acute pancreatitis (AP) secondary to hypertriglyceridemia. The patient was initiated on intravenous fluids and insulin to help decrease the triglyceride level with the plan to initiate apheresis. However, the patient improved on insulin therapy alone, which negated the need for apheresis, and the patient was discharged with fenofibrate with no further complications. While elevated triglycerides are a well-known cause of AP, we sought to assess various treatment options in management, especially considering a severely elevated triglyceride level of >10 000 mg/dL. Along with supportive care in AP, there are additional options in hypertriglyceridemia AP, including heparin, insulin, apheresis, antioxidants, and fibrates. Currently, there are no clear guidelines favoring one therapeutic option over the other.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2324709618798399DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6120174PMC
September 2018

Sofosbuvir Based Regimens in the Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis C with Compensated Liver Cirrhosis in Community Care Setting.

Int J Hepatol 2018 1;2018:4136253. Epub 2018 Aug 1.

Department of Medicine and Gastroenterology, Interfaith Medical Center, 1545 Atlantic Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11213, USA.

Background: Direct-acting antiviral (DAA) drugs have been highly effective in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection. We aim to evaluate the treatment response of Sofosbuvir based DAA in CHC patients with compensated liver cirrhosis as limited data exists in the real-world community setting.

Methods: All the CHC patients with compensated liver cirrhosis treated with Sofosbuvir based DAAs between January 2014 and December 2017 in a community clinic setting were retrospectively analyzed. Pretreatment baseline patient characteristics, treatment efficacy with the sustained virologic response at 12 weeks posttreatment (SVR12), and adverse reactions were assessed.

Results: One hundred and twelve patients with CHC infection and concurrent compensated cirrhosis were included in the study. Black patients represented the majority of the study population (64%). Eighty-seven patients were treated with Ledipasvir/Sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF) ±Ribavirin and 25 patients were treated with Sofosbuvir/Velpatasvir (SOF/VEL). Overall, SVR 12 after treatment was achieved in 90% in patients who received one of the two DAA regimens (89.7% in LDV/SOF group and 92% in SOF/VEL group). SVR 12 did not vary based on age, sex, body mass index, baseline HCV viral load, HCV/HIV coinfection, type of genotype, and prior treatment status. Apart from a low platelet count, there were no other factors associated with a statistical difference in SVR 12(0.002) between the two regimens. Fatigue (35%) was the most common adverse effect and no patients discontinued treatment due to adverse effects.

Conclusion: In the community care setting, Sofosbuvir based DAAs are safe, effective with high overall SVR, and well tolerated in patients with CHC patients with compensated liver cirrhosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/4136253DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6093047PMC
August 2018

A Rare Case of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus with Gastric Ulcer and Acute Pancreatitis: A Case Report and Literature Review.

Gastroenterology Res 2018 Aug 8;11(4):321-325. Epub 2018 Feb 8.

Department of Medicine, Interfaith Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY, USA.

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic inflammatory disease which can manifest in many different organ systems. Gastrointestinal (GI) involvement is common in SLE, but the symptoms are usually mild. More severe GI complications including acute pancreatitis and peptic ulcer bleeding are rare but represent a significant risk of morbidity and mortality. We present a case of a 25-year-old Hispanic female with a severe SLE flare. The initial presentation included symptoms of hematemesis and epigastric abdominal pain secondary to both gastric ulceration and acute pancreatitis, an atypical presentation of an SLE flare. The non-specific symptom of abdominal pain makes both acute pancreatitis and gastric ulcer disease a clinical challenge; however, clinicians need to have a high suspicion for these conditions co-existing at the same time due to higher mortality rates.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14740/gr1048wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6089583PMC
August 2018

Association Between Vitamin D Levels and Treatment Response to Direct-Acting Antivirals in Chronic Hepatitis C: A Real-World Study.

Gastroenterology Res 2018 Aug 8;11(4):309-316. Epub 2018 Feb 8.

Department of Medicine and Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, New York-Presbyterian Brooklyn Methodist Hospital, 506, 6th St, Brooklyn, NY 11215, USA.

Background: Low serum vitamin D levels in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is associated with advanced liver fibrosis; and there remains an imprecise relationship with the treatment response based on the vitamin D levels. Previous studies have shown conflicting results on the vitamin D levels, and association with treatment response in CHC treated with interferon-based regimens.

Methods: Patients with CHC treated with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) between January 2016 and December 2017 in the community clinic setting were retrospectively analyzed. Pretreatment baseline patient characteristics, treatment efficacy with the sustained virologic response at 12 weeks post-treatment (SVR 12) were assessed in CHC patients with deficient, insufficient, and normal levels of vitamin D measured before the initiation of DAA therapy.

Results: Two hundred and ninety-one patients were included in the study. Direct-acting antivirals included in the study were ledipasvir/sofosbuvir ± ribavirin, ombitasvir + paritaprevir + ritonavir + dasabuvir ± ribavirin, and sofosbuvir/velpatasvir. An overall sustained virologic response was achieved in 95% (n = 276) of patients. SVR 12 rates among patients with vitamin D deficiency, vitamin D insufficiency and normal vitamin D levels were 92%, 96.2%, and 97.2% respectively and was not statically significant (P = 0.214). A total of 71 patients were cirrhotic. The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (20 - 29.9 ng/mL) and deficiency (< 20 ng/mL) was significantly higher in cirrhotic patients (P = 0.01). Despite this, pretreatment vitamin D levels did not show any impact on the virologic response. The most common adverse effect observed was fatigue. None of the patients had to discontinue the treatment due to adverse events.

Conclusions: DAAs are safe and effective with a high overall SVR 12 in CHC and treatment response does not depend on the pretreatment vitamin D levels. The prevalence of both vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency was observed to be higher in cirrhotic cohorts compared to non-cirrhotic counterparts.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14740/gr1072wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6089592PMC
August 2018

Factors Predicting Mortality of Acute Variceal Bleeding in Liver Cirrhosis.

JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc 2018 Jan-Feb;56(209):493-496

Interfaith Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY, USA.

Introduction: Acute variceal bleeding in liver cirrhosis is an immediate life-threatening condition and amajor complication of portal hypertension associated with higher morbidity, mortality and hospital costs than any other causes of UGI bleeding. Therefore, early stratification and initiation of therapy based on several factors can reduce mortality associated with it. We aimed to study the predictors of mortality in acute variceal bleeding in LC.

Methods: An observational prospective study was conducted in Gastroenterology and Hepatology units of Bir Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal from April 1, 2016 to May 30, 2017. Patients were included if they had underlying liver cirrhosis and presented upper GI bleeding which were proven to be secondary to variceal bleeding.

Results: Seventy-five patients with mean age of 52.5 years were available or the analysis. The M:F ratio was 2.1:1. There were 66 patients in mortality group and 9 in survivor group. The mean CTP and MELD score were 10.17±1.66 and 20.40±8.29 respectively. Among the predictors of the mortality studied, CTP score, MELD score, mean arterial pressure, Serum bilirubin, serum creatinine, need of FFP as well as PRP transfusion, presence of hepatorenal syndrome and hepatic encephalopathy were high in mortality group with statistical significance. On multivariate analysis, high CTP and high serum creatinine level were only significant predictors of mortality. Receiver operating curve for predicting accuracy of mortality was significant with higher MELD and higher CTP score.

Conclusions: Strong predictors of mortality in patients with cirrhosis presenting with variceal bleeding are CTP score and high serum creatinine level.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
September 2019

Prevalence of Organic Colonic Lesions by Colonoscopy in Patients Fulfilling ROME IV Criteria of Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc 2018 Jan-Feb;56(209):487-492

Department of Periodontology and Oral Implantology, B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal.

Introduction: Irritable bowel syndrome occurs as recurrent abdominal pain that is related to defecation and associated with change in frequency and/or form of stool. Few Patients with IBS may have organic lesions detectable at colonoscopy.

Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out in 140 consecutive patients of IBS fulfilling the ROME IV criteria. The study was conducted in Gastroenterology unit, Department of Medicine, Bir hospital, Kathmandu from July 2016 to September 2017. All patients underwent full colonoscopy along with biopsy from sigmoid colon and any visibly abnormal areas.

Results: The average age of patients was 37.5 years with 76 (52.8%) males. Forty-two (30%) had IBS-D, 36 (26%) had IBS-C, 31 (22%) had IBS-M and 31 (22%) had IBS-U. Dyspepsia was seen in 16 (11.4%) and fear of TB/Malignancy/IBD was seen in 27 (19.2%). Organic lesions were seen in 39 (27.85%) patients. Nonspecific colitis was seen in 10 (7.1%) followed by ileal erosions in 7 (5%), polyps in 8 (5.7%), hemorrhoids in 6 (4.2%) and diverticula in 3 (2.1%). Only one (0.71%) patient had microscopic colitis and one (0.71%) had malignant lesion seen at histopathological examination. Females with IBS-D had more organic findings than males (P=0.03, RR=4.13, 95% CI=1.21-15.71).

Conclusions: The prevalence of organic lesions in patients with IBS fulfilling ROME IV criteria is 27%. Dyspepsia is the most common comorbidity and fear of TB/malignancy/IBD is the most common reason for seeking health care. Females with IBS-D have a higher risk of detecting organic lesions by colonoscopy and histopathology examination.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
September 2019

Real-World Clinical Efficacy and Tolerability of Direct-Acting Antivirals in Hepatitis C Monoinfection Compared to Hepatitis C/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Coinfection in a Community Care Setting.

Gut Liver 2018 11;12(6):694-703

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, New York-Presbyterian Brooklyn Methodist Hospital, New York, NY, USA.

Background/aims: Limited data exist comparing the safety and efficacy of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) in hepatitis C virus (HCV) monoinfected and HCV/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfected patients in the real-world clinic practice setting.

Methods: All HCV monoinfected and HCV/HIV coinfected patients treated with DAAs between January 2014 and October 2017 in community clinic settings were retrospectively analyzed. Pretreatment baseline patient characteristics, treatment efficacy, factors affecting sustained virologic response at 12 weeks (SVR12) after treatment, and adverse reactions were compared between the groups.

Results: A total of 327 patients were included in the study, of which 253 were HCV monoinfected, and 74 were HCV/HIV coinfected. There was a statistically significant difference observed in SVR12 when comparing HCV monoinfection and HCV/HIV coinfection (94% and 84%, respectively, p=0.005). However, there were no significant factors identified as a predictor of a reduced response. The most common adverse effect was fatigue (27%). No significant drug interaction was observed between DAA and antiretroviral therapy. None of the patients discontinued the treatment due to adverse events.

Conclusions: In a real-world setting, DAA regimens have lower SVR12 in HCV/HIV coinfection than in HCV monoinfection. Further studies involving a higher number of HCV/HIV coinfected patients are needed to identify real predictors of a reduced response.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5009/gnl18004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6254621PMC
November 2018

Direct-Acting Antivirals in Chronic Hepatitis C Genotype 4 Infection in Community Care Setting.

Gastroenterology Res 2018 Apr 7;11(2):130-137. Epub 2018 Apr 7.

Department of Medicine and Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, New York-Presbyterian Brooklyn Methodist Hospital, 506 6th St., Brooklyn, NY 11215, USA.

Background: Limited data exists comparing the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) in patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 4 (HCV GT-4) in the community practice setting. We aim to evaluate the treatment response of DAAs in these patients.

Methods: All the HCV GT-4 patients treated with DAAs between January 2014 and October 2017 in a community clinic setting were retrospectively analyzed. Pretreatment baseline patient characteristics, treatment efficacy with sustained virologic response (SVR) at 12 weeks post treatment (SVR12), and adverse reactions were assessed.

Results: Fifty-two patients of Middle Eastern (primarily Egyptian) descent were included in the study. Thirty-two patients were treated with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (Harvoni) ± ribavirin, 12 patients were treated with ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir/dasabuvir (ViekiraPak) ± ribavirin, and eight patients were treated with sofosbuvir/Velpatasvir (Epclusa). Ten patients (19.2%) had compensated cirrhosis. Overall, SVR at 12 weeks was achieved in 94% in patients who received one of the three DAA regimens (93.8% in Harvoni group, 91.7 % in ViekiraPak group and 100% in Epclusa group). Prior treatment status and type of regimen used in the presence of compensated cirrhosis had no statistical significance on overall SVR achievement (P value = 0.442 and P value = 0.091, respectively). The most common adverse effect was fatigue (27%).

Conclusions: In the real-world setting, DAAs are effective and well tolerated in patients with chronic HCV GT-4 infection with a high overall SVR rate of 94%. Large-scale studies are needed to further assess this SVR in these groups.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14740/gr999wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5916637PMC
April 2018

Drug-Induced Liver Injury: An Institutional Case Series and Review of Literature.

J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep 2018 Jan-Dec;6:2324709618761754. Epub 2018 Mar 14.

Interfaith Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY, USA.

Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is the most common cause of acute liver failure in the USA. DILI can be broadly classified as Intrinsic and Idiosyncratic. Identifying predictors and at-risk patients are challenging but can have a substantial clinical implication. This case report series demonstrates the importance of valproic acid, fluconazole, and amiodarone as potential hepatoxic agents of drug-induced liver injury leading to acute hepatic failure. The causality in all cases was established by Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method/Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences score and Naranjo Algorithm. Obesity, hypo-perfusion state, and concurrent hepatotoxic agent might identify at-risk patients. Further studies are required to understand the risk factors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2324709618761754DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5858623PMC
March 2018