Publications by authors named "Amit P Amin"

73 Publications

Trends in Use and Outcomes of Same-Day Discharge Following Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2021 Aug;14(15):1655-1666

The Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Objectives: The aims of this study were to describe trends and hospital variation in same-day discharge following elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and to evaluate the association between trends in same-day discharge and patient outcomes.

Background: Insights on contemporary use of same-day discharge following elective PCI are limited.

Methods: In a sequential cross-sectional analysis of 819,091 patients undergoing elective PCI at 1,716 hospitals in the National Cardiovascular Data Registry CathPCI Registry from July 1, 2009, to December 31, 2017, overall and hospital-level trends in same-day discharge were assessed. Among the 212,369 patients who linked to Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services data, the association between same-day discharge and 30-day mortality and rehospitalization was assessed.

Results: A total of 114,461 patients (14.0%) were discharged the same day as PCI. The proportion of patients with same-day discharge increased from 4.5% in the third quarter of 2009 to 28.6% in the fourth quarter of 2017. From 2009 to 2017, the rate of same-day discharge increased from 4.3% to 19.5% for femoral-access PCI and from 9.9% to 39.7% for radial-access PCI. Hospital-level variation in the use of same-day discharge persisted throughout (median odds ratio adjusted for year and radial access: 4.15). Risk-adjusted 30-day mortality did not change over time, while risk-adjusted rehospitalization decreased over time and more quickly for same-day discharge (P for interaction <0.001).

Conclusions: In the past decade, a large increase in the use of same-day discharge following elective PCI was not associated with worse 30-day mortality or rehospitalization. Hospital-level variation in same-day discharge may represent an opportunity to reduce costs without compromising patient outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2021.05.043DOI Listing
August 2021

Association of Iso-Osmolar vs Low-Osmolar Contrast Media With Major Adverse Renal or Cardiovascular Events in Patients at High Risk for Acute Kidney Injury Undergoing Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair.

J Invasive Cardiol 2021 Aug 16;33(8):E640-E646. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Interventional Cardiology, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Associate Professor of Medicine, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH 03756 USA.

Objective: The purpose of this analysis was to examine the association of iso-osmolar contrast media (IOCM) vs low-osmolar contrast media (LOCM) with major adverse renal or cardiovascular events (MARCE) in patients at high risk of acute kidney injury (AKI), undergoing endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR).

Methods: Patients at high risk of AKI (defined as age ≥75 years, or one or more of the following comorbidities: diabetes, anemia, chronic kidney disease (CKD stages 1-4) or congestive heart failure), undergoing EVAR from September 2012 to June 2018 were identified using the Premier Hospital Database. We compared the primary endpoint of MARCE (composite of AKI, AKI requiring dialysis, acute myocardial infarction [AMI], stroke/transient ischemic attack [TIA], and death) with IOCM vs LOCM via adjusted multivariable regression analyses.

Results: Among 15,777 high-risk patients undergoing EVAR, the occurrence of in-hospital MARCE was 6.8%, including renal events (4.5%), AMI (0.8%), stroke/TIA (0.4%), and death (1.9%), IOCM was used in 7360 patients (47%). Multivariable modeling found IOCM was associated with 1.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.4-3.3; P=.01) lower absolute risk for MARCE (23.9% relative risk reduction; 95% CI, 5.2%-44.2%).

Conclusions: Use of IOCM vs LOCM in patients at high risk of AKI undergoing EVAR procedures was associated with a lower risk of MARCE. As prevention of AKI or cardiovascular events after EVAR procedures may lead to reduced morbidity and mortality, this finding may have important clinical implications and should be confirmed through randomized controlled clinical studies.
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August 2021

Costs associated with transradial access and same-day discharge after percutaneous coronary intervention: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Rev Cardiovasc Med 2021 Jun;22(2):429-438

Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH 03756, USA.

Transradial access for PCI (TRI) along with same day discharge (SDD) is associated with varying estimates of cost savings depending on the population studied, the clinical scenario and application to low-risk vs high-risk patients. A summary estimate of the true cost savings of TRI and SDD are unknown. We searched the PubMed, EMBASE®, CINAHL® and Google Scholar® databases for published studies on hospitalization costs of TRI and SDD. Primary outcome of interest in all included studies was the cost saving with TRI (or SDD), inflation-corrected US$ 2018 values using the medical consumer price index. For meta-analytic synthesis, we used Hedges' summary estimate (g) in a random-effects framework of the DerSimonian and Laird model, with inverse variance weights. Heterogeneity was quantified using the I statistic. The cost savings of TRI from four US studies of 349,757 patients reported a consistent and significant cost saving associated with TRI after accounting for currency inflation, of US$ 992 (95% CI US$ 850-1,134). The cost savings of SDD from six US studies of 1,281,228 patients, after inflation-correcting to the year 2018, were US$ 3,567.58 (95% CI US$ 2,303-4,832). In conclusion, this meta-analysis demonstrates that TRI and SDD are associated with mean cost reductions of by approximately US$ 1,000/patient and US$ 3,600/patient, respectively, albeit with wide heterogeneity in the cost estimates. When combined with the safety of TRI and SDD, this meta-analysis underscores the value of combining TRI and SDD pathways and calls for a wide-ranging practice change in the direction of TRI and SDD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.31083/j.rcm2202048DOI Listing
June 2021

Transradial Access for High-Risk Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Implications of the Risk-Treatment Paradox.

Circ Cardiovasc Interv 2021 Jul 13;14(7):e009328. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus Aurora, CO (F.A.M.).

[Figure: see text].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.120.009328DOI Listing
July 2021

Use of Mechanical Circulatory Support Devices Among Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction Complicated by Cardiogenic Shock.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 02 1;4(2):e2037748. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Center for Outcomes Research and Evaluation, Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, Connecticut.

Importance: Mechanical circulatory support (MCS) devices, including intravascular microaxial left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) and intra-aortic balloon pumps (IABPs), are used in patients who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicated by cardiogenic shock despite limited evidence of their clinical benefit.

Objective: To examine trends in the use of MCS devices among patients who underwent PCI for AMI with cardiogenic shock, hospital-level use variation, and factors associated with use.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cross-sectional study used the CathPCI and Chest Pain-MI Registries of the American College of Cardiology National Cardiovascular Data Registry. Patients who underwent PCI for AMI complicated by cardiogenic shock between October 1, 2015, and December 31, 2017, were identified from both registries. Data were analyzed from October 2018 to August 2020.

Exposures: Therapies to provide hemodynamic support were categorized as intravascular microaxial LVAD, IABP, TandemHeart, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, LVAD, other devices, combined IABP and intravascular microaxial LVAD, combined IABP and other device (defined as TandemHeart, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, LVAD, or another MCS device), or medical therapy only.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Use of MCS devices overall and specific MCS devices, including intravascular microaxial LVAD, at both patient and hospital levels and variables associated with use.

Results: Among the 28 304 patients included in the study, the mean (SD) age was 65.4 (12.6) years and 18 968 were men (67.0%). The overall MCS device use was constant from the fourth quarter of 2015 to the fourth quarter of 2017, although use of intravascular microaxial LVADs significantly increased (from 4.1% to 9.8%; P < .001), whereas use of IABPs significantly decreased (from 34.8% to 30.0%; P < .001). A significant hospital-level variation in MCS device use was found. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) proportion of patients who received MCS devices was 42% (30%-54%), and the median proportion of patients who received intravascular microaxial LVADs was 1% (0%-10%). In multivariable analyses, cardiac arrest at first medical contact or during hospitalization (odds ratio [OR], 1.82; 95% CI, 1.58-2.09) and severe left main and/or proximal left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.20-1.54) were patient characteristics that were associated with higher odds of receiving intravascular microaxial LVADs only compared with IABPs only.

Conclusions And Relevance: This study found that, among patients who underwent PCI for AMI complicated by cardiogenic shock, overall use of MCS devices was constant, and a 2.5-fold increase in intravascular microaxial LVAD use was found along with a corresponding decrease in IABP use and a significant hospital-level variation in MCS device use. These trends were observed despite limited clinical trial evidence of improved outcomes associated with device use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.37748DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7900859PMC
February 2021

The Cardiovascular Quality Improvement and Care Innovation Consortium: Inception of a Multicenter Collaborative to Improve Cardiovascular Care.

Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2021 01 12;14(1):e006753. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora (P.M.H.).

Despite decades of improvement in the quality and outcomes of cardiovascular care, significant gaps remain. Existing quality improvement strategies are often limited in scope to specific clinical conditions and episodic care. Health services and outcomes research is essential to inform gaps in care but rarely results in the development and implementation of care delivery solutions. Although individual health systems are engaged in projects to improve the quality of care delivery, these efforts often lack a robust study design or implementation evaluation that can inform generalizability and further dissemination. Aligning the work of health care systems and health services and outcomes researchers could serve as a strategy to overcome persisting gaps in cardiovascular quality and outcomes. We describe the inception of the Cardiovascular Quality Improvement and Care Innovation Consortium that seeks to rapidly improve cardiovascular care by (1) developing, implementing, and evaluating multicenter quality improvement projects using innovative care designs; (2) serving as a resource for quality improvement and care innovation partners; and (3) establishing a presence within existing quality improvement and care innovation structures. Success of the collaborative will be defined by projects that result in changes to care delivery with demonstrable impacts on the quality and outcomes of care across multiple health systems. Furthermore, insights gained from implementation of these projects across sites in Cardiovascular Quality Improvement and Care Innovation Consortium will inform and promote broad dissemination for greater impact.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.120.006753DOI Listing
January 2021

Sociodemographic differences in utilization and outcomes for temporary cardiovascular mechanical support in the setting of cardiogenic shock.

Am Heart J 2021 06 26;236:87-96. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO; Center for Health Economics and Policy, Institute for Public Health at Washington University, St. Louis, MO. Electronic address:

Background: Temporary mechanical circulatory support (MCS) devices are increasingly used in cardiogenic shock, but whether sociodemographic differences by sex, race and/or ethnicity, insurance status, and neighborhood poverty exist in the utilization of these devices is unknown.

Methods: Retrospective cross-sectional study using the National Inpatient Sample for 2012-2017. Logistic regression models were used to examine predictors of use of temporary MCS devices and for in-hospital mortality, clustering by hospital-year.

Results: Our study population included 109,327 admissions for cardiogenic shock. Overall, 14.3% of admissions received an intra-aortic balloon pump, 4.2% a percutaneous ventricular assist device, and 1.8% extracorporeal membranous oxygenation (ECMO). After adjusting for age, comorbidities, and hospital characteristics, use of temporary MCS was lower in women compared to men (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.76, P < .001), Black patients compared to white ones (aOR = 0.73, P < .001), those insured by Medicare (aOR = 0.75, P < .001), Medicaid (aOR = 0.74, P < .001), or uninsured (aOR = 0.90, P = .015) compared to privately insured, and those in the lowest income neighborhoods (aOR = 0.94, P = .003) versus other neighborhoods. Women, admissions covered by Medicare, Medicaid, or uninsured, and those from low-income neighborhoods also had higher mortality rates even after adjustment for MCS implantation.

Conclusions: There are differences in the use of temporary MCS in the setting of cardiogenic shock among specific populations within the United States. The growing use of MCS for treating cardiogenic shock highlights the need to better understand its impact on outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2020.12.014DOI Listing
June 2021

Artificial neural network-based prediction of prolonged length of stay and need for post-acute care in acute coronary syndrome patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

Eur J Clin Invest 2021 Mar 29;51(3):e13406. Epub 2020 Nov 29.

Cardiovascular Division, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Background: Prolonged length of stay (LOS) and post-acute care after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is common and costly. Risk models for predicting prolonged LOS and post-acute care have limited accuracy. Our goal was to develop and validate models using artificial neural networks (ANN) to predict prolonged LOS > 7days and need for post-acute care after PCI.

Methods: We defined prolonged LOS as ≥7 days and post-acute care as patients discharged to: extended care, transitional care unit, rehabilitation, other acute care hospital, nursing home or hospice care. Data from 22 675 patients who presented with ACS and underwent PCI was shuffled and split into a derivation set (75% of dataset) and a validation dataset (25% of dataset). Calibration plots were used to examine the overall predictive performance of the MLP by plotting observed and expected risk deciles and fitting a lowess smoother to the data. Classification accuracy was assessed by a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) and area under the ROC curve (AUC).

Results: Our MLP-based model predicted prolonged LOS with an accuracy of 90.87% and 88.36% in training and test sets, respectively. The post-acute care model had an accuracy of 90.22% and 86.31% in training and test sets, respectively. This accuracy was achieved with quick convergence. Predicted probabilities from the MLP models showed good (prolonged LOS) to excellent calibration (post-acute care).

Conclusions: Our ANN-based models accurately predicted LOS and need for post-acute care. Larger studies for replicability and longitudinal studies for evidence of impact are needed to establish these models in current PCI practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/eci.13406DOI Listing
March 2021

Association of Use of an Intravascular Microaxial Left Ventricular Assist Device vs Intra-aortic Balloon Pump With In-Hospital Mortality and Major Bleeding Among Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction Complicated by Cardiogenic Shock.

JAMA 2020 02;323(8):734-745

Center for Outcomes Research and Evaluation, Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, Connecticut.

Importance: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicated by cardiogenic shock is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Although intravascular microaxial left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) provide greater hemodynamic support as compared with intra-aortic balloon pumps (IABPs), little is known about clinical outcomes associated with intravascular microaxial LVAD use in clinical practice.

Objective: To examine outcomes among patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for AMI complicated by cardiogenic shock treated with mechanical circulatory support (MCS) devices.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A propensity-matched registry-based retrospective cohort study of patients with AMI complicated by cardiogenic shock undergoing PCI between October 1, 2015, and December 31, 2017, who were included in data from hospitals participating in the CathPCI and the Chest Pain-MI registries, both part of the American College of Cardiology's National Cardiovascular Data Registry. Patients receiving an intravascular microaxial LVAD were matched with those receiving IABP on demographics, clinical history, presentation, infarct location, coronary anatomy, and clinical laboratory data, with final follow-up through December 31, 2017.

Exposures: Hemodynamic support, categorized as intravascular microaxial LVAD use only, IABP only, other (such as use of a percutaneous extracorporeal ventricular assist system, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, or a combination of MCS device use), or medical therapy only.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary outcomes were in-hospital mortality and in-hospital major bleeding.

Results: Among 28 304 patients undergoing PCI for AMI complicated by cardiogenic shock, the mean (SD) age was 65.0 (12.6) years, 67.0% were men, 81.3% had an ST-elevation myocardial infarction, and 43.3% had cardiac arrest. Over the study period among patients with AMI, an intravascular microaxial LVAD was used in 6.2% of patients, and IABP was used in 29.9%. Among 1680 propensity-matched pairs, there was a significantly higher risk of in-hospital death associated with use of an intravascular microaxial LVAD (45.0%) vs with an IABP (34.1% [absolute risk difference, 10.9 percentage points {95% CI, 7.6-14.2}; P < .001) and also higher risk of in-hospital major bleeding (intravascular microaxial LVAD [31.3%] vs IABP [16.0%]; absolute risk difference, 15.4 percentage points [95% CI, 12.5-18.2]; P < .001). These associations were consistent regardless of whether patients received a device before or after initiation of PCI.

Conclusions And Relevance: Among patients undergoing PCI for AMI complicated by cardiogenic shock from 2015 to 2017, use of an intravascular microaxial LVAD compared with IABP was associated with higher adjusted risk of in-hospital death and major bleeding complications, although study interpretation is limited by the observational design. Further research may be needed to understand optimal device choice for these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.0254DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7042879PMC
February 2020

Cost of coronary syndrome treated with percutaneous coronary intervention and 30-day unplanned readmission in the United States.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2021 01 26;97(1):80-93. Epub 2019 Dec 26.

Keele Cardiovascular Research Group, Keele University, Stoke-on-Trent, UK.

Objectives: This study aimed to examine the cost of coronary syndrome treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and 30-day unplanned readmissions.

Background: There is limited understanding of the hospital cost of index PCI and 30-day unplanned readmissions.

Methods: Patients undergoing PCI between 2010 and 2014 in the U.S. Nationwide Readmission Database were included. The primary outcome was total cost defined by cost of index PCI and first unplanned readmission within 30 days.

Results: This analysis included 2,294,244 patients who underwent PCI, and the mean cost was $23,541 ± $20,730 (~$10.8 billion/year). There was a modest increase in cost over the study years of 17.5%. Of the 9.4% with an unplanned readmission within 30 days, the mean total cost was $35,333 ± 24,230 versus $22,323 ± 19,941 for those not readmitted. The variables most strongly associated with the highest quartile of cost were heart failure (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 25.60 [95% CI 21.59-30.35]), need for circulatory support (aOR 11.62 [10.13-13.32]), periprocedural coronary artery bypass graft (CABG, aOR 585.08 [357.85-956.58]), and readmission within 30 days (aOR 24.49 [22.40-26.77]). An acute kidney injury (AKI; 8.5%), major bleed (0.8%), vascular injury (0.8%), or need for periprodedural CABG (1.4%) had an average increased cost of $21,935; $30,898; $27,875; and $43,005, respectively, compared to PCI without adverse outcome.

Conclusions: The annual 30-day hospital cost of PCI is approximately $10.8 billion, and the costs associated with in-hospital adverse events, particularly the need for AKI and periprocedural CABG, were significant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.28660DOI Listing
January 2021

Improving Care Pathways for Acute Coronary Syndrome: Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

Am J Cardiol 2020 02 26;125(3):354-361. Epub 2019 Oct 26.

University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado.

Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) admissions are common and costly. The association between comprehensive ACS care pathways, outcomes, and costs are lacking. From 434,172 low-risk, uncomplicated ACS patients eligible for early discharge (STEMI 35%, UA/NSTEMI 65%) from the Premier database, we identified ACS care pathways, by stratifying low-risk, uncomplicated STEMI and UA/NSTEMI patients by access site for PCI (trans-radial intervention [TRI] vs transfemoral intervention [TFI]) and by length of stay (LOS). Associations with costs and outcomes (death, bleeding, acute kidney injury, and myocardial infarction at 1-year) were tested using hierarchical, mixed-effects regression, and projections of cost savings with change in care pathways were obtained using modeling. In low-risk uncomplicated STEMI patients, compared with TFI and LOS ≥3 days, a strategy of TRI with LOS <3 days and TFI with LOS <3 days were associated with cost savings of $6,206 and $4,802, respectively. Corresponding cost savings for UA/NSTEMI patients were $7,475 and $6,169, respectively. These care-pathways did not show an excess risk of adverse outcomes. We estimated that >$300 million could be saved if prevalence of the TRI with LOS <3 days and TFI with LOS <3 days strategies are modestly increased to 20% and 70%, respectively. In conclusion, we demonstrate the potential opportunity of cost savings by repositioning ACS care pathways in low-risk and uncomplicated ACS patients, toward transradial access and a shorter LOS without an increased risk of adverse outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2019.10.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7809633PMC
February 2020

The Evolving Landscape of Impella Use in the United States Among Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With Mechanical Circulatory Support.

Circulation 2020 01 17;141(4):273-284. Epub 2019 Nov 17.

The Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC (S.V.R.).

Background: Impella was approved for mechanical circulatory support (MCS) in 2008, but large-scale, real-world data on its use are lacking. Our objective was to describe trends and variations in Impella use, clinical outcomes, and costs across US hospitals in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) treated with MCS (Impella or intra-aortic balloon pump).

Methods: From the Premier Healthcare Database, we analyzed 48 306 patients undergoing PCI with MCS at 432 hospitals between January 2004 and December 2016. Association analyses were performed at 3 levels: time period, hospital, and patient. Hierarchical models with propensity adjustment were used for association analyses. We examined trends and variations in the proportion of Impella use, and associated clinical outcomes (in-hospital mortality, bleeding requiring transfusion, acute kidney injury, stroke, length of stay, and hospital costs).

Results: Among patients undergoing PCI treated with MCS, 4782 (9.9%) received Impella; its use increased over time, reaching 31.9% of MCS in 2016. There was wide variation in Impella use across hospitals (>5-fold variation). Specifically, among patients receiving Impella, there was a wide variation in outcomes of bleeding (>2.5-fold variation), and death, acute kidney injury, and stroke (all ≈1.5-fold variation). Adverse outcomes and costs were higher in the Impella era (years 2008-2016) versus the pre-Impella era (years 2004-2007). Hospitals with higher Impella use had higher rates of adverse outcomes and costs. After adjustment for the propensity score, and accounting for clustering of patients by hospitals, Impella use was associated with death: odds ratio, 1.24 (95% CI, 1.13-1.36); bleeding: odds ratio, 1.10 (95% CI, 1.00-1.21); and stroke: odds ratio, 1.34 (95% CI, 1.18-1.53), although a similar, nonsignificant result was observed for acute kidney injury: odds ratio, 1.08 (95% CI, 1.00-1.17).

Conclusions: Impella use is rapidly increasing among patients undergoing PCI treated with MCS, with marked variability in its use and associated outcomes. Although unmeasured confounding cannot be ruled out, when analyzed by time periods, or at the hospital level or the patient level, Impella use was associated with higher rates of adverse events and costs. More data are needed to define the appropriate role of MCS in patients undergoing PCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.119.044007DOI Listing
January 2020

The Value of Transradial: Impact on Patient Satisfaction and Health Care Economics.

Interv Cardiol Clin 2020 01;9(1):107-115

Cardiovascular Division, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S Euclid Avenue, Campus Box 8086, St Louis, MO 63110, USA; Barnes-Jewish Hospital, 660 S Euclid Avenue, Campus Box 8086, St Louis, MO 63110, USA; Center for Value and Innovation, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S Euclid Avenue, Campus Box 8086, St Louis, MO 63110, USA. Electronic address:

This review summarizes the impact of transradial access for cardiac catheterization and percutaneous coronary intervention related to patient satisfaction, patient safety, and health care costs. In studies comparing transradial versus transfemoral approach, transradial access causes less bleeding and less vascular access site complications and provides a mortality benefit in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Transradial access improves patient satisfaction related to site tolerability by reducing pain and discomfort, and facilitating early ambulation with reduced length of stay. Taken in total, the existing randomized and observational data strongly support radial access for improved safety, patient satisfaction, and significant cost savings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.iccl.2019.08.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7772820PMC
January 2020

Incremental Cost of Acute Kidney Injury after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in the United States.

Am J Cardiol 2020 01 10;125(1):29-33. Epub 2019 Oct 10.

University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus Aurora, CO.

Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and severe complication of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Despite its substantial burden, contemporary data on the incremental costs of AKI are lacking. We designed this large, nationally representative study to examine: (1) the independent, incremental costs associated with AKI after PCI and (2) to identify the departmental components of cost contributing to the incremental costs associated with AKI. In this observational cross-sectional study from the Premier database, we analyzed 1,443,297 PCI patients at 518 US hospitals from 1/2006 to 12/2015. Incremental cost of AKI from a hospital perspective obtained by a microcosting approach, was estimated using mixed-effects, multivariable linear regression with hospitals as random effects. Costs were inflation-corrected to 2016 US$. AKI occurred in 82,683 (5.73%) of the PCI patients. Those with AKI had higher hospitalization cost than those without ($38,869, SD 42,583 vs $17,167 SD 13,994, p <0.001). After adjustment, the incremental cost associated with an AKI was $9,448 (95% confidence interval $9,338 to $9,558, p <0.001). AKI was also independently associated with an incremental length of stay of 3.6 days (p <0.001). Room and board costs were the largest driver of AKI costs ($4,841). Extrapolated to the United States, our findings imply an annual AKI cost burden of 411.3 million US$. In conclusion, in this national study of PCI patients, AKI was common and independently associated with ∼$10,000 incremental costs, implying a substantial burden of AKI costs in US hospitals. Successful efforts to prevent AKI in patients who underwent PCI could result in meaningful cost savings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2019.09.042DOI Listing
January 2020

Anti-anginal medication titration among patients with residual angina 6-months after chronic total occlusion percutaneous coronary intervention: insights from OPEN CTO registry.

Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes 2019 10;5(4):370-379

Cardiovascular Division, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 2464 Charlotte St., Kansas City, MO, USA.

Aims: Chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has been shown to reduce angina and improve quality of life, but the frequency of new or residual angina after CTO PCI and its relationship with titration of anti-anginal medications (AAMs) has not been described.

Methods And Results: Among consecutive CTO PCI patients treated at 12 US centres in the OPEN CTO registry, angina was assessed 6 months after the index PCI using the Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ) Angina Frequency scale (a score <100 defined new or residual angina). We then compared the proportion of patients with AAM escalation (defined as an increase in the number or dosage of AAMs between discharge and follow-up) between those with and without 6-month angina. Of 901 patients who underwent CTO PCI, 197 (21.9%) reported angina at 6-months, of whom 80 (40.6%) had de-escalation, 66 (33.5%) had no change, and only 51 (25.9%) had escalation of their AAM by the 6-month follow-up. Rates of AAM escalation were similar when stratifying patients by the ultimate success of the CTO PCI, completeness of physiologic revascularization, presence or absence of angina at baseline, history of heart failure, and by degree of symptomatic improvement after CTO PCI.

Conclusions: One in five patients reported angina 6 months after CTO PCI. Although patients with new or residual angina were more likely to have escalation of AAMs in follow-up compared with those without residual symptoms, only one in four patients with residual angina had escalation of AAMs. Although it is unclear whether this finding reflects maximal tolerated therapy at baseline or therapeutic inertia, these findings suggest an important potential opportunity to further improve symptom control in patients with complex stable ischaemic heart disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjqcco/qcz015DOI Listing
October 2019

Same-Day Discharge After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention-An Elusive Bargain-Reply.

JAMA Cardiol 2019 05;4(5):496

Saint Luke's Mid America Heart Institute, Kansas City, Missouri.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2019.0309DOI Listing
May 2019

Minimizing radiographic contrast administration during coronary angiography using a novel contrast reduction system: A multicenter observational study of the DyeVert™ plus contrast reduction system.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2019 06 4;93(7):1228-1235. Epub 2018 Nov 4.

Department of Medicine, Cardiology Division, Atlanta VA Medical Center, Emory University School of Medicine, Decatur, Georgia.

Objective: To evaluate contrast media (CM) volume (CMV) saved using the DyeVert™ Plus Contrast Reduction System (DyeVert Plus System, Osprey Medical) in patients undergoing diagnostic coronary angiogram (CAG) and/or percutaneous coronary interventional (PCI) procedures performed with manual injections.

Background: Current guidelines advocate for monitoring and minimization of the total volume of CM in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients undergoing invasive cardiac procedures. The DyeVert Plus System is an FDA cleared device designed to reduce CMV delivered during angiography and permit real-time CMV monitoring.

Methods: We performed a multicenter, single-arm, observational study. Eligible subjects were ≥ 18 years old with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 20-60 mL/min/1.73 m . The primary endpoint was % CMV saved over the total procedure. A secondary objective was to evaluate adverse events (AEs) related to DyeVert Plus System or to CM use.

Results: A total of 114 subjects were enrolled at eight centers. Mean age was 72 ± 9 years, 72% were male, and mean body mass index was 29 ± 5. Baseline eGFR was 43 ± 11 mL/min/1.73 m . CAG-only was performed in 65% of cases. One hundred and five subjects were evaluable for the primary endpoint. Mean CMV attempted was 112 ± 85 mL (range 22-681) and mean CMV delivered was 67 ± 51 mL (range 12-403), resulting in an overall CMV savings of 40.1 ± 8.8% (95% CI 38.4, 41.8; P < 0.0001) per procedure. Image quality was maintained in all but one case where the system was turned off for one injection. No DyeVert Plus System-related AEs were reported. Acute kidney injury (AKI; defined as serum creatinine rise of >0.3 mg/dL from baseline) was reported in 11 cases with seven occurring in subjects with baseline eGFR < 30 and three AKI events were attributed to CM. AKI rates increased as CMV/eGFR ratios increased.

Conclusions: These data suggest DyeVert Plus System use in CKD patients undergoing CAG and/or PCI results in clinically meaningful CMV savings while maintaining image quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.27935DOI Listing
June 2019

Reversing the "Risk-Treatment Paradox" of Bleeding in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Risk-Concordant Use of Bleeding Avoidance Strategies Is Associated With Reduced Bleeding and Lower Costs.

J Am Heart Assoc 2018 11;7(21):e008551

2 Barnes-Jewish Hospital St. Louis MO.

Background Bleeding is a common, morbid, and costly complication of percutaneous coronary intervention. While bleeding avoidance strategies ( BAS ) are effective, they are used paradoxically less in patients at high risk of bleeding. Whether a patient-centered approach to specifically increase the risk-concordant use of BAS and, thus, reverse the risk-treatment paradox is associated with reduced bleeding and costs is unknown. Methods and Results We implemented an intervention to reverse the bleeding risk-treatment paradox at Barnes-Jewish Hospital, St. Louis, MO, and examined: (1) the temporal trends in BAS use and (2) the association of risk-concordant BAS use with bleeding and hospital costs of percutaneous coronary intervention. Among 3519 percutaneous coronary interventions, there was a significantly increasing trend ( P=0.002) in risk-concordant use of BAS . The bleeding incidence was 2% in the risk-concordant group versus 9% in the risk-discordant group (absolute risk difference, 7%; number needed to treat, 14). Risk-concordant BAS use was associated with a 67% (95% confidence interval, 52-78%; P<0.001) reduction in the risk of bleeding and a $4738 (95% confidence interval, 3353-6122; P<0.001) reduction in per-patient percutaneous coronary intervention hospitalization costs (21.6% cost-savings). Conclusions In this study, patient-centered care directly aimed to make treatment-related decisions based on predicted risk of bleeding, led to more risk-concordant use of BAS and reversal of the risk-treatment paradox. This, in turn, was associated with a reduction in bleeding and hospitalization costs. Larger multicentered studies are needed to corroborate these results. As clinical medicine moves toward personalization, both patients and hospitals can benefit from a simple practice change that encourages objectivity and mitigates variability in care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.118.008551DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6404202PMC
November 2018

Clinical Model to Predict 90-Day Risk of Readmission After Acute Myocardial Infarction.

Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2018 10;11(10):e004788

Division of Cardiology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora (V.K., P.N.P., P.M.H., F.A.M.).

Background: Readmissions within 30 days after acute myocardial infarction have been used as a performance metric for hospitals. However, evolving concepts of value-based reimbursement have shifted the focus to 90 days after hospital discharge. Tools are needed to determine risk for 90-day readmission to identify patients who might benefit from enhanced transitional healthcare resources.

Methods And Results: In this cohort study, we identified all Medicare beneficiaries with a primary diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction who were discharged from hospitals participating in National Cardiovascular Data Registry ACTION registry between 2008 and 2014. Among a random 70% sample (derivation cohort), we performed hierarchical proportional hazards regression, accounting for death as a competing risk, to assess predictors of all-cause readmission within 90 days. Models were validated in the remaining 30%. Among 86 849 unique patients, 23 912 (27.5%) were readmitted within 90 days. Of the readmissions, 55% occurred within 30 days and 81% occurred within 60 days. Predictors of readmission included older age and a history of diabetes mellitus or heart failure. Coronary revascularization was associated with a lower risk of readmission. A simple risk score incorporating patient demographic and clinical characteristics known before discharge identified groups of patients with readmission risks ranging from 13.1% to 42.9%. Model discrimination was moderate (C statistic=0.662), and calibration was excellent (slope=0.97, intercept=-0.04).

Conclusions: Readmission within 90 days of hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction can be predicted by variables known before discharge and offers the potential to prospectively design transitional care to the risks of individual patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.118.004788DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6214661PMC
October 2018

Predicting Length of Stay and the Need for Postacute Care After Acute Myocardial Infarction to Improve Healthcare Efficiency.

Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2018 09;11(9):e004635

Saint Luke's Mid America Heart Institute/UMKC, Kansas City, MO (K.F.K., S.V.A., J.A.S.).

Background To improve value in the care of patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI), payment models increasingly hold providers accountable for costs. As such, providers need tools to predict length of stay (LOS) during hospitalization and the likelihood of needing postacute care facilities after discharge for acute MI patients. We developed models to estimate risk for prolonged LOS and postacute care for acute MI patients at time of hospital admission to facilitate coordinated care planning. Methods and Results We identified patients in the National Cardiovascular Data Registry ACTION registry (Acute Coronary Treatment and Intervention Outcomes Network) who were discharged alive after hospitalization for acute MI between July 1, 2008 and March 31, 2017. Within a 70% random sample (Training cohort) we developed hierarchical, proportional odds models to predict LOS and hierarchical logistic regression models to predict discharge to postacute care. Models were validated in the remaining 30%. Of 633 737 patients in the Training cohort, 16.8% had a prolonged LOS (≥7 days) and 7.8% were discharged to a postacute facility (extended care, a transitional care unit, or rehabilitation). Model discrimination was moderate in the validation dataset for predicting LOS (C statistic=0.640) and strong for predicting discharge to postacute care (C statistic=0.827). For both models, discrimination was similar in ST-segment-elevation MI and non-ST-segment-elevation MI subgroups and calibration was excellent. Conclusions These models developed in a national registry can be used at the time of initial hospitalization to predict LOS and discharge to postacute facilities. Prospective testing of these models is needed to establish how they can improve care coordination and lower costs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.118.004635DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6207219PMC
September 2018

Association of Same-Day Discharge After Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in the United States With Costs and Outcomes.

JAMA Cardiol 2018 11;3(11):1041-1049

M&H Research, LLC, San Antonio, Texas.

Importance: Same-day discharge (SDD) after elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is associated with lower costs and preferred by patients. However, to our knowledge, contemporary patterns of SDD after elective PCI with respect to the incidence, hospital variation, trends, costs, and safety outcomes in the United States are unknown.

Objective: To examine (1) the incidence and trends in SDD; (2) hospital variation in SDD; (3) the association between SDD and readmissions for bleeding, acute kidney injury (AKI), acute myocardial infarction (AMI), or mortality at 30, 90, and 365 days after PCI; and (4) hospital costs of SDD and its drivers.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This observational cross-sectional cohort study included 672 470 patients enrolled in the nationally representative Premier Healthcare Database who underwent elective PCI from 493 hospitals between January 2006 and December 2015 with 1-year follow-up.

Exposures: Same-day discharge, defined by identical dates of admission, PCI procedure, and discharge.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Death, bleeding requiring a blood transfusion, AKI and AMI at 30, 90, or 365 days after PCI, and costs from hospitals' perspective, inflated to 2016.

Results: Among 672 470 elective PCIs, 221 997 patients (33.0%) were women, 30 711 (4.6%) were Hispanic, 51 961 (7.7%) were African American, and 491 823 (73.1%) were white. The adjusted rate of SDD was 3.5% (95% CI, 3.0%-4.0%), which increased from 0.4% in 2006 to 6.3% in 2015. We observed substantial hospital variation for SDD from 0% to 83% (median incidence rate ratio, 3.82; 95% CI, 3.48-4.23), implying an average (median) 382% likelihood of SDD at one vs another hospital. Among SDD (vs non-SDD) patients, there was no higher risk of death, bleeding, AKI, or AMI at 30, 90, or 365 days. Same-day discharge was associated with a large cost savings of $5128 per procedure (95% CI, $5006-$5248), driven by reduced supply and room and boarding costs. A shift from existing SDD practices to match top-decile SDD hospitals could annually save $129 million in this sample and $577 million if adopted throughout the United States. However, residual confounding may be present, limiting the precision of the cost estimates.

Conclusions And Relevance: Over 2006 to 2015, SDD after elective PCI was infrequent, with substantial hospital variation. Given the safety and large savings of more than $5000 per PCI associated with SDD, greater and more consistent use of SDD could markedly increase the overall value of PCI care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2018.3029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6583057PMC
November 2018

Cost implications of intraprocedural thrombotic events and bleeding in percutaneous coronary intervention: Results from the CHAMPION PHOENIX ECONOMICS Study.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2018 11 4;92(5):E348-E355. Epub 2018 May 4.

Division of Cardiology, Interventional Section, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: Despite improvements in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), intraprocedural thrombotic events (IPTE) and bleeding complications occur and are prognostically important. These have not been included in prior economic studies.

Methods: PHOENIX ECONOMICS was a substudy of the CHAMPION PHOENIX trial, evaluating cangrelor during PCI. Hospital bills were reviewed from 1,171 patients enrolled at 22 of 63 US sites. Costs were estimated using standard methods including resource-based accounting, hospital billing data, and the Medicare fee schedule. Bleeding and IPTE, defined as abrupt vessel closure (transient or sustained), new/suspected thrombus, new clot on wire/catheter, no reflow, side-branch occlusion, procedural stent thrombosis or urgent need for CABG were identified. Costs were calculated according to whether a complication occurred and type of event. Multivariate analyses were used to estimate the incremental costs of IPTE and postprocedural events.

Results: IPTE occurred in 4.3% and were associated with higher catheterization laboratory and overall index hospitalization costs by $2,734 (95%CI $1,117, $4,351; P = 0.001) and $6,354 (95% CI $4,122, $8,586; P < 0.001), respectively. IPTE were associated with MI (35.4% vs. 3.6%; P < 0.001), out-of-laboratory stent thrombosis (4.2% vs. 0.1%; 0 = 0.005), ischemia driven revascularization (12.5% vs. 0.3%; P < 0.001), but not mortality (2.1% vs. 0.2%; P = 0.12) vs. no procedural thrombotic complication. By comparison, ACUITY minor bleeding increased hospitalization cost by $1,416 (95%CI = 312, $2,519; P = 0.012). ACUITY major bleeding increased cost of hospitalization by $7,894 (95%CI $4,154, $11,635; P < 0.001).

Conclusions: IPTE and bleeding complications, though infrequent, are associated with substantial increased cost. These complications should be collected in economic assessments of PCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.27638DOI Listing
November 2018

Novel Patient-Centered Approach to Facilitate Same-Day Discharge in Patients Undergoing Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

J Am Heart Assoc 2018 02 15;7(4). Epub 2018 Feb 15.

Cardiovascular Division, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO.

Background: Same-day discharge (SDD) after elective percutaneous coronary intervention is safe, less costly, and preferred by patients, but it is usually performed in low-risk patients, if at all. To increase the appropriate use of SDD in more complex patients, we implemented a "patient-centered" protocol based on risk of complications at Barnes-Jewish Hospital.

Methods And Results: Our objectives were as follows: (1) to evaluate time trends in SDD; (2) to compare (a) mortality, bleeding, and acute kidney injury, (b) patient satisfaction, and (c) hospital costs by SDD versus no SDD (NSDD); and (3) to compare SDD eligibility by our patient-centered approach versus Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions guidelines. Our patient-centered approach was based on prospectively identifying personalized bleeding, mortality, and acute kidney injury risks, with a personalized safe contrast limit and mitigating those risks. We analyzed Barnes-Jewish Hospital's National Cardiovascular Data Registry CathPCI Registry data from July 1, 2009 to September 30, 2015 (N=1752). SDD increased rapidly from 0% to 77% (<0.001), independent of radial access. Although SDD patients were comparable to NSDD patients, SDD was not associated with adverse outcomes (0% mortality, 0% bleeds, and 0.4% acute kidney injury). Patient satisfaction was high with SDD. Propensity score-adjusted costs were $7331 lower/SDD patient (<0.001), saving an estimated $1.8 million annually. Only 16 patients (6.95%) met the eligibility for SDD by Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions guidelines, implying our patient-centered approach markedly increased SDD eligibility.

Conclusions: With a patient-centered approach, SDD rapidly increased and was safe in 75% of patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention, despite patient complexity. Patient satisfaction was high, and hospital costs were lower. Patient-centered decision making to facilitate SDD is an important opportunity to improve the value of percutaneous coronary intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.117.005733DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5850176PMC
February 2018

Association of Variation in Contrast Volume With Acute Kidney Injury in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

JAMA Cardiol 2017 09;2(9):1007-1012

Cardiovascular Division, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri.

Importance: Acute kidney injury (AKI) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is common, morbid, and costly; increases patients' mortality risk; and can be mitigated by limiting contrast use.

Objective: To examine the national variation in AKI incidence and contrast use among US physicians and the variation's association with patients' risk of developing AKI after PCI.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cross-sectional study used the American College of Cardiology National Cardiovascular Data Registry (NCDR) CathPCI Registry to identify in-hospital care for PCI in the United States. Participants included 1 349 612 patients who underwent PCI performed by 5973 physicians in 1338 hospitals between June 1, 2009, and June 30, 2012. Data analysis was performed from July 1, 2014, to August 31, 2016.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary outcome was AKI, defined according to the Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria as an absolute increase of 0.3 mg/dL or more or a relative increase of 50% or more from preprocedural to peak creatinine. A secondary outcome was the mean contrast volume as reported in the NCDR CathPCI Registry. Physicians who performed more than 50 PCIs per year were the main exposure variable of interest. Hierarchical regression with adjustment for patients' AKI risk was used to identify the variation in AKI rates, the variation in contrast use, and the association of contrast volume with patients' predicted AKI risk.

Results: Of the 1 349 612 patients who underwent PCI, the mean (SD) age was 64.9 (12.2) years, 908 318 (67.3%) were men, and 441 294 (32.7%) were women. Acute kidney injury occurred in 94 584 patients (7%). A large variation in AKI rates was observed among individual physicians ranging from 0% to 30% (unadjusted), with a mean adjusted 43% excess likelihood of AKI (median odds ratio, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.41-1.44) for statistically identical patients presenting to 2 random physicians. A large variation in physicians' mean contrast volume, ranging from 79 mL to 487 mL with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.23 (interquartile range, 0.21-0.25), was also observed, implying a 23% variation in contrast volume among physicians after adjustment. There was minimal correlation between contrast use and patients' AKI risk (r = -0.054). Sensitivity analysis after excluding complex cases showed that the physician variation in AKI remained unchanged.

Conclusions And Relevance: Acute kidney injury rates vary greatly among physicians, who also vary markedly in their use of contrast and do not use substantially less contrast in patients with higher risk for AKI. These findings suggest an important opportunity to reduce AKI by reducing the variation in contrast volumes across physicians and lowering its use in higher-risk patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2017.2156DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5815045PMC
September 2017

Noncardiac chest pain after acute myocardial infarction: Frequency and association with health status outcomes.

Am Heart J 2017 Apr 5;186:1-11. Epub 2017 Jan 5.

Saint Luke's Mid America Heart Institute, Kansas City, MO; University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO. Electronic address:

Background: The frequency of noncardiac chest pain (CP) hospitalization after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is unknown, and its significance from patients' perspectives is not studied.

Objectives: To assess the frequency of noncardiac CP admissions after AMI and its association with patients' self-reported health status.

Methods: We identified cardiac and noncardiac CP hospitalizations in the year after AMI from the 24-center TRIUMPH registry. Hierarchical repeated-measures regression was used to identify the association of these hospitalizations with patients' self-reported health status using the Seattle Angina Questionnaire Quality of Life domain (SAQ QoL) and Short Form 12 (SF-12) physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) component summary scores.

Results: Of 3,099 patients, 318 (10.3%) were hospitalized with CP, of whom 92 (28.9%) were hospitalized for noncardiac CP. Compared with patients not hospitalized with CP, noncardiac CP hospitalization was associated with poorer health status (SAQ QoL-adjusted differences: -8.9 points [95% CI -12.1 to -5.6]; SF-12 PCS: -2.5 points [95% CI -4.2 to -0.8] and SF-12 MCS: -3.5 points [95% CI -5.1 to -1.9]). The SAQ QoL for patients hospitalized with noncardiac CP was similar to patients hospitalized with cardiac CP (adjusted difference: 0.6 points [95% CI -3.2 to 4.5]; SF-12 PCS (0.9 points [95% CI -1.1 to 2.9]), but was worse with regard to SF-12 MCS (adjusted difference: -2.0 points [95% CI -3.9 to -0.2]).

Conclusions: Noncardiac CP accounted for a third of CP hospitalizations within 1 year of AMI and was associated with similar disease-specific QoL as well as general physical and mental health status impairment compared with cardiac CP hospitalization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2017.01.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5575910PMC
April 2017

Predictors and variability of drug-eluting vs bare-metal stent selection in contemporary percutaneous coronary intervention: Insights from the PRISM study.

Clin Cardiol 2017 Aug 16;40(8):521-527. Epub 2017 Mar 16.

Department of Cardiovascular Outcomes Research, Saint Luke's Mid America Heart Institute, Kansas City, Missouri.

Drug-eluting stents (DES) reduce risk of in-stent restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) but require dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) for a longer term than bare-metal stents (BMS). Few studies have examined clinical predictors of DES vs BMS, and variability in provider selection between DES and BMS in clinical practice has not been well described. These insights can inform our understanding of current practice and may identify opportunities to improve decision-making stent selection decinsion-making. In a multicenter registry, 3295 consecutive patients underwent PCI by 158 interventional cardiologists across 10 US sites. Eighty percent of patients with treated with DES. Using hierarchical regression, diabetes mellitus, multivessel disease, health insurance, and white race were independently associated with greater DES use, whereas increasing age, history of hypertension, anticipated surgery, use of warfarin, lower hemoglobin, prior history of bleeding, and treatment of right coronary and left circumflex artery lesions as compared with PCI of left anterior descending artery were associated with lower likelihood of receiving DES. Adjusted rates of DES use across providers varied from 52.3% to 94.6%, and adjusted median odds ratio for DES selection was 1.69. DES selection appeared to reflect physicians' attempts to balance benefits of DES against risks of prolonged DAPT. Nevertheless, marked residual variability in DES selection across providers persisted after adjusting for predictors of restenosis, bleeding, and other factors. Further studies are needed to better understand drivers of this variability and identify the impact of patient and provider preferences on stent selection at the time of PCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/clc.22693DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5805558PMC
August 2017

Costs Associated With Access Site and Same-Day Discharge Among Medicare Beneficiaries Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: An Evaluation of the Current Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Care Pathways in the United States.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2017 02;10(4):342-351

University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the independent impact of various care pathways, including those involving transradial intervention (TRI) and same-day discharge (SDD) after elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), on hospital costs.

Background: PCI is associated with costs of $10 billion annually. Alternative payment models for PCI are being implemented, but few data exist on strategies to reduce costs. Various PCI care pathways, including TRI and SDD, exist, but their association with costs and outcomes is unknown.

Methods: In total, 279,987 PCI patients eligible for SDD in the National Cardiovascular Data Registry CathPCI Registry linked to Medicare claims files were analyzed. Hospital costs in 2014 U.S. dollars were estimated using cost-to-charge ratios. Propensity scores for TRI and SDD, with propensity adjustment via inverse probability weighting, was performed.

Results: Of the 279,987 PCI procedures, TRI was used in 9.0% (13.5% of which were SDD), and SDD was used in 5.3% of cases (23.1% of which were TRI). TRI (vs. transfemoral intervention) was associated with lower adjusted costs of $916 (95% confidence interval [CI]: $778 to $1,035), as was SDD ($3,502; 95% CI: $3,486 to $3,902). The adjusted cost associated with TRI and SDD was $13,389 (95% CI: $13,161 to $13,607), while the cost associated with transfemoral intervention and non-same-day discharge was $17,076 (95% CI: $16,999 to $17,147), a difference of $3,689 (95% CI: $3,486 to $3,902; p < 0.0001). Shifting current practice from transfemoral intervention non-same-day discharge to TRI SDD by 30% could potentially save a hospital performing 1,000 PCIs each year $1 million and the country $300 million annually.

Conclusions: Among Medicare beneficiaries, TRI with SDD was independently associated with fewer complications and lower in-hospital costs. These findings have important implications for changing the current PCI care pathways to improve outcomes and reduce costs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2016.11.049DOI Listing
February 2017

Predictors of Rehospitalization Among Adults With Congenital Heart Disease Are Lesion Specific.

Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2016 09 13;9(5):566-75. Epub 2016 Sep 13.

From the Department of Cardiology, Baylor University Hospital, Dallas, TX (A.M.C.); and the Department of Cardiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (S.B., E.L.N., A.P.A.).

Background: Readmission is responsible for a large proportion of inpatient care costs in adult congenital heart disease. There are, however, few data available to identify at-risk patients or to suggest strategies for intervention to prevent rehospitalization.

Methods And Results: We conducted an analysis of admissions in patients over the age of 18 years with a 3-digit International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision code of 745 to 747 from the State Inpatient Databases of Arkansas (2008-2010), California (2003-2012), Florida (2005-2012), Hawaii (2006-2010), Nebraska (2003-2011), and New York (2005-2012). We investigated index admission diagnoses most commonly associated with 1-year readmission and the most common reasons for readmission. We then selected variables we thought would be associated with increased rates of 1-year readmission and constructed multivariable regression models grouping patients by congenital lesion, to examine the relative contribution of the specified variables to readmission risk for each lesion. A total of 64 420 patients were included in the final analysis. Thirty-nine percent of patients experienced a readmission within 12 months of an index admission. Compared with those who did not experience a readmission, those who did were more likely to have had a primary diagnosis of congestive heart failure at the time of index admission, and the most common diagnoses at the time of readmission were congestive heart failure and arrhythmia. There is lesion-specific heterogeneity in risk factors for readmission.

Conclusions: Patients with adult congenital heart disease have high rates of readmission, predominantly for congestive heart failure and arrhythmia. Predictors of readmission are lesion specific, and future strategies aimed at decreasing readmission rate will likely need to be individualized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.116.002733DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8299407PMC
September 2016
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