Publications by authors named "Amit Jaiswal"

112 Publications

Focused CRISPR-Cas9 genetic screening reveals USO1 as a vulnerability in B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 23;11(1):13158. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine At UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA.

Post-transcriptional gene regulation, including that by RNA binding proteins (RBPs), has recently been described as an important mechanism in cancer. We had previously identified a set of RBPs that were highly dysregulated in B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) with MLL translocations, which carry a poor prognosis. Here, we sought to functionally characterize these dysregulated RBP genes by performing a focused CRISPR dropout screen in B-ALL cell lines, finding dependencies on several genes including EIF3E, EPRS and USO1. Validating our findings, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated disruption of USO1 in MLL-translocated B-ALL cells reduced cell growth, promoted cell death, and altered the cell cycle. Transcriptomic analysis of USO1-deficient cells revealed alterations in pathways related to mTOR signaling, RNA metabolism, and targets of MYC. In addition, USO1-regulated genes from these experimental samples were significantly and concordantly correlated with USO1 expression in primary samples collected from B-ALL patients. Lastly, we found that loss of Uso1 inhibited colony formation of MLL-transformed in primary bone marrow cells from Cas9-EGFP mice. Together, our findings demonstrate an approach to performing focused sub-genomic CRISPR screens and highlight a putative RBP vulnerability in MLL-translocated B-ALL, thus identifying potential therapeutic targets in this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-92448-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8222245PMC
June 2021

Visualization of Plasmonic Couplings Using Ultrafast Electron Microscopy.

Nano Lett 2021 07 21;21(13):5842-5849. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439, United States.

Hybrids of graphene and metal plasmonic nanostructures are promising building blocks for applications in optoelectronics, surface-enhanced scattering, biosensing, and quantum information. An understanding of the coupling mechanism in these hybrid systems is of vital importance to its applications. Previous efforts in this field mainly focused on spectroscopic studies of strong coupling within the hybrids with no spatial resolution. Here we report direct imaging of the local plasmonic coupling between single Au nanocapsules and graphene step edges at the nanometer scale by photon-induced near-field electron microscopy in an ultrafast electron microscope for the first time. The proximity of a step in the graphene to the nanocapsule causes asymmetric surface charge density at the ends of the nanocapsules. Computational electromagnetic simulations confirm the experimental observations. The results reported here indicate that this hybrid system could be used to manipulate the localized electromagnetic field on the nanoscale, enabling promising future plasmonic devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.1c01824DOI Listing
July 2021

Food Waste Biorefinery: Pathway towards Circular Bioeconomy.

Foods 2021 May 24;10(6). Epub 2021 May 24.

School of Food Science and Environmental Health, College of Sciences and Health, Technological University Dublin-City Campus, Central Quad, Grangegorman, D07 ADY7 Dublin, Ireland.

Food waste biorefineries for the production of biofuels, platform chemicals and other bio-based materials can significantly reduce a huge environmental burden and provide sustainable resources for the production of chemicals and materials. This will significantly contribute to the transition of the linear based economy to a more circular economy. A variety of chemicals, biofuels and materials can be produced from food waste by the integrated biorefinery approach. This enhances the bioeconomy and helps toward the design of more green, ecofriendly, and sustainable methods of material productions that contribute to sustainable development goals. The waste biorefinery is a tool to achieve a value-added product that can provide a better utilization of materials and resources while minimizing and/or eliminating environmental impacts. Recently, food waste biorefineries have gained momentum for the production of biofuels, chemicals, and bio-based materials due to the shifting of regulations and policies towards sustainable development. This review attempts to explore the state of the art of food waste biorefinery and the products associated with it.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10061174DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8225055PMC
May 2021

Evaluation of Ultrasound, Microwave, Ultrasound-Microwave, Hydrothermal and High Pressure Assisted Extraction Technologies for the Recovery of Phytochemicals and Antioxidants from Brown Macroalgae.

Mar Drugs 2021 May 27;19(6). Epub 2021 May 27.

School Agriculture and Food Science, University College Dublin, Dublin D04 V1W8, Belfield, Ireland.

This study aims to explore novel extraction technologies (ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), ultrasound-microwave-assisted extraction (UMAE), hydrothermal-assisted extraction (HAE) and high-pressure-assisted extraction (HPAE)) and extraction time post-treatment (0 and 24 h) for the recovery of phytochemicals and associated antioxidant properties from and . When using fixed extraction conditions (solvent: 50% ethanol; extraction time: 10 min; algae/solvent ratio: 1/10) for all the novel technologies, UAE generated extracts with the highest phytochemical contents from both macroalgae. The highest yields of compounds extracted from using UAE were: total phenolic content (445.0 ± 4.6 mg gallic acid equivalents/g), total phlorotannin content (362.9 ± 3.7 mg phloroglucinol equivalents/g), total flavonoid content (286.3 ± 7.8 mg quercetin equivalents/g) and total tannin content (189.1 ± 4.4 mg catechin equivalents/g). In the case of the antioxidant activities, the highest DPPH activities were achieved by UAE and UMAE from both macroalgae, while no clear pattern was recorded in the case of FRAP activities. The highest DPPH scavenging activities (112.5 ± 0.7 mg trolox equivalents/g) and FRAP activities (284.8 ± 2.2 mg trolox equivalents/g) were achieved from . Following the extraction treatment, an additional storage post-extraction (24 h) did not improve the yields of phytochemicals or antioxidant properties of the extracts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md19060309DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8230109PMC
May 2021

, Food Safety and Food Handling Practices.

Foods 2021 Apr 21;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

School of Food Science and Environmental Health, College of Sciences and Health, Technological University Dublin-City Campus, Central Quad, Grangegorman, D07 EWV4 Dublin, Ireland.

Salmonellosis is the second most reported gastrointestinal disorder in the EU resulting from the consumption of -contaminated foods. Symptoms include gastroenteritis, abdominal cramps, bloody diarrhoea, fever, myalgia, headache, nausea and vomiting. In 2018, accounted for more than half of the numbers of foodborne outbreak illnesses reported in the EU. contamination is mostly associated with produce such as poultry, cattle and their feeds but other products such as dried foods, infant formula, fruit and vegetable products and pets have become important. Efforts aimed at controlling are being made. For example, legislation and measures put in place reduced the number of hospitalizations between 2014 and 2015. However, the number of hospitalizations started to increase in 2016. This calls for more stringent controls at the level of government and the private sector. Food handlers of "meat processing" and "Ready to Eat" foods play a crucial role in the spread of . This review presents an updated overview of the global epidemiology, the relevance of official control, the disease associated with food handlers and the importance of food safety concerning salmonellosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10050907DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8143179PMC
April 2021

Mitochondrial sirtuins in stem cells and cancer.

FEBS J 2021 Apr 18. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Campus for Ageing and Vitality, Biosciences Institute, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

The mammalian sirtuin family consists of seven proteins, three of which (SIRT3, SIRT4, and SIRT5) localise specifically within mitochondria and preserve mitochondrial function and homeostasis. Mitochondrial sirtuins are involved in diverse functions such as deacetylation, ADP-ribosylation, demalonylation and desuccinylation, thus affecting various aspects of cell fate. Intriguingly, mitochondrial sirtuins are able to manage these delicate processes with accuracy mediated by crosstalk between the nucleus and mitochondria. Previous studies have provided ample information about their substrates and targets, whereas less is known about their role in cancer and stem cells. Here, we review and discuss recent advances in our understanding of the structural and functional properties of mitochondrial sirtuins, including their targets in cancer and stem cells. These advances could help to improve the understanding of their interplay with signalling cascades and pathways, leading to new avenues for developing novel drugs for sirtuin-related disease treatments. We also highlight the complex network of mitochondrial sirtuins in cancer and stem cells, which may be important in deciphering the molecular mechanism for their activation and inhibition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/febs.15879DOI Listing
April 2021

Reusable MoS-Modified Antibacterial Fabrics with Photothermal Disinfection Properties for Repurposing of Personal Protective Masks.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Mar 9;13(11):12912-12927. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

School of Basic Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Kamand, Mandi, Himachal Pradesh 175005, India.

The current pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has seen a widespread use of personal protective equipment, especially face masks. This has created the need to develop better and reusable protective masks with built-in antimicrobial, self-cleaning, and aerosol filtration properties to prevent the transmission of air-borne pathogens such as the coronaviruses. Herein, molybdenum disulfide (MoS) nanosheets are used to prepare modified polycotton fabrics having excellent antibacterial activity and photothermal properties. Upon sunlight irradiation, the nanosheet-modified fabrics rapidly increased the surface temperature to ∼77 °C, making them ideal for sunlight-mediated self-disinfection. Complete self-disinfection of the nanosheet-modified fabric was achieved within 3 min of irradiation, making the fabrics favorably reusable upon self-disinfection. The nanosheet-modified fabrics maintained the antibacterial efficiency even after 60 washing cycles. Furthermore, the particle filtration efficiency of three-layered surgical masks was found to be significantly improved through incorporation of the MoS-modified fabric as an additional layer of protective clothing, without compromising the breathability of the masks. The repurposed surgical masks could filter out around 97% of 200 nm particles and 96% of 100 nm particles, thus making them potentially useful for preventing the spread of coronaviruses (120 nm) by trapping them along with antibacterial protection against other airborne pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c00083DOI Listing
March 2021

Evolution, structure and emerging roles of C1ORF112 in DNA replication, DNA damage responses, and cancer.

Cell Mol Life Sci 2021 May 24;78(9):4365-4376. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Integrative Genomics of Ageing Group, Institute of Ageing and Chronic Disease, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L7 8TX, UK.

The C1ORF112 gene initially drew attention when it was found to be strongly co-expressed with several genes previously associated with cancer and implicated in DNA repair and cell cycle regulation, such as RAD51 and the BRCA genes. The molecular functions of C1ORF112 remain poorly understood, yet several studies have uncovered clues as to its potential functions. Here, we review the current knowledge on C1ORF112 biology, its evolutionary history, possible functions, and its potential relevance to cancer. C1ORF112 is conserved throughout eukaryotes, from plants to humans, and is very highly conserved in primates. Protein models suggest that C1ORF112 is an alpha-helical protein. Interestingly, homozygous knockout mice are not viable, suggesting an essential role for C1ORF112 in mammalian development. Gene expression data show that, among human tissues, C1ORF112 is highly expressed in the testes and overexpressed in various cancers when compared to healthy tissues. C1ORF112 has also been shown to have altered levels of expression in some tumours with mutant TP53. Recent screens associate C1ORF112 with DNA replication and reveal possible links to DNA damage repair pathways, including the Fanconi anaemia pathway and homologous recombination. These insights provide important avenues for future research in our efforts to understand the functions and potential disease relevance of C1ORF112.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00018-021-03789-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8164572PMC
May 2021

FLP-Catalyzed Monoselective C-F Functionalization in Polyfluorocarbons at Geminal or Distal Sites.

Org Lett 2021 Mar 24;23(5):1915-1920. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117543.

We report frustrated Lewis pair (FLP)-catalyzed monoselective C-F activation in a range of aliphatic polyfluorocarbons with equivalent geminal and distal C-F positions. This methodology can be applied to aromatic-, ether-, thioether-, and alkyl-supported fluoromethyl groups. We expand the range of FLP base partners that work with monoselective C-F activation to include sulfide. The activated products can be subsequently functionalized via S2 substitutions, photoredox-alkylations, and Suzuki couplings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.1c00346DOI Listing
March 2021

Fruits and Vegetables in the Management of Underlying Conditions for COVID-19 High-Risk Groups.

Foods 2021 Feb 10;10(2). Epub 2021 Feb 10.

School of Food Science and Environmental Health, College of Sciences and Health, Technological University Dublin-City Campus, Grangegorman, 7 Dublin, Ireland.

SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19 is a novel coronavirus, which is the cause of the current pandemic with 107,411,561 infections and 2,351,195 death worldwide so far. There are multiple symptoms that are linked with the infection of COVID-19 such as coughing, shortness of breath, congestion together with fatigue, fever, loss of taste or smell, headaches, diarrhea, vomiting, and loss of appetite. The lack of or early stage of development of a cure for COVID-19 illness, there is need for insuring the best possible position of health to be able to fight the virus naturally through a robust immune system to limit severe complication. In this article, we have discussed the role of fruits and vegetables consumption to boost the immune system and major emphasis has been given to high risk group. We have taken into consideration a number of underlying conditions such as people with cardiovascular diseases, obesity, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic kidney disease, hemoglobin disorder such as sickle cell disease, weakened immune system due to organ transplant. Furthermore, factors to improve the immune system, risks associated with quarantine and lifestyle and food handling during COVID-19 has been discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10020389DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7916708PMC
February 2021

Tomato Domestication Attenuated Responsiveness to a Beneficial Soil Microbe for Plant Growth Promotion and Induction of Systemic Resistance to Foliar Pathogens.

Front Microbiol 2020 18;11:604566. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, United States.

Crop domestication events followed by targeted breeding practices have been pivotal for improvement of desirable traits and to adapt cultivars to local environments. Domestication also resulted in a strong reduction in genetic diversity among modern cultivars compared to their wild relatives, though the effect this could have on tripartite relationships between plants, belowground beneficial microbes and aboveground pathogens remains undetermined. We quantified plant growth performance, basal resistance and induced systemic resistance (ISR) by , a beneficial soil microbe against , a necrotrophic fungus and , a hemi-biotrophic oomycete, in 25 diverse tomato genotypes. Wild tomato related species, tomato landraces and modern commercial cultivars that were conventionally or organically bred, together, representing a domestication gradient were evaluated. Relationships between basal and ISR, plant physiological status and phenolic compounds were quantified to identify potential mechanisms. enhanced shoot and root biomass and ISR to both pathogens in a genotype specific manner. Moreover, improvements in plant performance in response to gradually decreased along the domestication gradient. Wild relatives and landraces were more responsive to , resulting in greater suppression of foliar pathogens than modern cultivars. Photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance of some tomato genotypes were improved by treatment whereas leaf nitrogen status of the majority of tomato genotypes were not altered. There was a negative relationship between basal resistance and induced resistance for both diseases, and a positive correlation between -ISR to and enhanced total flavonoid contents. These findings suggest that domestication and breeding practices have altered plant responsiveness to beneficial soil microbes. Further studies are needed to decipher the molecular mechanisms underlying the differential promotion of plant growth and resistance among genotypes, and identify molecular markers to integrate selection for responsiveness into future breeding programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.604566DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7775394PMC
December 2020

VO Nanostructures for Batteries and Supercapacitors: A Review.

Small 2021 Jan 28;17(4):e2006651. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Centre for Nano and Material Sciences, Jain University, Ramanagaram, Bangalore, Karnataka, 562112, India.

Vanadium dioxide (VO ) received tremendous interest lately due to its unique structural, electronic, and optoelectronic properties. VO has been extensively used in electrochromic displays and memristors and its VO (B) polymorph is extensively utilized as electrode material in energy storage applications. More studies are focused on VO (B) nanostructures which displayed different energy storage behavior than the bulk VO . The present review provides a systematic overview of the progress in VO nanostructures syntheses and its application in energy storage devices. Herein, a general introduction, discussion about crystal structure, and syntheses of a variety of nanostructures such as nanowires, nanorods, nanobelts, nanotubes, carambola shaped, etc. are summarized. The energy storage application of VO nanostructure and its composites are also described in detail and categorically, e.g. Li-ion battery, Na-ion battery, and supercapacitors. The current status and challenges associated with VO nanostructures are reported. Finally, light has been shed for the overall performance improvement of VO nanostructure as potential electrode material for future application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202006651DOI Listing
January 2021

Essential oils as additives in active food packaging.

Food Chem 2021 May 15;343:128403. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

School of Food Science and Environmental Health, College of Sciences and Health, Technological University Dublin - City Campus, Grangegorman, Dublin 7, Ireland; Environmental Sustainability and Health Institute, Technological University Dublin - City Campus, Grangegorman, Dublin 7, Ireland. Electronic address:

Food packaging can be considered as a passive barrier that protects food from environmental factors such as ultraviolet light, oxygen, water vapour, pressure and heat. It also prolongs the shelf-life of food by protecting from chemical and microbiological contaminants and enables foods to be transported and stored safely. Active packaging (AP) provides the opportunity for interaction between the external environment and food, resulting in extended shelf-life of food. Chemoactive packaging has an impact on the chemical composition of the food product. The application of natural additive such as essential oils in active packaging can be used in the forms of films and coatings. It has been observed that, AP helps to maintain temperature, moisture level and microbial and quality control of the food. This review article provides an overview of the active packaging incorporated with essential oils, concerns and challenges in industry, and the effect of essential oil on the packaging microstructure, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128403DOI Listing
May 2021

Computational modelling approach for the optimization of apple juice clarification using immobilized pectinase and xylanase enzymes.

Curr Res Food Sci 2020 Nov 14;3:243-255. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

School of Food Science and Environmental Health, College of Sciences and Health, Technological University Dublin - City Campus, Grangegorman, Dublin 7, Ireland.

Apple juice is typically marketed as a clear juice, and hence enzymatic treatments are common practices in juice industry. However, enzymatic treatments have been shown to face some challenges when process efficiency, and cost effectiveness are concerned. Therefore, it is necessary to optimize the enzymatic treatment process to maximize efficiency, and reuse enzymes to minimize the overall cost via immobilization. In this context, the present work features the immobilization of pectinase and xylanase from on genipin-activated alginate beads, with subsequent evaluation of its efficacy in apple juice clarification. A central composite rotatable design (CCRD), coupled with artificial neural network (ANN) for modeling and optimization was used to design the experiments. Deploying a coupling time up to 120 min, and an agitation rate of 213 rpm (pectinase) - 250 rpm (xylanase), a maximum fractional enzyme activity recovered was observed to be about 81-83% for both enzymes. Optimum enzyme loading and genipin concentration were found to be 50 U/ml and 12% (w/v), respectively. The immobilized enzyme preparations were suitable for up to 5 repeated process cycles, losing about 45% (pectinase) - 49% (xylanase) of their initial activity during this time. The maximum clarity of apple juice (%T, 84%) was achieved at 100 min when pectinase (50 U/ml of juice) and xylanase (20 U/ml of juice) were used in combination at 57 °C. The immobilized enzymes are of industrial relevance in terms of biocompatibility, recoverability, and operational-storage stability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.crfs.2020.09.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7680705PMC
November 2020

Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity of Biodegradable Active Packaging Enriched with Clove and Thyme Essential Oil for Food Packaging Application.

Foods 2020 Aug 13;9(8). Epub 2020 Aug 13.

School of Food Science and Environmental Health, College of Sciences and Health, Technological University Dublin-City Campus, Grangegorman, D07H6K8 Dublin, Ireland.

Bioactive packaging contains natural antimicrobial agents, which inhibit the growth of microorganisms and increase the food shelf life. Solvent casting method was used to prepare the Poly (lactide)-Poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PLA-PBAT) film incorporated with the thyme oil and clove oil in various concentrations (1 wt%, 5 wt% and 10 wt%). The clove oil composite films depicted less green and more yellow as compared to thyme oil composite films. Clove oil composite film has shown an 80% increase in the UV blocking efficiency. The tensile strength (TS) of thyme oil and clove oil composite film decreases from 1.35 MPs (control film) to 0.96 MPa and 0.79, respectively. A complete killing of that is a reduction from 6.5 log CFU/mL to 0 log CFU/mL was observed on the 10 wt% clove oil incorporated composite film. Clove oil and thyme oil composite film had inhibited biofilm by 93.43% and 82.30%, respectively. Clove oil composite film had exhibited UV blocking properties, strong antimicrobial activity and has high potential to be used as an active food packaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods9081117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7466377PMC
August 2020

Molecular insights into biochar-mediated plant growth promotion and systemic resistance in tomato against Fusarium crown and root rot disease.

Sci Rep 2020 08 18;10(1):13934. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Department of Plant Pathology and Weed Research, Institute of Plant Protection, The Volcani Center (ARO), 7505101, Rishon Lezion, Israel.

Molecular mechanisms associated with biochar-elicited suppression of soilborne plant diseases and improved plant performance are not well understood. A stem base inoculation approach was used to explore the ability of biochar to induce systemic resistance in tomato plants against crown rot caused by a soilborne pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici. RNA-seq transcriptome profiling of tomato, and experiments with jasmonic and salycilic acid deficient tomato mutants, were performed to elucidate the in planta molecular mechanisms involved in induced resistance. Biochar (produced from greenhouse plant wastes) was found to mediate systemic resistance against Fusarium crown rot and to simultaneously improve tomato plant growth and physiological parameters by up to 63%. Transcriptomic analysis (RNA-seq) of tomato demonstrated that biochar had a priming effect on gene expression and upregulated the pathways and genes associated with plant defense and growth such as jasmonic acid, brassinosteroids, cytokinins, auxin and synthesis of flavonoid, phenylpropanoids and cell wall. In contrast, biosynthesis and signaling of the salicylic acid pathway was downregulated. Upregulation of genes and pathways involved in plant defense and plant growth may partially explain the significant disease suppression and improvement in plant performance observed in the presence of biochar.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-70882-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7434890PMC
August 2020

Fabrication techniques of biomimetic scaffolds in three-dimensional cell culture: A review.

J Cell Physiol 2021 Feb 13;236(2):741-762. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Centre for Biomaterials, Cellular, and Molecular Theranostics, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.

In the last four decades, several researchers worldwide have routinely and meticulously exercised cell culture experiments in two-dimensional (2D) platforms. Using traditionally existing 2D models, the therapeutic efficacy of drugs has been inappropriately validated due to the failure in generating the precise therapeutic response. Fortunately, a 3D model addresses the foregoing limitations by recapitulating the in vivo environment. In this context, one has to contemplate the design of an appropriate scaffold for favoring the organization of cell microenvironment. Instituting pertinent model on the platter will pave way for a precise mimicking of in vivo conditions. It is because animal cells in scaffolds oblige spontaneous formation of 3D colonies that molecularly, phenotypically, and histologically resemble the native environment. The 3D culture provides insight into the biochemical aspects of cell-cell communication, plasticity, cell division, cytoskeletal reorganization, signaling mechanisms, differentiation, and cell death. Focusing on these criteria, this paper discusses in detail, the diversification of polymeric scaffolds based on their available resources. The paper also reviews the well-founded and latest techniques of scaffold fabrication, and their applications pertaining to tissue engineering, drug screening, and tumor model development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.29935DOI Listing
February 2021

Bovine Serum Albumin-Conjugated Red Emissive Gold Nanocluster as a Fluorescent Nanoprobe for Super-resolution Microscopy.

J Phys Chem Lett 2020 Jul 6;11(14):5741-5748. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

School of Basic Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Mandi 175075, H.P., India.

The gold nanocluster (GNC), because of its interesting photoluminescence properties and easy renal clearance from the body, has tremendous biomedical applications. Unfortunately, it has never been explored for super-resolution microscopy (SRM). Here, we present a protein-conjugated red emissive GNC for super-resolution radial fluctuation (SRRF) of the lysosome in HeLa cells. The diameter of the lysosome obtained in SRRF is ∼59 nm, which is very close to the original diameter of the smallest lysosome in HeLa cells. Conjugation of protein to GNC aided in the specific labeling of the lysosome. We hope that GNC not only will replace some of the common dyes used in SRM but due to its electron beam contrast could also be used as a multimodal probe for several other correlative bioimaging techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.0c01354DOI Listing
July 2020

Effects of Injectable Trace Minerals (ITMs) on Th1/Th2 Cytokine Balance of Newborn Calves with Tropical Theileriosis.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2021 Apr 22;199(4):1397-1404. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, U.P. Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Pashu-Chikitsa Vigyan Vishwavidyalaya Evam Go Anusandhan Sansthan (DUVASU), Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, 281001, India.

Injectable trace minerals (ITMs) could provide a potential alternative way of trace mineral delivery for sick animals. Therefore, evaluation of ameliorative potentials of ITMs (copper, manganese, selenium, and zinc) on the circulating Th1/Th2 cytokine misbalance in Theileria annulata-infected calves was aimed. Forty-three T. annulata-infected newborn calves were randomly allocated into four groups: buparvaquone alone-treated group (BUPA), buparvaquone + oxytetracycline (BUPA + OXY)-treated group, buparvaquone + injectable trace minerals (BUPA + ITMs)-treated group, and BUPA + OXY + ITM-treated group. Blood samples were collected from each of the calves before the start of therapy (day 0) and on day 14 post-therapy. Serum contents of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were estimated by bovine specific ELISA kits. On day 14 post-therapy, significant amelioration in the circulating levels of the studied cytokines was not observed in the calves treated with BUPA, while the calves treated with BUPA + OXY revealed significant (P ≤ 0.04) amelioration in the circulating tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) level. The calves treated with BUPA + ITMs revealed significant (P ≤ 0.041) elevation in the circulating interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and significant (P ≤ 0.011) reduction in the interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels. Moreover, the calves treated with BUPA + OXY + ITMs revealed significant reduction in TNF-α (P ≤ 0.0001) and IL-10 (P ≤ 0.012) contents, and significant elevation in IFN-γ (P ≤ 0.0002) content on day 14 post-therapy. None of the treated calve group revealed significant alteration in the circulating level of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) on day 14 post-therapy. In conclusion, administration of ITMs to the therapeutic regimen of newborn calves with tropical theileriosis could be a promising therapeutic strategy. ITMs can be recommended for the amelioration of immunological misbalance due to tropical theileriosis in newborn calves.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-020-02263-zDOI Listing
April 2021

Effectiveness in Bowel Cleansing and Patient Tolerability of Polyethylene Glycol versus Sodium Picosulphate in Patients Undergoing Colonoscopy.

Adv Med 2020 30;2020:1234341. Epub 2020 May 30.

Department of Internal Medicine, Universal College of Medical Sciences, Bhairahawa, Nepal.

Introduction: Colonoscopy is considered as a gold standard investigation for screening of colorectal cancer and other lower gastrointestinal pathologies. Adequate bowel preparation is absolutely necessary for a fruitful colonoscopy. Various bowel cleansing agents are being used for his purpose. The aim of the present study was to compare the two bowel cleansing agents: a single dose of Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) solution and a split dose of Sodium Picosulfate (Na PICOSUL) tablet with regards to cleansing efficacy and tolerability among the patients scheduled for colonoscopy.

Methods: It is an open-label hospital-based observational study. A total of sixty-four patients were grouped randomly into two groups of bowel cleansing agents that are PEG and Na PICOSUL during the study period between 1 December 2015 and 30 November 2016. Patients' tolerability was evaluated using a structured questionnaire, and the bowel cleansing efficacy was evaluated using the Aronchick Bowel Preparation Scale (ABPS).

Results: The group that received PEG solution was found to have better efficacy than that which received Na PICOSUL tablet (63.3% versus 29.4%, respectively, with a value < 0.028) with excellent grade as per ABPS. The Na PICOSUL group was found better in terms of tolerability than the PEG group as nausea/vomiting was encountered significantly higher in the PEG group than in the Na PICOSUL group (43.3% versus 11.8%, respectively, with a value < 0.01).

Conclusions: Colonic preparation with a split dose of Na PICOSUL tablet was better tolerated than the evening before regimen of PEG solution. However, PEG solution was found to be more efficacious in bowel cleansing, but procedural performance and lesion detection were similar for both agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/1234341DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7277063PMC
May 2020

Crosslinking of gum-based composite scaffolds for enhanced strength and stability: A comparative study between sodium trimetaphosphate and glutaraldehyde.

J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2020 11 3;108(8):3147-3154. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Centre for Biomaterials, Cellular and Molecular Theranostics (CBCMT), Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.

Tissue engineering is one of the potential fields in the domain of regenerative medicine. Engineered scaffolds are an excellent substitute for the conventional use of bone grafts as they are biocompatible, economic, and provide limitless supply with no risk of disease transmission. Gum-based scaffolds present a good scope for studying tissue-engineering models and analyzing controlled drug delivery. Uniform blending of the gums and the presence of the optimal concentration of appropriate crosslinkers are very crucial for biodegradability nature. Gum-based scaffolds containing gellan gum, xanthan gum, polyvinyl alcohol, and hydroxyapatite, cross-linked with either glutaraldehyde (GA) or sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP) were fabricated to study the efficiency of crosslinkers and were characterized for degradation profile, swelling capacity, porosity, mechanical strength, morphology, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared, and in vitro biocompatibility. Scaffolds crosslinked with STMP exhibited higher degradation rate at Day 21 than scaffolds crosslinked with GA. However, higher compressive strength was obtained for scaffolds cross-linked with STMP signifying that they have a better ability to resist compressive forces. Superior cell viability was observed in STMP-crosslinked scaffolds. In conclusion, STMP serves as a better crosslinker in comparison to GA and can be used in the fabrication of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.b.34640DOI Listing
November 2020

Biopolymers for hydrogels in cosmetics: review.

J Mater Sci Mater Med 2020 May 25;31(6):50. Epub 2020 May 25.

Centre for Biomaterials Cellular and Molecular Theranostics (CBCMT) VIT, Vellore, India.

Hydrogels are cross-linked networks of macromolecular compounds characterized by high water absorption capacity. Such materials find a wide range of biomedical applications. Several polymeric hydrogels can also be used in cosmetics. Herein, the structure, properties and selected applications of hydrogels in cosmetics are discussed in general. Detailed examples from scientific literature are also shown. In this review paper, most common biopolymers used in cosmetics are presented in detail together with issues related to skin treatment and hair conditioning. Hydrogels based on collagen, chitosan, hyaluronic acid, and other polysaccharides have been characterized. New trends in the preparation of hydrogels based on biopolymer blends as well as bigels have been shown. Moreover, biopolymer hydrogels employment in encapsulation has been mentioned.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10856-020-06390-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7248025PMC
May 2020

Optimisation of Ultrasound Frequency, Extraction Time and Solvent for the Recovery of Polyphenols, Phlorotannins and Associated Antioxidant Activity from Brown Seaweeds.

Mar Drugs 2020 May 11;18(5). Epub 2020 May 11.

School of Agriculture and Food Science, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin D04 V1W8, Ireland.

This study investigates ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) process parameters (time, frequency and solvent) to obtain high yields of phlorotannins, flavonoids, total phenolics and associated antioxidant activities from 11 brown seaweed species. Optimised UAE conditions (35 kHz, 30 min and 50% ethanol) significantly improved the extraction yield from 1.5-fold to 2.2-fold in all seaweeds investigated compared to solvent extraction. Using ultrasound, the highest recovery of total phenolics (TPC: 572.3 ± 3.2 mg gallic acid equivalent/g), total phlorotannins (TPhC: 476.3 ± 2.2 mg phloroglucinol equivalent/g) and total flavonoids (TFC: 281.0 ± 1.7 mg quercetin equivalent/g) was obtained from seaweed. While the lowest recovery of TPC (72.6 ± 2.9 mg GAE/g), TPhC (50.3 ± 2.0 mg PGE/g) and TFC (15.2 ± 3.3 mg QE/g) was obtained from seaweed. However, extracts from obtained by UAE exhibited the strongest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity (29.1 ± 0.25 mg trolox equivalent/g) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) value (63.9 ± 0.74 mg trolox equivalent/g). UAE under optimised conditions was an effective, low-cost and eco-friendly technique to recover biologically active polyphenols from 11 brown seaweed species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md18050250DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7281582PMC
May 2020

Effect of interpolymer complex formation between chondroitin sulfate and chitosan-gelatin hydrogel on physico-chemical and rheological properties.

Carbohydr Polym 2020 Jun 17;238:116179. Epub 2020 Mar 17.

Centre for Biomaterials, Cellular and Molecular Theranostics, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, 632014, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address:

The present study focuses on the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) natural polymeric hydrogel containing chitosan (C), gelatin (GE) and chondroitin sulfate A (CS) to surpass the drawbacks of chitosan-gelatin (C-GE) hydrogel. Hydrogels were prepared using dual gelling agents in the form of β-glycerol phosphate (β-GP) and sodium hydrogen carbonate (SHC) and failed to gel in the absence of either gelling agent. All the hydrogels showed the ability to self-heal when broken into two parts. The addition of CS resulted in the formation of elastic hydrogels during the entire range of applied shear strain (0.001-100 %) compared to hydrogel without CS. CS containing hydrogels resulted in 25-41 % bovine serum albumin in vitro release compared to 77 % in hydrogel without CS at the end of 16 days. The addition of VEGF to hydrogel improved cell proliferation drastically in C-GE hydrogel. C-GE-CS hydrogels exhibited better cell growth compared to C-GE hydrogel with or without the addition of VEGF
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2020.116179DOI Listing
June 2020

Comparison of beamformer implementations for MEG source localization.

Neuroimage 2020 08 8;216:116797. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Megin Oy, Helsinki, Finland; Department of Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering, Aalto University School of Science, Espoo, Finland; BioMag Laboratory, HUS Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Beamformers are applied for estimating spatiotemporal characteristics of neuronal sources underlying measured MEG/EEG signals. Several MEG analysis toolboxes include an implementation of a linearly constrained minimum-variance (LCMV) beamformer. However, differences in implementations and in their results complicate the selection and application of beamformers and may hinder their wider adoption in research and clinical use. Additionally, combinations of different MEG sensor types (such as magnetometers and planar gradiometers) and application of preprocessing methods for interference suppression, such as signal space separation (SSS), can affect the results in different ways for different implementations. So far, a systematic evaluation of the different implementations has not been performed. Here, we compared the localization performance of the LCMV beamformer pipelines in four widely used open-source toolboxes (MNE-Python, FieldTrip, DAiSS (SPM12), and Brainstorm) using datasets both with and without SSS interference suppression. We analyzed MEG data that were i) simulated, ii) recorded from a static and moving phantom, and iii) recorded from a healthy volunteer receiving auditory, visual, and somatosensory stimulation. We also investigated the effects of SSS and the combination of the magnetometer and gradiometer signals. We quantified how localization error and point-spread volume vary with the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in all four toolboxes. When applied carefully to MEG data with a typical SNR (3-15 ​dB), all four toolboxes localized the sources reliably; however, they differed in their sensitivity to preprocessing parameters. As expected, localizations were highly unreliable at very low SNR, but we found high localization error also at very high SNRs for the first three toolboxes while Brainstorm showed greater robustness but with lower spatial resolution. We also found that the SNR improvement offered by SSS led to more accurate localization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.116797DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7322560PMC
August 2020

An evaluation of sonication pretreatment for enhancing saccharification of brewers' spent grain.

Waste Manag 2020 Mar 20;105:240-247. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

School of Food Science and Environmental Health, College of Sciences and Health, Technological University Dublin-City Campus, Cathal Brugha Street, Dublin 1, Ireland. Electronic address:

This paper deals with the investigation of ultrasound (US) pretreatment of brewer's spent grain (BSG) as a means of releasing fermentable sugars, and the subsequent production of ethanol from this lignocellulosic biomass. Using response surface methodology (RSM), the influence of US power, time, temperature and biomass loading on fermentable sugar yield from BSG was studied. The optimal conditions were found to be 20% US power, 60 min, 26.3 °C, and 17.3% w/v of biomass in water. Under these conditions, an approximate 2.1-fold increase in reducing sugar yield (325 ± 6 mg/g of biomass) was achieved, relative to untreated BSG (151.1 ± 10 mg/g of biomass). In contrast to acid or alkaline pretreatment approaches, the use of water obviated the need for neutralization for the recovery of sugars. The characterization of native and pretreated BSG was performed by HPLC, FTIR, SEM and DSC. Fermentation studies using S. cerevisiae growing on pretreated BSG resulted in a conversion of 66% of the total sugar content ininto ethanol with an ethanol content of 17.73 ± 2 g/ 100 g of pretreated BSG. These results suggest that ultrasound pretreatment is a promising technology for increased valorization of BSG as a feedstock for production of bioethanol, and points ton the need for further work in this area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2020.02.012DOI Listing
March 2020

DNA binding and NIR triggered DNA release from quaternary ammonium modified poly(allylamine hydrochloride) functionalized and folic acid conjugated reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Jun 20;153:931-941. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

School of Basic Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Kamand, Mandi 175005, Himachal Pradesh, India. Electronic address:

Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) has shown tremendous potential as a NIR responsive nanomaterial and has been extensively explored for NIR mediated photothermal therapy and drug delivery. However, the potential of NIR as a stimulus to trigger release of entrapped/complexed DNA from its surface have not been explored. Strong complexation between the loaded cargo and the carrier often leads to no-release or decrease in the release of the therapeutic cargo. Herein, we investigated NIR as a stimulus for inducing DNA release from RGO nanocomposites. A quaternary ammonium modified poly(allylamine hydrochloride) functionalized RGO nanocomposite (RGO-MPAH) was synthesized, which was further tagged with a targeting moiety, folic acid (FA). The structural, optical and chemical properties of the synthesized nanocomposites were characterized which validated successful reduction and functionalization of GO with PAH/MPAH. The nanocomposites were found to be non-toxic and showed excellent DNA binding ability at complexation ratios as low as 3:1 (w/w). Additionally, the nanocomposites demonstrated NIR responsive release of complexed DNA from their surfaces, with RGO-PAH showing maximum DNA release followed by RGO-MPAH and RGO-MPAH-FA. This study shows the potential of NIR light to act as a stimulus for inducing release of entrapped nucleic acids from the surface of nanocarriers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.02.216DOI Listing
June 2020

Frustrated Lewis-Pair-Meditated Selective Single Fluoride Substitution in Trifluoromethyl Groups.

J Am Chem Soc 2020 02 23;142(5):2572-2578. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

Department of Chemistry , National University of Singapore , 3 Science Drive 3 , Singapore 117543.

Single fluoride substitution in trifluoromethylarenes is an ongoing synthetic challenge that often leads to "over-reaction", where multiple fluorides are replaced. Development of this reaction would allow simple access to a vast range of difluoromethyl derivatives of current interest to pharmaceutical, agrochemistry, and materials sciences. Using a catalytic frustrated Lewis pair approach, we have developed a generic protocol that allows a single substitution of one fluoride in trifluoromethyl groups with neutral phosphine and pyridine bases. The resulting phosphonium and pyridinium salts can be further functionalized via nucleophilic substitution, photoredox coupling, and electrophilic transfer reactions allowing the generation of a vast array of difluoromethyl products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.9b12167DOI Listing
February 2020

Spent Coffee Waste as a Potential Media Component for Xylanase Production and Potential Application in Juice Enrichment.

Foods 2019 Nov 17;8(11). Epub 2019 Nov 17.

School of Food Science and Environmental Health, College of Sciences and Health, Dublin Institute of Technology, Cathal Brugha Street, D01 HV58 Dublin, Ireland.

In this study, spent coffee waste (SCW) was used as the sole carbon source for xylanase production in solid state fermentation mode using . A Box-Behnken design was constructed using three parameters viz. temperature, initial moisture content, and log number of spores to determine the optimal fermentation condition. The best fermentation conditions for xylanase production were found to be incubation at 30 °C with an initial moisture content of 70% and using an inoculum of 6.5 × 10 spores/g of dry SCW. Furthermore, the design of experiments revealed that maintaining a medium composition of 0.2 g of yeast extract, 0.04 g of KHPO, and 0.03 g of MgSO increased xylanase production. Under optimised solid-state fermentation conditions an enzyme activity of 6495.6 IU/g of dry SCW was recorded, which was approximately 1.39-fold higher than that of control (4649 IU/g of dry SCW). The efficacy of the purified xylanase as a juice enrichment agent for strawberry, blueberry, and raspberry pulp was tested.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods8110585DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6915662PMC
November 2019

Novel electrochemical biosensor for serotonin detection based on gold nanorattles decorated reduced graphene oxide in biological fluids and in vitro model.

Biosens Bioelectron 2019 Oct 13;142:111502. Epub 2019 Jul 13.

Laboratory of Bio-Physio Sensors and Nano-bioengineering, Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati, 781039, India. Electronic address:

Abnormal level of serotonin (ST) in body fluids is related to various clinical conditions including behavioral and psychotic disorders; hence its fast detection in clinically relevant ranges have tremendous importance in medical science. In view of this, we have developed a novel biosensor for ST detection using Au-nanorattles (AuNRTs)- reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposite coated on to the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) deposited glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The nanocomposite/sensor probe was characterized using UV-Vis, TEM, SAED, EDX, AFM, and electrochemical techniques including LSV and EIS. Thereafter, the suitability of fabricated GCE/AuNPs/AuNRTs-rGO-Naf sensor probe was applied for ST determination which showed a linear dynamic range (LDR) of 3 × 10 - 1 × 10 M and the detection limit (DL) of 3.87 (±0.02) ×10 (RSD < 4.2%) M, which falls in the ranges of normal as well as various abnormal pathophysiological conditions. The designed sensor is successfully applied to detect ST in various real matrices viz. urine, blood serum, and in vitro model to show its direct clinical/practical applicability. Interferences due to the coexisting molecules were assessed and the long-term stability of the designed sensor was also examined which was found to be 8 weeks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2019.111502DOI Listing
October 2019
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