Publications by authors named "Amir Zakian"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Leech therapy (Hirudo medicinalis) attenuates testicular damages induced by testicular ischemia/reperfusion in an animal model.

BMC Vet Res 2021 Jul 27;17(1):256. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

Background: Testicular torsion/detorsion triggers tissue ischemia/reperfusion, leading to reactive oxygen species overgeneration and apoptosis. The saliva of leeches is full of anti-inflammatory, anticoagulants, antioxidants, and antimicrobial agents. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the protective mechanism of leech therapy on testicular ischemia/reperfusion damage.

Methods: 18 adult male rats were randomly divided into three groups: 1-Sham-operated group (SO). 2-Torsion/detorsion (T.D) group: two hours of testicular torsion with two hours of testicular detorsion was performed. 3-Torsion/detorsion + Leech therapy (TDL) group. Sperm parameters (motility, vitality, morphology, and concentration), oxidative stress biomarkers (MDA, CAT, GPx, and TAC), histopathological factors (Mean seminiferous tubular diameter, Germinal epithelial cell thickness, Testicular capsule thickness, Johnson's score, and Cosentino's score), and immunohistochemical markers for apoptosis detection (Bax, Bcl-2, and Caspase-3) were measured.

Results: There was a significant difference for all sperm parameters in the T. D group compared to the sham group. Leech therapy significantly increased progressive motility and normal morphology and reduced non-progressive motility. In the TDL group, MDA concentration significantly reduced, and levels of GPx, TAC, and CAT remarkably increased. All evaluated histopathological parameters in the TDL group significantly increased compared to the T. D group except for the testicular capsule thickness. T. D notably increased the expression of Bax and Caspase-3, while the treatment group slowed the rate of apoptosis compared to the control group. Bcl-2 expression in the T. D group was significantly lower than that in the sham group. Leech therapy increased the Bcl-2 expression.

Conclusion: Leech therapy attenuates damages to testicular tissue following torsion/detorsion due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects. Hence, it can be considered as an effective remedy for testicular ischemia/reperfusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-021-02951-5DOI Listing
July 2021

Co-administration of Salvia miltiorrhiza and verapamil inhibits detrimental effects of torsion/detorsion on testicular tissue in rats.

Andrologia 2021 Jul 17;53(6):e14049. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

Testicular torsion/detorsion is one of the important emergencies that requires fast surgical intervention. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Salvia miltiorrhiza hydroalcoholic extract combined with verapamil on testicular ischaemia/reperfusion damage in Wistar albino rats. All animals were distributed in 3 groups (n = 8), including the sham-operated group, torsion/detorsion (TD) group and torsion/detorsion + pretreatment with 200 mg/kg Salvia miltiorrhiza extract combined with 0.3 mg/kg verapamil (SMV) group. Oxidative stress biomarkers (MDA, GPx, CAT and TAC) both in plasma and testicular tissue, sperm parameters (motility, vitality, concentration and morphology) and histopathological parameters (MSTD, GECT, Johnson's score, Cosentino's score and testicular cell thickness) were assessed in all groups. Ischaemia/reperfusion significantly increased MDA and decreased GPx, CAT and TAC levels (p < .05). Pretreatment with SMV significantly increased GPx, CAT and TAC levels (p < .05). SMV group increased progressive sperm motility and vitality and reduced non-progressive motility of spermatozoon (p < .05). Testicular torsion significantly decreased all histopathological parameters compared to the sham group (p < .05). SMV pretreatment remarkably increased MSTD, GECT and Cosentino's score in comparison with the TD group (p < .05). A combination of Salvia miltiorrhiza with verapamil could reduce damages triggered by testicular torsion detorsion and improve sperm functionality parameters and oxidative stress defence systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/and.14049DOI Listing
July 2021

Investigating the sperm parameters, oxidative stress and histopathological effects of salvia miltiorrhiza hydroalcoholic extract in the prevention of testicular ischemia reperfusion damage in rats.

Theriogenology 2020 Mar 3;144:98-106. Epub 2020 Jan 3.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran.

Aims: One of the most common urologic emergencies is spermatic cord torsion, which can damage testicular tissue and reduce fertility. Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) hydroalcoholic extract possess high antioxidant properties, and its efficacy in ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury prevention has been demonstrated in cardiac, renal, and liver tissues. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the protective mechanism of SM extract on testicular I/R damage.

Main Methods: 18 mature male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into 3 groups; with six rats in each group: Group 1 (Sham) was sham-operated. Group 2 (T-D): torsion was performed, and after 2 hours (h) detorsion was done. Group 3 (SM): (200 mg kg) SM was intraperitoneally injected thirty minutes before detorsion. Then testicular and epididymal weight and size alterations, sperm parameters (motility, livability, concentration, and morphology), both plasma and testicular tissue levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were evaluated. Also, histopathological changes included mean seminiferous tubular diameter (MSTD), testicular capsule thickness (TCT), mean testicular biopsy scoring (MTBS), and germinal epithelial cell thickness (GECT) were examined.

Results: Testicular I/R significantly reduced sperm motility, viability, and normality, while SM extract administration remarkably increased sperm motility, and normality (P < 0.05). Induction of testicular T-D caused a significant increment in the level of MDA and notable decline in the levels of GPX, CAT, and TAC both in plasma and testis tissue, whereas administration of SM extract significantly decreased MDA level and increased GPX, CAT, and TAC levels in plasma and testicular tissue (P < 0.05). Histopathological parameters including MSTD, GECT, MTBS, and TCT were significantly lower in the T-D group, while pretreatment with SM extract remarkably increased MSTD, GECT, and MTBS amounts (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: Since the SM extract increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes, improved sperm parameters and reduced the damage to testicular tissue, therefore, its use as a potent antioxidant in reducing testicular I/R damage is suggested.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2020.01.002DOI Listing
March 2020

The effects of verapamil and heparin co-administration on sperm parameters and oxidative stress in prevention of testicular torsion/detorsion damage in rats.

Andrologia 2020 Mar 11;52(2):e13479. Epub 2019 Nov 11.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran.

In this research, the impacts of combined administration of verapamil and heparin on testicular torsion damage were examined. In this experimental study, 30 sexually mature male Wistar albino rats were divided into five equal groups haphazardly (n = 6): Group 1 was the sham group. In group 2, a 2-hr testicular torsion was induced, and thereafter, detorsion was done. Rats in group 3 and group 4 experienced an identical surgical procedure like group 2, but verapamil and heparin were administered in 0.3 mg/kg and 800 IU/kg doses respectively, and in group 5, a combination of verapamil and heparin were administered. Intraperitoneal drug injection in all treatment groups was done 30 min before testicular detorsion. Testicular torsion significantly changed sperm parameters, oxidative stress biomarkers and Cosentino's histological score compared to the sham group (p < .05). All treatment groups reduced testicular damage by decreasing oxidative stress and improving sperm parameters, but heparin and co-administration of verapamil and heparin were significantly better than verapamil injection alone. However, heparin injected group was more effective than other treatment groups (p < .05). Overall, an anticoagulant like heparin is more effective than a calcium channel blocker such as verapamil, and it is more likely to reduce testicular torsion injuries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/and.13479DOI Listing
March 2020

Brodifacoum toxicosis and abortion in an Arabian mare.

Vet Res Forum 2019 15;10(2):173-176. Epub 2019 Jun 15.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Islamic Azad University, Garmsar Branch, Garmsar, Iran.

A 3-year-old pregnant Arabian mare was referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz with a history of bleeding and rodenticide ingestion. The results of paraclinical examinations showed severe normocytic and normochromic anemia, decreased serum total protein, albumin, and fibrinogen concentrations, increased serum total bilirubin, urea, and creatinine concentrations, as well as increased serum aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase activity. Three days after treatment, all the clinical signs were resolved, however, fetus abortion occurred. In order to confirm the suspected cause of abortion and toxicosis, high-performance liquid chromatography was performed on serum sample of mare and liver tissue of the aborted fetus and toxicosis was confirmed. Poisoning with brodifacoum is considered as an important and lethal poisoning for both human being and animals. To our knowledge, this is the first report of spontaneous toxicosis and abortion with brodifacoum. Brodifacoum toxicosis can be effectively managed with early diagnosis, good paraclinical examinations and appropriate treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30466/vrf.2018.85534.2115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6626650PMC
June 2019

Evaluation of 5 methods for diagnosing failure of passive transfer in 160 Holstein calves.

Vet Clin Pathol 2018 Jun 31;47(2):275-283. Epub 2018 Mar 31.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Islamic Azad University, Garmsar, Iran.

Background: Inadequate absorption of colostral IgG is termed failure of transfer of passive immunity (FTPI). Dairy calves with FTPI have increased mortality and morbidity in their first 6 months of life.

Objectives: This study compared the clinical performance of 5 methods for diagnosing FTPI in Holstein calves.

Methods: An observational study was performed using 160 Holstein heifer calves. Serum was harvested at 48 hours of age, and FTPI was assessed using a digital Brix refractometer for total solids measurements, and digital refractometry and the biuret method to measure serum total protein (STP) concentrations. Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase activity was measured with an automated analyzer, and serum IgG was measured with the zinc sulfate turbidity test and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Diagnostic test performance was compared with that of the reference method (FTPI defined as a serum total IgG concentration <10 g/L). Test performance was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, the sensitivity, the specificity, and the positive likelihood ratio at the optimal test cut point, and by calculating the kappa coefficient.

Results: A serum digital Brix percentage of <7.8% and an STP concentration of <52 g/L measured using digital refractometry were the best methods to identify calves with FTPI. The STP concentration measured with digital refractometry was 0.1 g/L lower than that measured with the biuret method.

Conclusions: The digital Brix refractometer and the digital refractometer provide accurate and clinically useful methods for identifying dairy calves with FTPI. In this study, the excellent performance of the Brix refractometer was likely due to the use of a fixed sample volume (200 μL) and a uniform sample temperature at the time of measurement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vcp.12603DOI Listing
June 2018

The first report of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Iran.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2016 Aug 8;48(6):1215-9. Epub 2016 May 8.

Department of Internal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran.

In mid-July 2013, an outbreak of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) was observed in a herd of camels after they were imported from Kuwait to the Khuzestan province in southwest of Iran. The clinical signs of the affected animals included sudden death, fever, oral erosion, and ecthyma like lesions, yellowish diarrhea, pneumonia and respiratory distress, enlargement of lymph node, severe dehydration, dermatitis, ulcerative keratitis, and conjunctivitis. Necropsy findings included keratoconjunctivitis, congestion and consolidation of the lung, paleness of the liver, and enlargement and edema of lymph nodes. Histopathological exam revealed degeneration and acute hyperemia of the lungs, fatty change and necrotic foci in the liver, tubular necrosis in the kidneys, and necrotic dermatitis. We used immunocapture enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to confirm peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) and differentiate it from rinderpest virus. Then virus genome was studied by molecular analysis for detecting of strain and substrain of the virus. Immunocapture ELISA of all specimens reacted positively against PPRV antigens. Also, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results in the lung and lymph nodes of the dead camels consolidated the cause of disease to be PPRV. The present study is the first report of the PPRV outbreak in camels in Iran.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-016-1078-6DOI Listing
August 2016

Vertical transmission of Theileria lestoquardi in sheep.

Vet Parasitol 2014 Jul 18;203(3-4):322-5. Epub 2014 Apr 18.

Graduated from Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran.

This is the first report of an outbreak of Theileria lestoquardi abortion and stillbirth in a mob of 450 ewes in July 2012, during which, approximately 35 late-term ewes lost their fetuses over a 5-day period. A dead ewe and her aborted fetus were transported to the Ahvaz Veterinary Hospital for the diagnostic evaluation. The microbial cultures from the ewe vaginal discharges and fetal abomasal contents and the liver were negative. The blood films of the ewe and her fetus contained Theileria piroplasms and the impression smears from ewe liver and fetal spleen were positive for Theileria Koch blue bodies. The DNA was extracted from the liver and spleen of ewe and her fetus, respectively, and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers derived from the nucleotide sequences of 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene of T. lestoquardi. A single fragment of 428-bp fragment was amplified. The PCR product was directly sequenced and the alignment of the sequence with similar sequences in GenBank(®) showed 100% identities with 18S rDNA gene of T. lestoquardi. The present study is the first report of the T. lestoquardi vertical transmission that could be related to the abortion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2014.04.007DOI Listing
July 2014
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