Publications by authors named "Amir Sandach"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Use of intravenous morphine for acute decompensated heart failure in patients with and without acute coronary syndromes.

Acute Card Care 2011 Jun;13(2):76-80

Department of Cardiology, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Hospital and the Lea Weissman Cardiology Research Institute, Petah Tikva, Israel.

Background: Current guidelines regarding the use of intravenous morphine (IM) in the management of patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) are discordant; whereas the American guidelines reserve IM for terminal patients, the European guidelines recommend its use in the early stage of treatment. Our aim was to determine the impact of IM on outcomes of ADHF patients.

Methods: Stepwise logistic regression and propensity score analysis of ADHF patients with and without use of IM was performed in a national heart failure survey.

Results: Of the 4102 enrolled patients, we identified 2336 ADHF patients, of whom 218 (9.3%) received IM. IM patients were more likely to have acute coronary syndromes, acute rather than exacerbation of chronic heart failure, and diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. They had higher heart rate, were less likely to receive diuretics and more likely to receive aspirin and statins. Unadjusted in-hospital mortality rates were 11.5% versus 5.0% for patients who did or did not receive IM, and the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for in-hospital death was: 2.0 (1.1 – 3.5, P = 0.02). Using propensity analysis, we identified 218 matched pairs of patients who did or did not receive IM. In multivariable analysis accounting for the propensity score (c-statistic 0.82), IM was not associated with increased in-hospital death (OR: 1.2 (0.6 – 2.4), P = 0.55).

Conclusion: IM was used sparingly in our ADHF cohort, and was independently associated with increased in-hospital death in multivariable analysis, but not in propensity score analysis. Thus, IM may be used in ADHF, but with caution. Further randomized trials are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/17482941.2011.575165DOI Listing
June 2011

Usefulness of mild therapeutic hypothermia for hospitalized comatose patients having out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

Am J Cardiol 2011 Jul 3;108(2):173-8. Epub 2011 May 3.

ICCU-Leviev Heart Center, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel.

Mild therapeutic hypothermia has proved beneficial after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in the adult population, when the initial rhythm is ventricular fibrillation (VF). In this study, data from 110 consecutive patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest due to VF (n = 86) or to non-VF rhythm (n = 24), admitted to an intensive cardiac care unit with restoration of spontaneous circulation and who remained unconscious on admission, were analyzed. Patients were cooled using an external cooling system. Of the patients with VF, 66% had favorable outcomes (Glasgow-Pittsburgh Cerebral Performance Category 1 or 2), and 30% died. Of the patients with non-VF, 8% had favorable outcomes (p <0.001 vs VF), and 63% died (p = 0.004 vs VF). In patients with VF, those with poor outcomes were older than those with favorable outcomes (odds ratio [OR] 1.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03 to 2.7, p = 0.001) and had previous ejection fractions <35% (OR 7.72, 95% CI 1.8 to 33, p = 0.002). Outcomes were also worse when patients presented to the emergency room with seizures (OR 20.96, 95% CI 2.48 to 177.42, p = 0.003) or hemodynamic instability (OR 14.4, 95% CI 3.47 to 60, p <0.0001). In the non-VF group, the 2 patients with good outcomes were younger than those with unfavorable outcomes (39 ± 16 vs 65 ± 12 years, respectively, p = 0.04), with good left ventricular function on presentation (100% vs 4.5%, p = 0.0001) and with short asystole and/or short time from collapse to restoration of spontaneous circulation. In conclusion, mild therapeutic hypothermia in the adult population is more effective in patients with VF compared to those with non-VF. Good prognostic factors for patients with non-VF could be young age, good left ventricular function, and short anoxic time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2011.03.021DOI Listing
July 2011

Outcomes of acute heart failure associated with acute coronary syndrome versus other causes.

Acute Card Care 2011 Jun 28;13(2):87-92. Epub 2011 Apr 28.

Lea Wiessman Clinical Cardiology Research Center, Department of Cardiology, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petah Tikva, Israel.

Background: By and large, prior registries and randomized trials have not distinguished between acute heart failure (AHF) associated with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) versus other causes.

Aims: To examine whether the treatments and outcomes of ACS-associated AHF are different from non-ACS-associated AHF.

Methods: We examined in a prospective, nationwide hospital-based survey the adjusted outcomes of AHF patients with and without ACS as its principal cause.

Results: Of the 4102 patients in our national heart failure survey, 2336 (56.9%) had AHF, of whom 923 (39.5%) had ACS-associated AHF. These patients were more likely to receive intravenous inotropes and vasodilators and to undergo coronary angiography and revascularization, but less likely to receive intravenous diuretics. The unadjusted in-hospital, 30-day, one-year, and four-year mortality rates for AHF patients with or without ACS were 6.5% versus 5.0% (P = 0.13), 10.3% versus 7.5% (P = 0.02), 26.6% versus 31.0% (P = 0.02), and 55.3% versus 63.3% (P = 0.0001), respectively. In the multivariate analysis, the adjusted mortality risk for patients with ACS at the respective time points were 1.46 (0.99-2.10), 1.67 (1.22-2.30), 1.02 (0.86-1.20), and 0.93 (0.82-1.04).

Conclusions: Patients with ACS-associated AHF seem to have a unique clinical course and perhaps should be distinguished from other AHF patients in future trials and registries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/17482941.2011.567284DOI Listing
June 2011

Relation of bundle branch block to long-term (four-year) mortality in hospitalized patients with systolic heart failure.

Am J Cardiol 2011 Feb 22;107(4):540-4. Epub 2010 Dec 22.

Cardiology Division, University of Rochester Medical Center, New York, USA.

There is controversy regarding type of bundle branch block (BBB) that is associated with increased mortality risk in patients with heart failure (HF). The present study was designed to explore the association between BBB pattern and long-term mortality in hospitalized patients with systolic HF. Risk of 4-year all-cause mortality was assessed in 1,888 hospitalized patients with systolic HF (left ventricular ejection function <50%) without a pacemaker in a prospective national survey. Cox proportional hazards regression modeling was used to compare mortality risk in patients with right BBB (RBBB; 10%), left BBB (LBBB; 14%), and no BBB (76%) on admission electrocardiogram. At 4 years of follow up, mortality rates were highest in patients with RBBB (69%), intermediate in those with LBBB (63%), and lowest in those without BBB (50%, p <0.001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated a significant 36% increased mortality risk in patients with RBBB versus no BBB (p = 0.002) but no significant difference in mortality risk for patients with LBBB versus no BBB (hazard ratio 1.04, p = 0.66). RBBB versus LBBB was associated with a 29% (p = 0.035) increased risk for 4-year mortality in the total population and with a 58% (p = 0.015) increased risk in patients with ejection fraction <30%. In conclusion, RBBB but not LBBB on admission electrocardiogram is associated with a significant increased long-term mortality risk in hospitalized patients with systolic HF. Deleterious effects of RBBB compared to LBBB appear to be more pronounced in patients with more advanced left ventricular dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2010.10.007DOI Listing
February 2011

Predictors of long-term (4-year) mortality in elderly and young patients with acute heart failure.

Eur J Heart Fail 2010 Aug 21;12(8):833-40. Epub 2010 May 21.

Heart Institute, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer and Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Aims: The present study was designed to identify and compare predictors of short- and long-term mortality in elderly and young patients hospitalized with acute heart failure (HF).

Methods And Results: The risk of in-hospital, 1- and 4-year mortality was assessed among 2336 acute HF patients in a prospective national survey. Interaction-term analysis was utilized to identify and compare independent risk factors between elderly (>75 years [n = 1182]) and younger (< or =75 years [n = 1154]) study patients. Elderly patients exhibited a 1.8-fold (P = 0.004), 1.4-fold (P < 0.001), and 1.7-fold (P < 0.001) increase in the adjusted risk of in-hospital, 1-year, and 4-year mortality, respectively, as compared with younger patients. Independent risk factors for 4-year mortality among elderly patients included NYHA functional Class III-IV before admission (HR = 1.46, P < 0.001), systolic blood pressure <115 mmHg (HR = 1.45, P = 0.002), renal dysfunction ([eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)] HR = 1.35, P = 0.002), diabetes mellitus (HR = 1.28, P = 0.006), and anaemia (HR = 1.25, P = 0.012). In the young group, but not in the elderly group, left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) <50% and hyponatraemia (sodium <136 mmol/L) were significant predictors of 4-year mortality. (LVEF <50%, HR = 1.47 for the young and 1.04 for the elderly, P for interaction = 0.025; hyponatraemia HR = 1.59 for the young and 1.17 for the elderly, P for interaction = 0.035).

Conclusion: Elderly patients exhibit different risk factors for long-term mortality as compared with young patients with acute HF. In contrast to younger patients, mortality risk in the older population is not decreased among those with preserved LVEF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurjhf/hfq079DOI Listing
August 2010

Prevalence and significance of unrecognized renal insufficiency in patients with heart failure.

Eur Heart J 2008 Apr 12;29(8):1029-36. Epub 2008 Mar 12.

Neufeld Cardiac Research Institute, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Aviv University, Tel Hashomer 52621, Israel.

Aims: Renal insufficiency (RI) is a strong predictor of adverse outcome in patients with heart failure (HF). We aimed to determine the prevalence of RI being unrecognized and its significance in patients hospitalized with HF.

Methods And Results: We analysed data from a prospective survey of 4102 hospitalized patients with HF. RI [defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2] was present in 2145 (57%) patients but, based on medical records, was unrecognized in 872 [41%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 39-43%] of them. Patients with unrecognized RI were more likely to be women, elderly, and with better functional class, compared with patients with recognized RI. In-hospital and 1 year mortality was significantly higher among patients with recognized and unrecognized RI compared with patients without RI: 6.5 and 7.1 vs. 2.1%, and 38.8 and 30.9 vs. 18.8% (P < 0.001), respectively. After adjustment, recognized and unrecognized RI comparably predicted increased in-hospital mortality: odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI of 2.34 (1.43-3.87), P < 0.001, and 2.30 (1.45-3.72), P < 0.001. After 1 year, recognized RI remained an independent predictor for mortality: OR 1.79 (1.45-2.20), P < 0.001, whereas there was a trend for increased mortality predicted by unrecognized RI: OR 1.22 (0.97-1.53), P = 0.08.

Conclusion: A high proportion of RI remains unrecognized among hospitalized patients with HF. As co-morbid RI has important prognostic and therapeutic implications, patients with HF may benefit from routine assessment of GFR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehn102DOI Listing
April 2008

Contemporary treatment and adherence to guidelines in women and men with acute coronary syndromes.

Int J Cardiol 2008 Dec 28;131(1):97-104. Epub 2008 Jan 28.

Department of Cardiology, Shaare Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel.

Background: Historically gender differences existed in treatment and outcome of patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI).

Aim: To assess gender aspects of contemporary treatment and adherence to ACC/AHA Class-I Treatment Guidelines in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS).

Methods: We studied 2024 consecutive patients (519 women, 26%); 1026 (51%) with ST-elevation (STE)-MI and 998 (49%) patients with non-STE (NSTE), during a nationwide ACS-survey, conducted during 2-months in 2004.

Results: Women were older than men (71 vs. 59 in STEMI; 71 vs. 64 years in NSTE-ACS patients), and had worse cardiovascular risk profiles. In STEMI-patients, acute reperfusion was less frequent in women than in men (53% vs. 63%, respectively, p=0.01; non-significant after age-adjustment). At discharge, fewer women received ACE-inhibitors/ARBs (71% vs. 75%, respectively; OR(age-adj)=0.69[0.48-0.98]). Among NSTE-ACS patients, fewer women received IIb/IIIa-inhibitors (12% vs. 21%, respectively, p=0.007; OR(age-adj)=0.58[0.36-0.96]) and clopidogrel at discharge (49% vs. 59%, respectively, p=0.005; OR(age-adj) 0.75[0.56-1.01]). No gender differences were noted in utilization of aspirin, beta-blockers or statins. Age-adjusted and covariate-adjusted mortality rates were comparable in women and men with STEMI (at 7-days 4.3% vs. 4.1%; OR(adj)=0.95[0.47-1.87] and at 1-year 13.8% vs. 9.8%, hazard ratio [HR(adj)]=1.11[0.73-1.70], respectively); in women and men with NSTE-ACS (at 7-days 1.3% vs. 2.1%, OR(adj)=0.65[0.20-1.76], and at 1-year 12.0% vs. 11.3%; HR(adj)=1.19[0.80-1.77], respectively).

Conclusions: In 2004, adherence to ACC/AHA Class-I Treatment Guidelines in ACS-patients was satisfactory. Relative underutilization of acute reperfusion was noted among STEMI patients, without gender differences after age-adjustment. At discharge, less women received ACE-inhibitors/ARBs. Among NSTE-ACS patients, less women than men received IIb/IIIa-inhibitors, and clopidogrel at discharge. Contemporary ACS management was associated with similar adjusted outcome in women and men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2007.09.005DOI Listing
December 2008

Acute myocardial infarction preceded by potential triggering activities: angiographic and clinical characteristics.

Int J Cardiol 2008 Nov 18;130(2):180-4. Epub 2007 Dec 18.

Heart Institute, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Hashomer, Israel.

Background: In an investigation of the relationship between myocardial infarction (MI) preceded by certain activities or events and coronary angiographic data, including the extent of atherothrombotic involvement during acute MI, we hypothesized that when comparing patients with MI that was preceded by potential triggering activities (PTA "+") to MI without PTA, the former might have a distinct pathogenic basis exhibiting different angiographic and clinical features.

Methods: In the framework of a national survey on acute coronary syndromes conducted during a 2-month period in 2002, 662 acute MI patients with complete angiographic data were divided into two groups, according to whether or not they reported the presence of specific unusual events or activities immediately preceding the onset of MI.

Results: One hundred and one patients with PTA "+" MI were younger, and included a higher proportion of smokers than their counterparts (n=561), who were characterized by a higher frequency of hypertension and diabetes. After adjustment for age, gender, prior MI or CABG, diabetes, hypertension, current smoking, serum creatinine level, left ventricular ejection fraction less than 30%, re-ischemia and Killip class II+, 30-day, 6 month and 1-year mortality was similar between the two groups. The incidence of LAD disease (P<0.01), 3-vessel coronary disease (P<0.03) and TIMI flow 0 or 1 after coronary angioplasty was significantly lower (P<0.02) in patients with PTA "+" MI, while infarct-related right coronary artery (RCA) obstruction was significantly higher (OR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.0-2.9).

Conclusion: Further investigation is needed in order to confirm the association between angiographic data and potential triggering activities observed in our study, and to determine the mechanisms responsible for this finding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2007.07.173DOI Listing
November 2008

Trends in management, hospital and long-term outcomes of elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction.

Am J Med 2007 Jan;120(1):90-7

Cardiology Department, Bikur Cholim Hospital, Jerusalem.-Hashomer.

Purpose: The number of elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is growing rapidly, and their early and postdischarge mortality is high. Several studies have reported a decline in mortality after myocardial infarction; however, the magnitude of the decline among the elderly has not been fully investigated.

Methods: We assessed trends in management, in-hospital, and long-term outcomes of 1475 elderly patients (aged > or =75 years, 42% women) hospitalized with AMI in all 25 operating coronary care units in Israel between 1992 and 2002, from our prospective nationwide biennial surveys.

Results: Between 1992 and 2002, a significant increase was observed in the use of acute reperfusion therapy (27%-48%), coronary angiography (6%-47%), percutaneous coronary intervention (3%-33%), coronary bypass (2%-8%), aspirin (53%-88%), beta-blockers (18%-65%), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (26%-63%), and lipid-lowering drugs (0%-43%). These changes were associated with a 42% reduction in 30-day mortality (27.6%-16.1%; adjusted odds ratio 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.36-0.93). One-year cumulative mortality declined by 20% (37%-29%; adjusted odds ratio 0.74; 95% CI, 0.49-1.13).

Conclusions: The management of elderly patients with AMI changed substantially during the last decade. This change was associated with a significant reduction in early mortality, whereas cumulative 1-year mortality improved only slightly. Better adherence to in-hospital management guidelines and better implementation of postdischarge health policy may further decrease mortality and morbidity in the elderly after AMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2006.09.018DOI Listing
January 2007

Prior heart failure among patients with acute coronary syndromes is associated with a higher incidence of in-hospital heart failure.

Acute Card Care 2006 ;8(3):143-7

Department of Cardiology, Rabin Medical Center and the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Israel.

Background: There are few data regarding the impact of prior heart failure (P-HF) on the presentation, course and outcomes of acute coronary syndromes (ACS).

Methods And Results: We prospectively analyzed all ACS patients admitted in all cardiology wards in Israel during February and March, 2004. Of the 2098 patients, 156(7.4%) had P-HF. These patients were older (75 [66.5-81] versus 63 [53-74] years, (P<0.001)) and more often female (38.5% versus 25.0%, P<0.001)), with a higher prevalence of coronary artery disease risk factors, prior cardiac disease and procedures, and other co-morbidities. They more often presented with atypical angina and heart failure and less with ST-elevation (18.6% versus 51.3%, p<0.0001). In-hospital heart failure developed more frequently (15.4% versus 6.1%, p = 0.00001), including cardiogenic shock (7.1% versus 2.9%, p = 0.005), as did persistent atrial fibrillation (6.4% versus 0.7%, p<0.001), but not ischemic complications. After adjustment for differences, P-HF was not independently associated with 30 day or six-month mortality, but at one-year follow-up, it was (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.0-2.5). P-HF was also independently associated with increased incidence of heart failure upon admission or thereafter in-hospital (OR = 4.3, 95% CI 2.8-6.6).

Conclusions: P-HF ACS patients had high-risk features, lower incidence of ST-elevation, and higher one-year adjusted mortality. P-HF was also independently associated with in-hospital heart failure, suggesting they should be monitored vigilantly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17482940600931958DOI Listing
January 2007

Admission blood glucose level and mortality among hospitalized nondiabetic patients with heart failure.

Arch Intern Med 2006 Aug 14-28;166(15):1613-9

Neufeld Cardiac Research Institute, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer 52621, Israel.

Background: The significance of admission blood glucose level in nondiabetic patients with heart failure (HF) is unknown. We examined the possible association between admission glucose levels and outcome in a large cohort of hospitalized patients with HF.

Methods: We analyzed the data of 4102 patients with HF, who were hospitalized during a prospective national survey. The present study focuses on a subgroup of 1122 nondiabetic patients with acute HF who were admitted because of acute HF or exacerbation of chronic HF.

Results: In-hospital mortality was twice as high in patients with admission blood glucose levels in the third tertile (7.2%) compared with the first (3%) and second (4%) tertiles (P = .02). Furthermore, mortality risk was correlated with admission glucose levels; each 18-mg/dL (1-mmol/L) increase in glucose level was associated with a 31% increased risk of in-hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 1.31; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-1.57; P = .003) and a 12% increase in 60-day mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.25; P = .04). Admission blood glucose levels remained an independent predictor of in-hospital and 60-day mortality even after the exclusion of 315 patients (28%) with acute myocardial infarction and HF. The 6- and 12-month mortality rates were similar in patients with and without abnormal admission blood glucose levels.

Conclusions: Elevated admission blood glucose levels are associated with increased in-hospital and 60-day mortality, but not 6-month or 1-year mortality, in nondiabetic patients hospitalized because of HF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archinte.166.15.1613DOI Listing
September 2006

Rescue percutaneous coronary intervention after failed thrombolysis: results from the Acute Coronary Syndrome Israel Surveys (ACSIS).

Acute Card Care 2006 ;8(2):83-6

Division of Invasive Cardiology, Rambam Medical Center, Haifa, Israel.

Background: The benefit of rescue percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in acute myocardial infarction patients, who fail to show signs of reperfusion after full dose thrombolysis, is still an unresolved issue.

Aim: To assess the outcomes of patients who underwent rescue PCI after full-dose thrombolytic therapy and compare them to patients treated only with thrombolysis in the Acute Coronary Syndrome Israel Surveys (ACSIS).

Methods: ACSIS is a biannual survey on acute myocardial infarction performed in all 26 intensive cardiac care units in Israel during a two-month period. 2,018 patients were admitted with acute myocardial infarction during the two-month period in the 2000 and 2002 surveys, and 796 of them were treated with thrombolytic therapy.

Results: Rescue PCI was performed in 99 patients who failed to show signs of reperfusion. The control group consisted of patients with unsuccessful thrombolysis and no further intervention. Patients who underwent rescue PCI had a numerically higher incidence of anterior wall myocardial infarction, diabetes, higher Killip class on admission and cardiogenic shock. Furthermore, almost half of these patients had reduced left ventricular function (P = 0.03). During hospitalization, there was a significantly higher prevalence of recurrent ischemic events and major bleeding complications in patients who underwent rescue PCI. In-hospital, 30-day and one-year mortality rates were similar between the two groups. By multivariate analyses, Killip class 3-4 (OR: 2.62, CI = 0.95-6.58, P = 0.05) and streptokinase treatment (OR: 0.623, CI = 0.4-0.97, P = 0.05) were independent predictors of rescue PCI. Rescue angioplasty was associated with 15% risk-reduction (CI = 0.45-1.97, P = 0.05) in 30-day mortality and recurrent emergent hospitalization.

Conclusions: Patients who underwent rescue PCI had similar short- and long-term mortality rates compared to patients treated with thrombolysis alone, despite differences in baseline characteristics. Rescue angioplasty was associated with a 15% risk reduction in mortality at 30-days, at the cost of higher rate of recurrent ischemic events and bleeding complications. Therefore, rescue angioplasty may be an equalizer in severely ill patients who receive thrombolytic therapy and fail to show signs of reperfusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17482940600757221DOI Listing
January 2007

Should primary percutaneous coronary intervention be the preferred method of reperfusion therapy for patients with renal failure and ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction?

Am J Cardiol 2006 Apr 28;97(8):1142-5. Epub 2006 Feb 28.

Intensive Cardiac Care Unit, Rambam Medical Center, Haifa, Israel.

Data from patients who had ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction and renal failure and were enrolled in the 2002 Acute Coronary Syndrome Israeli Survey (ACSIS) were studied to determine the effect of different myocardial reperfusion modalities on short- and long-term outcomes. Thirty-day crude mortalities were 8.3% in the thrombolysis group, 40.0% in the primary percutaneous coronary intervention group, and 29.7% in the no-reperfusion group (p = 0.03). Crude and adjusted mortality odds ratios that were observed at 7, 30, and 365 days, with the thrombolysis group as the reference, were 3.1 to 8.1 in the percutaneous coronary intervention group and 1.5 to 4.6 in the no-reperfusion group. Our results suggest that thrombolysis may represent the preferred modality of reperfusion therapy in patients with renal failure and ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction. A large randomized prospective study is needed to confirm these results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2005.11.028DOI Listing
April 2006

Influence of the new definition of acute myocardial infarction on coronary care unit admission, discharge diagnosis, management and outcome in patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes: a national survey.

Int J Cardiol 2006 Jan;106(2):164-9

Department of Cardiology, Soroka Medical Center, Beer Sheva, Israel.

Background: Major changes occurred recently in the definition and recommended management of non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE ACS). The impact of these changes on the coronary care unit (CCU) is incompletely characterized.

Methods: ACSIS is a national survey gathering data every other year among all ACS patients in all CCUs in Israel. We compared case load, baseline variables, management, outcome and distribution of diagnoses among NSTE ACS patients admitted before (during 2000 [N = 729]) and after (during 2002 [N = 970]) the widespread introduction of troponin and the new AMI definition.

Results: The number of NSTE ACS patients in 2002 increased by 33% compared to 2000, with no change in the number of beds, while the number of ST elevation ACS patients remained unchanged. The rate of AMI rose by 16% and hospital stay decreased by 1 day (p = 0.005). The availability of troponin values increased from 20% in 2000 to 60% in 2002; The proportion of patients given the diagnosis of NSTE AMI rose significantly more in centers with high utilization of troponin (p = 0.023). During 2002 significant increases occurred in the utilization of guideline-recommended medications, as in the use of coronary angiography and intervention. Mortality at 30 days decreased by 35%.

Conclusions: This is the first large registry of ACS to describe the significant actual changes which occurred in the CCU following the introduction of troponin and the new AMI definition. We observed a substantial increase in the burden of NSTE ACS coupled with a shortened length of stay. These changes may impact significantly upon patient care and resource utilization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2004.12.082DOI Listing
January 2006

Aspirin, warfarin and a thienopyridine for acute coronary syndromes.

Cardiology 2006 9;105(2):80-5. Epub 2005 Nov 9.

Department of Cardiology, Rabin Medical Center, Petah-Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Background: Although clopidogrel and aspirin (dual therapy, DT) are used for acute coronary syndrome (ACS), sometimes treatment with warfarin (triple therapy, TT) is required.

Aim: To determine the incidence, complications, and outcomes of TT.

Methods: We analyzed Israeli surveys of ACS from 2000 to 2004.

Results: In these surveys, 5,706 (96%) were discharged alive from hospital. Post-ACS TT and DT were 76 patients (1.3%) and 2,661 patients (46.7%), respectively. The TT group was older with more prior cardiac disease. During hospitalization, the TT patients received more intravenous anticoagulant and antithrombotic agents, and had more heart failure, arrhythmias, ischemia, and major bleeding (2.6 vs. 0.6%, p=0.03). There were no differences in adjusted 30-day and 6-month mortality between the 2 groups.

Conclusion: TT is feasible among ACS patients who require concomitant warfarin treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000089548DOI Listing
May 2006

Atrial fibrillation in dobutamine stress echocardiography.

Int J Cardiol 2006 Jul 28;111(1):53-8. Epub 2005 Jul 28.

The Heart Institute, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel AVIV, Israel.

Objectives: To describe the incidence of atrial fibrillation induced by dobutamine stress echocardiography and characterize patients at risk of developing atrial fibrillation, by constructing a simple validated risk score index.

Design: An observational study using prospectively collected data.

Methods: 3800 consecutive patients in sinus rhythm undergoing dobutamine stress echocardiography were randomly divided to a case (2/3) and test group (1/3). Associations of predetermined demographic, clinical, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic variables were calculated in patients with and without atrial fibrillation induced by dobutamine stress echocardiography in the case group. Logistic regression analysis determined significant independent risk predictors, a scoring index was constructed and validated on the test group.

Results: There was a 2% incidence of dobutamine stress echocardiography-induced atrial fibrillation in the study population. Risk predictors of atrial fibrillation included: a history of atrial fibrillation (2 points), increased left atrial diameter, right bundle branch block, decreased rest heart rate and hypertension (1 point each). The case subgroup low-risk patients (score 0-2) had a 1% risk, moderate-risk patients (score 3) a 2.7% and high-risk patients (score 4-6) a 14.5% risk of developing atrial fibrillation during dobutamine stress echocardiography. The rates in the test subgroup were 1%, 3.8% and 15.3%, respectively.

Conclusion: Atrial fibrillation during dobutamine stress echocardiography is not common, the risk of developing atrial fibrillation during dobutamine stress echocardiography can be predicted by using a simple risk score system comprised of clinical, electrocardiographic and rest echocardiographic variables, which may be of help when planning a dobutamine stress echocardiography test in selected cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2005.07.001DOI Listing
July 2006

Usefulness of four echocardiographic risk assessments in predicting 30-day outcome in acute myocardial infarction.

Am J Cardiol 2005 Jul;96(1):25-30

Heart Institute, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel.

One thousand fifty-one consecutive patients who had acute myocardial infarction were classified into 3 risk groups by 4 echocardiographic risk assessments: left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular filling pattern, estimated systolic pulmonary artery pressure, and mitral regurgitation, with 30-day mortality rates of 13.7%, 3.8%, and 1%, respectively (p <0.001). Independent echocardiographic and clinical predictors of 30-day mortality included age (10 years, hazard ratio [HR] 1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.91 to 1.89), female gender (HR 2.12, 95% CI 0.94 to 4.74), Killip's class > or =II on admission (HR 3.09, 95% CI 1.38 to 7.11), group 2 (moderate) risk (HR 2.89, 95% CI 1.07 to 8.56), and group 1 (high) risk (HR 8.16, 95% CI 2.95 to 25.23).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2005.02.038DOI Listing
July 2005