Publications by authors named "Amir Houshang Mehrparvar"

56 Publications

Effect of shift work on working memory, attention and response time in nurses.

Int J Occup Saf Ergon 2021 Jan 20:1-6. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Industrial Diseases Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between shift work and cognitive performance in nurses. The present before-after study included 35 female nurses 25-40 years old with similar mental and physical workload. Working memory, response time and attention were assessed using Wechsler and Stroop tests. The variables were measured at the beginning and the end of three working shifts (morning, afternoon and night). An interval of 3 days was considered for performing an after-shift test to eliminate the learning effect. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). At the end of all three shifts, nurses' working memory (= 0.039) and interference score (= 0.04) were significantly decreased, but their response time was not significantly affected during a shift. The decrease in working memory after the night shift was significantly higher than after the morning and evening shifts (< 0.001). The results of this study showed that shift work can affect some aspects of cognitive function (working memory and attention) in nurses, and this effect was more prominent after a night shift.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10803548.2020.1863656DOI Listing
January 2021

Effect of myricetin on the gene expressions of NOX3, TGF-β1, prestin, and HSP-70 and anti-oxidant activity in the cochlea of noise-exposed rats.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2020 May;23(5):594-599

Industrial Diseases Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Objectives: Noise-induced hearing loss is one of the most common occupational diseases in industrialized countries and can be affected by various environmental and genetic factors. This study was designed to examine the effect of myricetin in preventing this disorder.

Materials And Methods: Twenty-one Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: Non-exposed, noise exposure only, noise exposure with vehicle, noise exposure with myricetin 5 mg/Kg, and noise exposure with myricetin 10 mg/kg. All animals were sacrificed after last noise exposure. The left cochlea was dissected from each rat. It was used for mRNA expression analysis (NOX3, TGF-β1, prestin, and HSP-70). Blood samples were collected to assess superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, 1, 1 diphenyl picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and malondialdehyde (MDA) measurements.

Results: Real time-PCR assay revealed that noise decreased NOX3 and increased TGF-β1, prestin, and HSP-70 gene expressions. Administration of myricetin at the dose of 5 mg/kg, but not at 10 mg/kg, significantly reversed these changes. Noise also increased MDA levels and decreased SOD and DPPH scavenging activities. Myricetin at the doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg also reversed these changes.

Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that myricetin at the dose of 5 mg/Kg was able to reverse noise-induced abnormalities in gene expression and oxidant/anti-oxidant balance. It is a possibility that myricetin via enhancement of anti-oxidant activity induced these effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22038/IJBMS.2020.41007.9693DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7374988PMC
May 2020

Age-, sex-, and height-based blood pressure reference charts, Yazd children 6-18 years, Iran.

Clin Exp Pediatr 2020 Aug 21;63(8):321-328. Epub 2020 Jul 21.

Department of Psychology, Yazd Azad University, Yazd, Iran.

Background: Pediatric hypertension is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatric populations.

Purpose: To examine pediatric hypertension in a clinical setting, we used the percentile rank approach and defined hypertension as that above the 95th percentile.

Methods: The present study was linked to the a national analytical cross-sectional community-based Iranian Children and Adolescents' Psychiatric Disorders (IRCAP) survey. The survey was nationwide and funded by the National Institute of Medical Research Development. The IRCAP survey included 31,000 children and adolescents aged 6-18 years in all 31 Iran provinces. The current study included 1,035 children and adolescents and linked the data of the risk factors of cardiovascular disease only in Yazd province via random cluster sampling.

Results: Of the total participants, 456 (44.1%) were male and 579 (55.9%) were female. The mean age was 11.2±3.8 years (11.7±3.7 years for males, 11.0±3.6 years for females), while mean height was 146±20.0 cm overall, 147.2±22.0 cm for males, and 144.6±17.0 cm for females (P=0.009). The blood pressure distributions and percentiles were evaluated.

Conclusion: Here we determined age- and height-specific 50th, 90th, 95th, and 99th percentiles of systolic and diastolic blood pressures in Yazd boys and girls using 10-cm height intervals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3345/cep.2019.00094DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7402986PMC
August 2020

Prevalence, comorbidity and predictors of anxiety disorders among children and adolescents.

Asian J Psychiatr 2020 Oct 16;53:102059. Epub 2020 May 16.

Industrial Diseases Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran. Electronic address:

Childhood anxiety may lead to serious health consequences in later life. The present study provides the prevalence, comorbidity, and predictors of anxiety disorders among children and adolescents. This was a cross-sectional national project that was implemented on 28,698 children and adolescents in Iran. Participants entered the study by multistage cluster sampling with an equal number of each gender and three age groups (6-9, 10-14, and 15-18 years) within each cluster. The tools used in this research were the demographic questionnaire and K-SADS-PL. To analyze the data logistic regression and chi-square tests were used in SPSS (ver. 16). The prevalence of anxiety disorder in children and adolescents was 13.2 in boys and 15.1 in girls. Furthermore, gender, age, place of residence and history of psychiatric hospitalization of parents could predict anxiety disorders. Anxiety disorders had comorbidity with behavioral disorders, neurodevelopmental disorders, mood disorders, psychotic disorders, substance abuse disorders, and elimination disorders. According to our findings in this study, anxiety disorders affect the performance, health and life of children and adolescents, identifying the childhood anxiety, as well as finding diseases that are associated with anxiety disorders, can help in the prevention of the disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102059DOI Listing
October 2020

Decomposing socioeconomic inequality in poor mental health among Iranian adult population: results from the PERSIAN cohort study.

BMC Psychiatry 2020 05 13;20(1):229. Epub 2020 May 13.

Social Development and Health Promotion Research Center, Health Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: Socioeconomic inequality in mental health in Iran is poorly understood. This study aimed to assess socioeconomic inequality in poor mental health among Iranian adults.

Methods: The study used the baseline data of PERSIAN cohort study including 131,813 participants from 17 geographically distinct areas of Iran. The Erreygers Concentration index (E) was used to quantify the socioeconomic inequalities in poor mental health. Moreover, we decomposed the E to identify factors contributing to the observed socioeconomic inequality in poor mental health in Iran.

Results: The estimated E for poor mental health was - 0.012 (95% CI: - 0.0144, - 0.0089), indicating slightly higher concentration of mental health problem among socioeconomically disadvantaged adults in Iran. Socioeconomic inequality in poor mental health was mainly explained by gender (19.93%) and age (12.70%). Region, SES itself, and physical activity were other important factors that contributed to the concentration of poor mental health among adults with low socioeconomic status.

Conclusion: There exists nearly equitable distribution in poor mental health among Iranian adults, but with important variations by gender, SES, and geography. These results suggested that interventional programs in Iran should focus on should focus more on socioeconomically disadvantaged people as a whole, with particular attention to the needs of women and those living in more socially disadvantaged regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12888-020-02596-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7218818PMC
May 2020

Occupational eye dose to medical staff in various interventional cardiologic procedures: is the need for lead goggles the same in all groups of radiation workers?

Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2020 Aug 30;36(8):1417-1425. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Cardiovascular Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Considering the increased use of interventional cardiologic procedures and concern about irradiation to the eyes, it is necessary to measure eye dose in radiation workers. The assessment of eye dose using collar dose is a routine but inaccurate method. Therefore this study was designed to measure eye dose in the radiation workers of various interventional cardiologic procedures. In this study eye dose was measured for left and right eyes in three groups of radiation workers in angiography ward of Afshar hospital in various procedures using TLD. Measurements were done separately for cardiologists, nurses and radio-technologists in 100 procedures. The nurses functioned as surgical assistants and were usually close to the table. The correlation of staff dose to exposure parameters was also investigated. Eye dose in physicians were higher than other staff in all procedures. Also the left eye dose was considerably higher than right one, especially for physicians. The median equivalent dose per procedure of left eye for physicians, nurses and radio-technologists were 7.4, 3.6, 1.4 µSv (PCI) and 3.2, 3.1, 1.3 µSv (Adhoc) and 3.2, 1.7, 1.1 µSv (CA), respectively. The annual left eye equivalent dose with (without) using lead goggles were 2.4 (15.3), 1.4 (2.2), 1.0 (1.1) mSv for physicians, nurses and radio-technologists, respectively. There were also a positive correlation between eye dose and KAP for procedures without lead goggles. The lead goggles showed lower protection effects for radio-technologists than other staff. Only 30% of physicians received a dose higher than 1/3 of the ICRP annual dose limit, therefor only physician eye dose should be monitored in catheterization labs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10554-020-01864-yDOI Listing
August 2020

Effect of Combined Exposure to Noise and Vibration on Hearing.

Indian J Occup Environ Med 2019 Sep-Dec;23(3):121-125. Epub 2019 Dec 16.

Department of Occupational Medicine, Industrial Diseases Research Center, Center of Excellence for Occupational Medicine, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Aim: This study was conducted to examine the effect(s) of combined exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) and noise in railway workers.

Methods: In this historical cohort study, train drivers with combined exposure to WBV and impermissible noise as the case group ( = 85) and shunters with just exposure to impermissible noise as the control group ( = 30) were recruited. The hearing threshold at the conventional audiometric frequencies was measured in both the groups, and the standard threshold shift (STS) and hearing threshold shift at higher frequencies were calculated. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 20 using -test, Chi-square, and paired -test.

Results: There was no significant difference between the groups for age of participants as well as work duration and body mass index. Increased hearing threshold was most frequently observed at 3000, 4000, and 6000 Hz. STS and hearing threshold shift at high frequencies were observed at 6.0% and 3.3%, and 8.2% and 26.7% in train drivers and shunters in the left ear, respectively, but these were not statistically significant.

Conclusion: Despite the unauthorized exposure to noise and WBV of train drivers, the STS and hearing threshold shift at higher frequencies were not more prevalent compared with the shunters who were exposed only to impermissible noise levels; hence, no association was found between noise and vibration in this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijoem.IJOEM_252_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6941339PMC
December 2019

Effect of Myricetin on the Prevention of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss-An Animal Model.

Iran J Otorhinolaryngol 2019 Sep;31(106):273-279

Industrial Diseases Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Introduction: Exposure to hazardous noise induces one of the forms of acquired and preventable hearing loss that is noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Considering oxidative stress as the main mechanism of NIHL, it is possible that myricetin can protect NIHL by its antioxidant effect. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the preventive effect of myricetin on NIHL.

Materials And Methods: A total of 21 Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups, namely (1) noise exposure only as control group, (2) noise exposure with the vehicle of myricetin as solvent group, (3) noise exposure with myricetin 5 mg/kg as myricetin 5 mg group, (4) noise exposure with myricetin 10 mg/kg as myricetin 10 mg group, (5) and non-exposed as sham group. The hearing status of each animal was assessed by Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions.

Results: The levels of response amplitude decreased after the exposure to noise in all groups and returned to a higher level after 14 days of noise abstinence at most frequencies; however, the difference was not significant in the myricetin-receiving or control groups.

Conclusion: The results of this study showed that two doses of myricetin (5 and 10 mg/kg) administered intraperitoneally could not significantly decrease transient or permanent threshold shifts in rats exposed to loud noise.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6764812PMC
September 2019

Hearing Thresholds Changes after MRI 1.5T of Head and Neck.

Radiol Res Pract 2019 17;2019:8756579. Epub 2019 Jun 17.

Industrial Diseases Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd 89138-14389, Iran.

Introduction: Exposure to high intensity noise produced by MRI is a cause for concern. This study was conducted to determine the temporary and permanent effects of exposure to noise created by performing MRI on the hearing threshold of the subjects using conventional and extended high frequency audiometry.

Methods: This semiexperimental study was performed on 35 patients referred to Shahid Rahnemoun Hospital for head and neck MRI due to different clinical conditions. The hearing threshold of patients was measured before, immediately after, and 24 hours after performing 1.5 Tesla MRI using conventional and extended high frequency audiometry. SPSS version 18 was used to compare the mean hearing thresholds before and after MRI using paired T test and repeated measures analysis.

Results: Comparison of auditory thresholds in conventional and extended high frequencies before and immediately after MRI showed a significant shift at 4 KHz (P = 0.008 and P = 0.08 for right and left ears), 6 KHz (P = 0.03 and P = 0.01 for right and left ears), and 14 KHz (P =0.03 and P = 0.31 for right and left ears). However, there was no significant difference between audiometric thresholds before and 24 hours after MRI.

Conclusion: Noise due to 1.5 Tesla MRI can only cause transient threshold shift.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/8756579DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6601493PMC
June 2019

Shift Work Effects and Pregnancy Outcome: A Historical Cohort Study.

J Family Reprod Health 2018 Jun;12(2):84-88

Industrial Disease Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Employed mothers face considerable amount of hazards. Especially shift work can impact pregnant women by affecting some hormones. This study was conducted to assess the adverse effects of shift work on pregnancy outcomes. This historical cohort study was conducted in 2017 in order to assess the effect of shift work on pregnancy outcomes. The subjects were consecutively selected from pregnant women, which referred to Al Zahra and Shahid Beheshti hospitals, Isfahan, Iran for their pregnancy care. The effect of shift work on pregnancy and labor complications (low birth weight, small for gestational age, pre-eclampsia and eclampsia, intra-uterine growth retardation, spontaneous abortion, preterm delivery, excessive bleeding during labor, and type of labor) was assessed. The effect was adjusted for occupation and number of children as well. Data were analyzed by SPSS (ver. 17) usingT-test, chi-Square test and logistic regression analysis. Totally, 429 pregnant women entered the study. There was not a statistically significant difference between morning and shift workers regarding age. It was found that shift work probably increases the incidence of small for gestational age, pre-eclampsia and eclampsia, intra-uterine growth retardation, spontaneous abortion, and preterm delivery, but after adjustment for job and number of children the effect was observed only on preterm delivery. Working in a rapid cycling schedule of shift work may cause an increase in the incidence of preterm delivery in pregnant mothers.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6391306PMC
June 2018

Carbon load in airway macrophages, DNA damage and lung function in taxi drivers exposed to traffic-related air pollution.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Mar 11;26(7):6868-6876. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Department of Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

To evaluate the potential applicability of carbon load in airway macrophages as a marker of exposure to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) and its association with parameters of comet assay as a marker of DNA damage, and pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in the group of taxi drivers in Iran. One hundred four male taxi drivers with at least 1-year job history were randomly selected from registered drivers in the taxi union. Airway macrophages were obtained via sputum induction, and then the area of airway macrophages occupied by carbon was measured. DNA damage was determined by comet assay. PFTs were measured by the spirometer. Most of the participants (89.4%) were non-smoker. In this study, 52.7% of non-smoker participants were able to give a sample of sputum with macrophage. Carbon content of airway macrophages was 0.2 μm. There was no significant difference in pulmonary function and comet assay parameters in terms of smoking status. There was an inverse correlation between carbon load with each of comet assay and PFTs parameters, although not statistically significant. This study identified that long-term exposure to TRAP can be a risk factor for pulmonary disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-04179-1DOI Listing
March 2019

The effect of industrial noise exposure on attention, reaction time, and memory.

Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2019 Jan 26;92(1):111-116. Epub 2018 Sep 26.

Industrial Diseases Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Purpose: Noise, a common physical hazard in many workplaces, may affect different aspects of human cognitive function. In this study, the effect of exposure to noise on some aspects of cognitive function was assessed in industrial workers.

Materials And Methods: This was a cross-sectional study on 84 individuals exposed to noise level higher than 85 dBA in a metal industry (noise group), comparing a group of workers from the same industry (n = 80) with exposure to noise level lower than 80 dBA (control group). The individuals in the noise group were classified as well according to noise intensity into: high exposure (90 dBA and higher) and low exposure (between 85 and 90 dBA). Selective attention score, divided attention score, selective response time, divided response time, and memory scale were measured before and after work shift. Data were analyzed by SPSS (Ver. 16) using Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, paired t test, Student's t test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to compare mean difference of the variables between two groups. p < 0.05 was considered as significant.

Results: All measured cognitive functions were significantly changed after work shift in the noise group and the difference was statistically significant between noise and control group. Exposure to higher noise intensity caused more change in cognitive function.

Conclusion: Exposure to noise higher than 85 dBA affects some aspects of cognitive function (reaction time, attention and memory).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00420-018-1361-0DOI Listing
January 2019

Correction to: Environmental Noise Exposure and Neurodevelopmental and Mental Health Problems in Children: a Systematic Review.

Curr Environ Health Rep 2018 09;5(3):396

Department of Hygiene and Ecomedicine, Faculty of Public Health, Medical University of Plovdiv, 15-A Vassil Aprilov Blvd., 4002, Plovdiv, Bulgaria.

The first author's name should should be "Fariba Zare Sakhvidi".
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40572-018-0210-3DOI Listing
September 2018

Environmental Noise Exposure and Neurodevelopmental and Mental Health Problems in Children: a Systematic Review.

Curr Environ Health Rep 2018 09;5(3):365-374

Department of Hygiene and Ecomedicine, Faculty of Public Health, Medical University of Plovdiv, 15-A Vassil Aprilov Blvd., 4002, Plovdiv, Bulgaria.

Purpose Of Review: We systematically summarized and evaluated evidence on association between traffic noise exposure and indicators of neurodevelopmental and mental health problems.

Recent Findings: Twelve studies on 10 unique populations were reviewed. Different outcomes, mostly measured by the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and its subscales, were reported. Overall bias in each study was acceptable, but the quality of evidence for specific outcomes was "low" to "very low," according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. Data supporting the harmful effect of noise on neurodevelopmental and mental health in children are heterogeneous and limited. Direction of potentially harmful effect was most consistent for road traffic noise and total SDQ score and hyperactivity/inattention. At this point, there is only suggestive evidence that road traffic noise might lead to neurodevelopmental problems in children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40572-018-0208-xDOI Listing
September 2018

Association between noise exposure and diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Environ Res 2018 10 10;166:647-657. Epub 2018 Jul 10.

ISGlobal, Barcelona Institute for Global Health, Barcelona, Spain; Pompeu Fabra University, Barcelona, Spain; Ciber on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: The prevalence of diabetes is on rise worldwide and environmental factors are being increasingly recognized to be involved in this rise. An emerging body of evidence has evaluated the impact of long-term exposure to noise on diabetes mellitus, highlighting the need to synthesize this evidence.

Objectives: To systematically review and conduct meta-analysis of the available evidence on the association between long-term exposure to transport and occupational noise exposure and diabetes mellitus.

Methods: Selected databases were searched for available evidence published till September 13th, 2017 following MOOSE guidelines. The quality of articles was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Random effects meta-analysis was applied to abstract combined estimates for diabetes mellitus per 5 dB increase in noise exposure. We evaluated the heterogeneity applying Cochran's Q test and quantified it using I statistic. Meta-regressions were conducted to identify sources of heterogeneity. Publication bias was evaluated using funnel plot and Egger's test.

Results: Fifteen studies met our inclusion criteria of which nine including five prospective cohorts, two cross-sectional and two case-control studies with a total number of 444460 adult participants and 17430 diabetes mellitus cases included in meta-analyses. We observed a 6% (95% confidence interval (CI): 3%, 9%) increase in the risk of diabetes mellitus per 5 dB increase in noise exposure regardless of its source. Source-specific analyses were suggestive for stronger associations for air traffic noise (combined odds ratio: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.29 per 5 dB increase in exposure) flowed by road traffic noise (combined odds ratio: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.12). We observed some indications of publication bias; however the findings were robust after trim and fill test. Meta-regression analyses showed that the adjustment in general, and not specifically related to air pollution, could predict the between-study heterogeneity in reported associations.

Conclusions: The results indicate an increased risk of diabetes mellitus associated with noise exposure, mainly related to air and road traffic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2018.05.011DOI Listing
October 2018

Occupations and the Risk of Bladder Cancer in Yazd Province: A Case-Control Study.

Int J Occup Environ Med 2017 10;8(4):191-198

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Background: Bladder cancer is the most common cancer of the urinary tract, with known occupational causes. The most effective way to prevent occupational cancers of the urinary tract is to prevent exposure to known carcinogens.

Objective: To examine the relationship between occupation and the risk of bladder cancer.

Methods: This case-control study was performed on 200 patients with bladder cancer and 200 healthy individuals in Yazd. Data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire and based on interviews with patients and controls.

Results: The mean age of cases and controls were 61.5 (SD 13.6) and 61.5 (13.3) years, respectively. Level of education, type of occupation, family history of bladder cancer in the first-degree relatives, and history of chronic and recurrent urinary tract infection, kidney and bladder stones, and using hair dye, were considered the main predictors for bladder cancer.

Conclusion: There was a significant difference between cases and controls in terms of type of occupation. The risk of bladder cancer was higher among those working in high-risk occupations-metal working, textile, driving, farming, and construction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/ijoem.2017.1085DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6679604PMC
October 2017

Oxidative toxic stress in workers occupationally exposed to ceramic dust: A study in a ceramic manufacturing industry.

Work 2016 Sep;55(1):13-17

Department of Ergonomics, School of Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

Background: Exposure to compounds used in ceramic industries appears to be associated with induction of oxidative toxic stress.

Objective: This cross sectional study was undertaken to assess the oxidative toxic stress parameters associated with occupational exposure to ceramic dust.

Methods: Forty ceramic-exposed workers from a ceramic manufacturing industry and 40 unexposed referent subjects were studied. A questionnaire containing information regarding demographic variables, occupational history, history of any chronic disease, antioxidant consumption, and use of therapeutic drugs was administrated to them. Oxidative toxic stress biomarkers including lipid peroxidation (LPO), total antioxidant power (TAP), levels of total Thiol groups (TTG) and catalase (CAT) activity were measured.

Results: Significant increments in blood LPO levels, CAT activity and concomitant lower TAP were observed in ceramic exposed workers in comparison to referent group. No statistically significant difference was noted between the means of TTG levels between the groups.

Conclusions: Findings of the study indicate that occupational exposure to ceramic dust induces oxidative toxic stress. Supplementation of workers with antioxidants may have beneficial effects on oxidative damages in ceramic industries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/WOR-162384DOI Listing
September 2016

Applicability of the comet assay in evaluation of DNA damage in healthcare providers' working with antineoplastic drugs: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Int J Occup Environ Health 2016 01 25;22(1):52-67. Epub 2016 Apr 25.

e Faculty of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics/Gynecology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences , Isfahan , Iran.

Background: Unintended occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs (ANDs) may occur in medical personnel. Some ANDs are known human carcinogens and exposure can be monitored by genotoxic biomarkers.

Objective: To evaluate the obstacles to obtaining conclusive results from a comet assay test to determine DNA damage among AND exposed healthcare workers.

Methods: We systematically reviewed studies that used alkaline comet assay to determine the magnitude and significance of DNA damage among health care workers with potential AND exposure. Fifteen studies were eligible for review and 14 studies were used in the meta-analysis.

Results: Under random effect assumption, the estimated standardized mean difference (SMD) in the DNA damage of health care workers was 1.93 (95% CI: 1.15-2.71, p < 0.0001). The resulting SMD was reduced to 1.756 (95% CI: 0.992-2.52, p < 0.0001) when the analysis only included nurses. In subgroup analyses based on gender and smoking, heterogeneity was observed. Only for studies reporting comet moment, I2 test results, as a measure of heterogeneity, dropped to zero. Heterogeneity analysis showed that date of study publication was a possible source of heterogeneity (B = -0.14; p < 0.0001).

Conclusions: A mixture of personal parameters, comet assay methodological variables, and exposure characteristics may be responsible for heterogenic data from comet assay studies and interfere with obtaining conclusive results. Lack of quantitative environmental exposure measures and variation in comet assay protocols across studies are important obstacles in generalization of results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10773525.2015.1123380DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4894275PMC
January 2016

Effect of Ascorbic Acid on Noise Induced Hearing Loss in Rats.

Iran J Otorhinolaryngol 2015 Jul;27(81):267-72

Industrial Diseases Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Introduction: After presbycusis, noise-induced hearing loss is the second most common cause of acquired hearing loss. Numerous studies have shown that high-intensity noise exposure increases free radical species; therefore, use of antioxidants to detoxify the free radicals can prevent cellular damage in the cochlea. We studied the potential hearing protective effect of different doses of ascorbic acid administered prior to noise exposure in rats.

Materials And Methods: Twenty-four male albino Wistar rats were randomly allocated into four groups: groups A, B, and C received 1250, 250, and 50 mg/kg/day of ascorbic acid, respectively, and group D acted as the control group. After 14 days of ascorbic acid administration, the rats were exposed to noise (105 dB sound pressure level for 2 h). Distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) were recorded prior to starting the ascorbic acid as baseline and 1 h after the noise exposure.

Results: The amplitude decrease was 14.99 dB for group A, 16.11 dB for group B, 28.82 dB for group C, and 29.91 dB for the control group. Moderate and high doses of ascorbic acid significantly reduced the transient threshold shift in the rats.

Conclusion: The results of present study support the concept of cochlea protection by antioxidant agents. This dose-dependent protective effect was shown through the use of ascorbic acid treatment prior to noise exposure.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4710878PMC
July 2015

Anthropometric hand dimensions in a population of Iranian male workers in 2012.

Int J Occup Saf Ergon 2016 ;22(1):125-30

a Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences , Iran.

Background: The mismatch between the hand size of workers and the size of industrial instruments is a growing concern; it can lead to various musculoskeletal complications. Currently, there are few reliable studies available to address this concern in Iran. This study was conducted to measure 30 upper-extremity parameters in a group of Iranian industrial workers.

Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study on 529 workers. The study population was randomly selected from male Iranian industrial workers who were referred to the Yazd hospital occupational medicine clinic for surveillance evaluations.

Results: The M (SD) age of the participants was 30.13 (8.29) years. Statistical analysis was performed using the mean, standard deviation and 5th, 50th and 90th percentiles for each measured hand dimension. A considerable number of dimensions were significantly different between the measurements of right and left hands in each examinee. The results showed significant differences between Iranian hand size and that of other populations.

Conclusion: This study provided a valuable databank of hand dimensions in a population of Iranian male workers. These data can be used by manufacturers in designing high-quality hand-tools and industrial gloves, taking into consideration Iranian worker characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10803548.2015.1112108DOI Listing
May 2016

Anthropometry of Iranian Guidance School Students with Different Ethnicities: A Comparative Study.

Scientifica (Cairo) 2015 8;2015:893489. Epub 2015 Oct 8.

Occupational Medicine Department, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd 8175665563, Iran.

Objective. We measured some anthropometric dimensions of Iranian guidance school students selected from different ethnicities. Background. Anthropometric dimensions are used for design of equipment, furniture, and clothing. Furniture with inappropriate design not fulfilling the users' anthropometric dimensions may have a negative effect on health. Method. A total of 7400 Iranian guidance school students aged 12-14 years entered the study and their static anthropometric dimensions were measured. Descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, and key percentiles were calculated. All dimensions were compared among different ethnicities and different genders. Results. This study showed significant differences in a set of 22 anthropometric dimensions regarding gender, age, and ethnicity. Conclusion. According to the results of this study, difference between genders and among different ethnicities should be taken into account by designers and manufacturers of guidance school furniture. Application. This study has prepared a data bank of anthropometric dimensions of 12-14-year-old students which can be used as basic information to find appropriate dimensions of school furniture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/893489DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4618330PMC
December 2015

Psychosocial Predictors for Cancer Prevention Behaviors in Workplace Using Protection Motivation Theory.

Adv Prev Med 2015 12;2015:467498. Epub 2015 Oct 12.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Backgrounds. The aim of this study was to describe the preventive behaviors of industrial workers and factors influencing occupational cancer prevention behaviors using protection motivation theory. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 161 petrochemical workers in Iran in 2014 which consisted of three sections: background information, protection motivation theory measures, and occupational cancers preventive behaviors. Results. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between PM and self-efficacy, response efficacy, and the cancer preventive behaviors. Meanwhile, statistically significant negative correlations were found between PM, cost, and reward. Conclusions. Among available PMT constructs, only self-efficacy and cost were significant predictors of preventive behaviors. Protection motivation model based health promotion interventions with focus on self-efficacy and cost would be desirable in the case of occupational cancers prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/467498DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4620287PMC
November 2015

Simultaneous effects of noise exposure and smoking on OAEs.

Noise Health 2015 Jul-Aug;17(77):233-6

Department of Occupational Medicine, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Noise is one of the most pervasive hazardous factors in the workplace. Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is the most common disorder related to noise exposure. Smoking is probably associated with hearing loss. The simultaneous effect of noise and smoking on hearing is a recent concern. In this study, we assessed the simultaneous effect of noise and smoking on standard pure tone audiometry (PTA) and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DP-OAEs). This was an historical cohort study on 224 workers exposed to noise who were divided into two groups: Smokers and nonsmokers. DP-OAE response amplitudes were assessed. Data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 19) using Student's t-test and Mann-Whitney U test. One hundred and five subjects were smokers (case group) and 119 individuals were nonsmokers (control group). All the subjects were exposed to 91.08 + 2.29 dBA [time-weighted average (TWA) for an 8 h work shift]. Mean DP-OAE response amplitude at frequencies higher than 1,000 Hz was significantly higher in the smokers than the nonsmokers. This study showed that smoking can aggravate the effect of noise on hearing in DP-OAEs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1463-1741.160716DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4900486PMC
September 2015

Static anthropometric dimensions in a population of Iranian high school students: considering ethnic differences.

Hum Factors 2015 May 5;57(3):447-60. Epub 2014 Sep 5.

Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Background: Anthropometric dimensions of the end users should be measured in order to create a basis for manufacturing of different products. This study was designed to measure some static anthropometric dimensions in Iranian high school students, considering ethnic differences.

Method: Nineteen static anthropometric dimensions of high school students were measured and compared among different Iranian ethnicities (Fars, Turk, Kurd, Lor, Baluch, and Arab) and different genders.

Results: In this study, 9,476 subjects (4,703 boys and 4,773 girls) ages 15 to 18 years in six ethnicities were assessed. The difference among ethnicities was statistically significant for all dimensions (p values < .001 for each dimension).

Conclusion: This study showed statistically significant differences in 19 static anthropometric dimensions among high school students regarding gender, age, and ethnicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0018720814549579DOI Listing
May 2015

Evaluation of respiratory system in textile-dyeing workers.

Med J Islam Repub Iran 2014 31;28:88. Epub 2014 Aug 31.

6. PhD student of Occupational Hygiene, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Despite the presence of many textile and dyeing plants in Iran, we couldn't find similar studies in this country. Forthermore, considering progress in the dyeing process and engineering controls, assessment of respiratory system is important for these workers. The present study was performed to evaluate the respiratory system in dyeing workers.

Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 101 dyeing workers (all dyeing workers in yazd) and 90 workers without respiratory exposures (control group), were evaluated. A questionnaire was filled for each participant included Venables questionnaire and some other questions about age, work experience, personal or familial history of asthma or atopy, acute and chronic respiratory symptoms; Then spirometry was performed before and after the shift work Results: The frequency of acute and chronic respiratory symptoms was significantly higher among dyeing workers than controls. According to the Venables questionnaire, 11.9% of the dyeing workers suffered from asthma. Means of FVC and FEV1 of pre-shift spirometry were lower than control (p< 0.001). Across-shift spirometry showed significant reduction of FVC (p< 0.001), FEV1 (p< 0.001), FEF25-75% (p= 0.05) and FEF25% (p= 0.007) in dyeing workers compared to the control group.

Conclusion: Evaluation of dyeing workers' respiratory system in this study showed that despite development in dyeing processes and engineering controls, workers in this job show more prevalent acute and chronic symptoms, and across-shift changes in spirometric parameters were significantly higher in this work group than the control group. Therefore it is necessary to pay attention to the control of respiratory exposures in this job.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4301238PMC
February 2015

Spirometry values for detecting a restrictive pattern in occupational health settings.

Tanaffos 2014 ;13(2):27-34

Occupational Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences.

Background: Pulmonary function tests are valuable measures for diagnosis and management of respiratory diseases. In the field of occupational medicine, spirometry is commonly performed, and in a considerable number of spirometries during occupational health evaluations, restrictive pattern is observed without any respiratory symptoms and may necessitate referral of the subject for body plethysmography, which is an expensive test. In this study, we evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of spirometry for detection of restrictive lung pattern in an occupational setting.

Materials And Methods: In a cross-sectional study from 2008 to 2012, 1224 subjects were selected and entered in the study out of 1,486 individuals referred for annual spirometry. Selected subjects underwent spirometry and body plethysmography. Subjects were divided into two groups of restrictive and non-restrictive patterns and then sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of spirometry for detection of restrictive lung pattern were calculated using total lung capacity measured by plethysmography as the gold standard. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used as well.

Results: Spirometry showed sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of 97.75%, 73.04%, 73.72% and 97.67% for FVC< lower limit of normal (LLN) and 98.68%, 78.00%, 77.31% and 98.83% for FVC< LLN along with FEV1/FVC≥ LLN, respectively. According to the ROC curve, the best cut-off point for FVC for detection of restrictive lung pattern was 70%.

Conclusion: This study showed that spirometry is a useful method in occupational health evaluations to rule out restrictive lung patterns with acceptable accuracy; however, it is not an accurate tool for detection of restrictive lung pattern in an occupational setting. Simultaneous use of FVC and FEV1/FVC for detection of restriction increases the predictive value of spirometry.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4260070PMC
December 2014

Concurrent effect of noise exposure and smoking on extended high-frequency pure-tone thresholds.

Int J Audiol 2015 May 3;54(5):301-7. Epub 2014 Dec 3.

* Occupational Medicine Department and Industrial Diseases Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences , Yazd , Iran.

Objective: Concurrent effect of noise and smoking on hearing loss is a recent concern. In this study, the concurrent effect of noise and smoking on hearing loss in conventional frequencies and frequencies higher than 8 kHz was assessed.

Design: This was a cross-sectional study on workers exposed to noise who were divided into two groups: smokers and non-smokers. Hearing thresholds were assessed by conventional audiometry, and HFA. Data were analysed using non-parametric tests and Student's t-test.

Study Sample: There were 212 workers.

Results: Ninety-seven subjects were smokers and 115 individuals were non-smokers. All subjects were exposed to 92.1 ± 2.4 dBA (Leq8h). The highest threshold in conventional and high-frequency audiometry was observed at 6 kHz and 16 kHz, respectively. Hearing threshold at frequencies above 1 kHz was significantly higher in the smokers than non-smokers. There was no correlation between hearing thresholds and pack-years of smoking.

Conclusions: Concurrent exposure to noise and smoking may be associated with more hearing loss than exposure to noise alone in the conventional and high frequencies. However, other differences between smokers and non-smokers may explain these differences as well.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/14992027.2014.978906DOI Listing
May 2015

Ergonomic intervention, workplace exercises and musculoskeletal complaints: a comparative study.

Med J Islam Repub Iran 2014 16;28:69. Epub 2014 Jul 16.

6. Occupational Medicine Specialist, Department of Occupational Medicine, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Background: Musculoskeletal disorders are among the most prevalent occupational disorders in different jobs such as office work. Some interventions such as ergonomic modifications and workplace exercises are introduced as the methods for alleviating these disorders. In this study we compared the effect of ergonomic modifications and workplace exercises on musculoskeletal pain and discomfort in a group of office workers.

Methods: In an interventional study on office workers, the effect of two interventions was compared. Ergonomic modification consisted of correcting the arrangement of workstation and changing some equipment; workplace exercises included stretching exercises focusing on neck, shoulders, low back, and hand and wrist. Musculoskeletal complaints were assessed and compared before and after 1 month interventions.

Results: The frequency of musculoskeletal complaints was high before the study. Both interventions significantly reduced complaints in a similar manner except for low back pain which was reduced in exercise group more than the other group.

Conclusion: In this study we found a beneficial short-term effect for both ergonomic modifications and stretching work-place exercises on reducing musculoskeletal pain in office workers.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4219902PMC
November 2014

Occupational stress and cardiovascular risk factors in high-ranking government officials and office workers.

Iran Red Crescent Med J 2014 Aug 1;16(8):e11747. Epub 2014 Aug 1.

Department of Occupational Medicine, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, IR Iran.

Background: Cardiovascular diseases are among the most important sources of mortality and morbidity, and have a high disease burden. There are some major well-known risk factors, which contribute to the development of these diseases. Occupational stress is caused due to imbalance between job demands and individual's ability, and it has been implicated as an etiology for cardiovascular diseases.

Objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate the cardiovascular risk factors and different dimensions of occupational stress in high-ranking government officials, comparing an age and sex-matched group of office workers with them.

Patients And Methods: We invited 90 high-ranking officials who managed the main governmental offices in a city, and 90 age and sex-matched office workers. The subjects were required to fill the occupational role questionnaire (Osipow) which evaluated their personal and medical history as well as occupational stress. Then, we performed physical examination and laboratory tests to check for cardiovascular risk factors. Finally, the frequency of cardiovascular risk factors and occupational stress of two groups were compared.

Results: High-ranking officials in our study had less work experience in their current jobs and smoked fewer pack-years of cigarette, but they had higher waist and hip circumference, higher triglyceride level, more stress from role overload and responsibility, and higher total stress score. Our group of office workers had more occupational stress because of role ambiguity and insufficiency, but their overall job stress was less than officials.

Conclusions: The officials have higher scores in some dimensions of occupational stress and higher overall stress score. Some cardiovascular risk factors were also more frequent in managers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/ircmj.11747DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4221995PMC
August 2014

Effect of exposure to a mixture of organic solvents on hearing thresholds in petrochemical industry workers.

Iran J Otorhinolaryngol 2014 Oct;26(77):235-43

Industrial Diseases Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Introduction: Hearing loss is one of the most common occupational diseases. In most workplaces, workers are exposed to noise and solvents simultaneously, so the potential risk of hearing loss due to solvents may be attributed to noise. In this study we aimed to assess the effect of exposure to mixed aromatic solvents on hearing in the absence of exposure to hazardous noise.

Materials And Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 99 workers from the petrochemical industry with exposure to a mixture of organic solvents whose noise exposure was lower than 85 dBA were compared with 100 un-exposed controls. After measuring sound pressure level and mean concentration of each solvent in the workplace, pure-tone-audiometry was performed and the two groups were compared in terms of high-frequency and low-frequency hearing loss. T-tests and Chi-square tests were used to compare the two groups.

Results: The mean hearing threshold at all frequencies among petrochemical workers was normal (below 25 dB). We did not observe any significant association between solvent exposure and high-frequency or low-frequency hearing loss.

Conclusion: This study showed that temporary exposure (less than 4 years) to a mixture of organic solvents, without exposure to noise, does not affect workers' hearing threshold in audiometry tests.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4196447PMC
October 2014