Publications by authors named "Amir H Pakpour"

204 Publications

Comparing Fear of COVID-19 and Preventive COVID-19 Infection Behaviors Between Iranian and Taiwanese Older People: Early Reaction May Be a Key.

Front Public Health 2021 23;9:740333. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Psychology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

This study assessed fear of the novel coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19), preventive COVID-19 infection behaviors, and the association between fear of COVID-19 and preventive COVID-19 infection behaviors among older people in Iran and Taiwan. Older people aged over 60 years ( = 144 for Iranians and 139 for Taiwanese) completed the Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) and two items on preventive COVID-19 infection behaviors (i.e., hand washing and mouth covering when sneezing). Iranian older people had a significantly higher level of fear of COVID-19 than did Taiwanese older people. Moreover, Iranian older people had significantly lower frequencies of preventive COVID-19 infection behaviors than did Taiwanese older people. Different timings in implementing COVID-19 infection control policies in Iran and Taiwan may explain why Iranian older people had greater fear of COVID-19 and lower preventive COVID-19 infection behaviors than did Taiwanese older people.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.740333DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8495067PMC
October 2021

Expanding Protection Motivation Theory to Explain Willingness of COVID-19 Vaccination Uptake among Taiwanese University Students.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Sep 19;9(9). Epub 2021 Sep 19.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin 34197-59811, Iran.

Vaccination appears to be one of the effective strategies to control the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the challenge of vaccine hesitancy may lower the uptake rate and affect overall vaccine efficacy. Being a low-risk group in terms of serious consequences of infection, university students may possess low motivation to get vaccinated. Therefore, an expanded Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) incorporating perceived knowledge, adaptive response, and maladaptive response was proposed to investigate the COVID-19 vaccination intention among Taiwanese university students. University students ( = 924; 575 males; mean age = 25.29 years) completed an online survey during January to February 2021. The proposed expanded PMT model was examined using structural equation modeling (SEM). The results showed that perceived knowledge was significantly associated with coping appraisal (standardized coefficient (β) = 0.820; < 0.001), and coping appraisal was significantly associated with adaptive response (β = 0.852; < 0.001), maladaptive response (β = 0.300; < 0.001) and intention (β = 0.533; = 0.009). Moreover, maladaptive response (β = -0.173; = 0.001) but not adaptive response (β = 0.148; = 0.482) was significantly and negatively associated with intention. The present study's results demonstrated a positive path between perceived knowledge, coping appraisal, and intention among university students. Therefore, improving knowledge among this population may increase the intention to uptake the vaccine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9091046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8473221PMC
September 2021

Longitudinal Relationships between Nomophobia, Addictive Use of Social Media, and Insomnia in Adolescents.

Healthcare (Basel) 2021 Sep 11;9(9). Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Linköping University Hospital, 58183 Linköping, Sweden.

(1) Background: Temporal relationships between nomophobia (anxiety related to 'no mobile phone phobia'), addictive use of social media, and insomnia are understudied. The present study aimed to use a longitudinal design to investigate temporal relationships between nomophobia, addictive use of social media, and insomnia among Iranian adolescents; (2) Methods: A total of 1098 adolescents (600 males; 54.6%; age range = 13 to 19) were recruited from 40 randomly selected classes in Qazvin, Iran. They completed baseline assessments. The same cohort was invited to complete three follow-up assessments one month apart. Among the 1098 adolescents, 812 (400 males; 49.3%; age range = 13 to 18) completed the baseline and three follow-up assessments. In each assessment, the participants completed three questionnaires, including the Nomophobia Questionnaire (NMP-Q), Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS), and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI); (3) Results: Multilevel linear mixed-effects regression analyses showed that participants demonstrated increased insomnia longitudinally over 3 months (B = 0.12 and 0.19; = 0.003 and <0.001). Insomnia was associated with nomophobia (B = 0.20; < 0.001) and addictive use of social media (B = 0.49; < 0.001). Nomophobia and addictive use of social media interacted with time in associations with insomnia as demonstrated by significant interaction terms (B = 0.05; < 0.001 for nomophobia; B = 0.13; < 0.001 for addictive use of social media); (4) Conclusions: Both nomophobia and addictive use of social media are potential risk factors for adolescent insomnia. The temporal relationship between the three factors suggests that parents, policymakers, and healthcare providers may target reducing nomophobia and addictive use of social media to improve adolescents' sleep.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9091201DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8471181PMC
September 2021

Psychometric Properties of the Lasher and Faulkender Anxiety about Aging Scale (AAS) among Iranian Older Adults.

Eur J Investig Health Psychol Educ 2021 Jul 28;11(3):829-837. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Health Education & Promotion, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 14711, Iran.

(1) Background: The older adult population of society is exposed to multiple stressors daily, such as the loss of loved ones, dysfunctional mobility, financial dependence, and suffering from numerous chronic illnesses. The present study aimed to assess the psychometric properties of the Anxiety about Aging Scale among older adults in Iran. (2) Methods: A sample of 703 community-dwelling older adults was recruited and screened using a standardized tool. The mean age of participants was 69.4 ± 8.1 years. The majority of participants were male (59.2%), married (66.6%), and illiterate (79.7%). A 'forward-backward' translation method was used in developing the Iranian version of the AAS for assessing the psychometric properties among older adults. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and the Rasch model were used for construct validity. (3) Results: Applying CFA indicated that the model's four original factors are the best solution, representing 55% of the total variance. The result of the CFA showed that this four-factor model had a good fit for the data. The findings were also confirmed by Rasch analysis. (4) Conclusions: The Persian version of the AAS is valid and reliable for measuring aging anxiety among Iranian older adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe11030060DOI Listing
July 2021

Factors affecting Pakistani young adults' intentions to uptake COVID-19 vaccination: An extension of the theory of planned behavior.

Brain Behav 2021 Sep 20:e2370. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Nursing, School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.

Introduction: Aside from personal beliefs, young adults' intention to uptake the COVID-19 vaccine can be influenced by their fear of COVID-19 and perceived infectability of COVID-19. The present study incorporated fear of COVID-19 and perceived infectability with the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to form an expanded TPB to analyze factors affecting Pakistani young adults' intentions to uptake the COVID-vaccine in Pakistan.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted and recruited participants from Pakistani social media users. The proposed extended TPB model was examined by using structural equation modeling.

Results: A total of 1034 individuals replied to the survey. The three factors of the original theory of planned behavior and the fear of COVID-19 were positively related to their intention to uptake COVID-19 vaccination (r = 0.25-0.66). Moreover, the perceived infectability positively influenced the three theories of planned behavioral factors and the fear of COVID-19 (r = 0.27-0.60), also affecting the participants' intentions to uptake COVID-19 vaccination.

Conclusions: Perceived infectability was positively related to the participants' intentions to uptake COVID-19 vaccination, and perceived behavioral control was the strongest mediator. More evidence-based information concerning treatments and COVID-19 vaccination are needed to encourage individuals to uptake the vaccine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/brb3.2370DOI Listing
September 2021

Psychometric Properties of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale: a Response to Mercado-Lara et al. "Validity and Reliability of the Spanish Version of Fear of COVID-19 Scale in Colombian Physicians".

Int J Ment Health Addict 2021 Sep 13:1-3. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Shahid Bahounar BLV, 3419759811 Qazvin, Iran.

A paper reporting the psychometric properties of the Spanish Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) among Colombian physicians was recently published in the . Although we welcome the translation and validation of our seven-item scale, this commentary outlines some major concerns we have with the study especially the removal of two items in developing a five-item FCV-19S. Based on these concerns, we strongly recommend that healthcare providers and researchers should use the five-item FCV-19S with caution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11469-021-00635-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8436576PMC
September 2021

Internet addiction and psychological distress among Chinese schoolchildren before and during the COVID-19 outbreak: A latent class analysis.

J Behav Addict 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

4 Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong.

Background And Aims: The present longitudinal study examined the changes in problematic internet use (problematic smartphone use, problematic social media use, and problematic gaming) and changes in COVID-19-related psychological distress (fear of COVID-19 and worry concerning COVID-19) across three time-points (before the COVID-19 outbreak, during the initial stages of the COVID-19 outbreak, and during the COVID-19 outbreak recovery period).

Methods: A total of 504 Chinese schoolchildren completed measures concerning problematic internet use and psychological distress across three time-points. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to classify participants into three groups of problematic internet use comprising Group 1 (lowest level), Group 2 (moderate level), and Group 3 (highest level).

Results: Statistical analyses showed that as problematic use of internet-related activities declined among Group 3 participants across the three time points, participants in Group 1 and Group 2 had increased problematic use of internet-related activities. Although there was no between-group difference in relation to worrying concerning COVID-19 infection, Groups 2 and 3 had significantly higher levels of fear of COVID-19 than Group 1 during the COVID-19 recovery period. Regression analysis showed that change in problematic internet use predicted fear of COVID-19 during the recovery period.

Conclusion: The varied levels of problematic internet use among schoolchildren reflect different changing trends of additive behaviors during COVID-19 outbreak and recovery periods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/2006.2021.00052DOI Listing
September 2021

The mediating role of perceived social support in the relationship between perceived stigma and depression among individuals diagnosed with substance use disorders.

J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs 2021 Aug 28. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Department of Nursing, School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.

WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Individuals diagnosed with substance use disorders may perceive stigma and suffer from mental health problems. Perceived stigma is related to poor mental health among individuals diagnosed with substance use disorders. The social support deterioration deterrence model proposes that stressors (e.g. perceived stigma) negatively affect mental health via reduced perceived social support. To the best of the present authors' knowledge, the model has never been tested in the context of perceived stigma among individuals diagnosed with substance use disorders. WHAT THE PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: The paper used structural equation modelling to show that the social support deterioration deterrence model could explain the relationship between perceived stigma and depression among individuals diagnosed with substance use disorders. Perceived support from family and perceived support from friends are mediators in the association between perceived stigma and depression among individuals diagnosed with substance use disorders. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Psychosocial interventions to increase perceived support from family and friends would be helpful in addressing perceived stigma effects on mental health. ABSTRACT: Introduction Although the relationship between perceived stigma and mental health outcomes is documented in the existing literature, very few studies have investigated the mechanism linking perceived stigma and mental health outcomes among individuals diagnosed with substance use disorders. To the best of the present authors' knowledge, the social support deterioration deterrence model has never been tested in the context of perceived stigma among individuals diagnosed with substance use disorders. Aim/Question Guided by the social support deterioration deterrence model, the present study investigated the mediating role of perceived support from three types of social network members (i.e. significant others, family members, and friends) in the association between perceived stigma and depression in individuals diagnosed with substance use disorders. Method The study employed a cross-sectional survey design comprising 300 participants diagnosed with substance use disorders in Taiwan. Results Results of a structural equation modelling analysis indicated that perceived stigma was significantly associated with depression. The relationship between perceived stigma and depression was partially mediated by perceived family support and perceived friend support. Discussion Consistent with the prediction of the social support deterioration deterrence model, the negative effect of perceived stigma on depression for individuals diagnosed with substance use disorders is through the mediating effect of social support. Implications for practices Based on the present study's results, psychosocial interventions to increase perceived support from family and friends would be helpful in addressing negative effects of perceived stigma on mental health among individuals diagnosed with substance use disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpm.12794DOI Listing
August 2021

Using Mindful Attention Awareness Scale on male prisoners: Confirmatory factor analysis and Rasch models.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(7):e0254333. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.

Aim: This study tested the construct validity (i.e., factor structure) of the Persian Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) on a sample of male prisoners.

Methods: All the participants (mean±SD age = 39.44±7.94 years) completed three scales-the Persian MAAS, the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Rasch analysis with differential item functioning (DIF) were applied to examine the construct validity of the MAAS. Specifically, the DIF was tested across different insomnia status (using ISI with a cutoff of 15), psychiatric well-being status (using GHQ-12 with a cutoff of 12), and age (using mean age of 39.44 as the cutoff).

Results: The CFA results showed a single factor solution for the Persian MAAS. The Rasch results showed all MAAS items fit in the construct (infit mean square [MnSq] = 0.72 to 1.41; outfit MnSq = 0.74 to 1.39) without displaying DIF items (DIF contrast = -0.34 to 0.31 for insomnia condition; -0.22 to 0.25 for psychiatric well-being; -0.26 to 0.29 for age).

Conclusions: The Persian version of the MAAS is, therefore, a valid instrument to measure mindfulness among Iranian male prisoners.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0254333PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8277060PMC
July 2021

Gender-specific estimates of sleep problems during the COVID-19 pandemic: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Sleep Res 2021 Jul 9:e13432. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.

The outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) changed lifestyles worldwide and subsequently induced individuals' sleep problems. Sleep problems have been demonstrated by scattered evidence among the current literature on COVID-19; however, little is known regarding the synthesised prevalence of sleep problems (i.e. insomnia symptoms and poor sleep quality) for males and females separately. The present systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to answer the important question regarding prevalence of sleep problems during the COVID-19 outbreak period between genders. Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guideline and Newcastle-Ottawa Scale checklist, relevant studies with satisfactory methodological quality searched for in five academic databases (Scopus, PubMed Central, ProQuest, Web of Science , and EMBASE) were included and analysed. The protocol of the project was registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO; identification code CRD42020181644). A total of 54 papers (N = 67,722) in the female subgroup and 45 papers (N = 45,718) in the male subgroup were pooled in the meta-analysis. The corrected pooled estimated prevalence of sleep problems was 24% (95% confidence interval [CI] 19%-29%) for female participants and 27% (95% CI 24%-30%) for male participants. Although in both gender subgroups, patients with COVID-19, health professionals and general population showed the highest prevalence of sleep problems, it did not reach statistical significance. Based on multivariable meta-regression, both gender groups had higher prevalence of sleep problems during the lockdown period. Therefore, healthcare providers should pay attention to the sleep problems and take appropriate preventive action.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jsr.13432DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8420603PMC
July 2021

Adapting the Motors of Influenza Vaccination Acceptance Scale into the Motors of COVID-19 Vaccination Acceptance Scale: Psychometric evaluation among mainland Chinese university students.

Vaccine 2021 07 22;39(32):4510-4515. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Nursing, School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.

Background: COVID-19 continues to ravage the world with economies and life significantly and negatively affected. Fortunately, there has been significant progress in the production of vaccines to stem the infection. However, with controversies and myths surrounding vaccinations, it is timely to examine individuals' willingness to vaccinate. The present study adapted the Motors of Influenza Vaccination Acceptance Scale (MoVac-Flu Scale) into the Motors of COVID-19 Vaccination Acceptance Scale (MoVac-COVID19S) for validation and assessed the acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination utilizing the cognitive model of empowerment (CME).

Methods: A total of 3145 university students (mean age = 20.80 years; SD = 2.09) were recruited for the present study between January 5 and 16, 2021. Two MoVac-COVID19S scales (9-item and 12-item) were adapted from the MoVac-Flu Scale, an instrument developed using CME. Psychometric tests were conducted to ascertain reliability and validity properties.

Results: The findings indicated that the MoVac-COVID19S had high internal consistency in both the 9-item version (ω = 0.921) and 12-item version (ω = 0.898). The factor structure of the MoVac-COVID19S (9-item and 12-item versions) corresponded well with CME theory. All the fit indices were satisfactory (comparative fit index = 0.984, Tucker-Lewis index = 0.971, root mean square error of approximation = 0.088, standardized root mean square residual = 0.058) but the 9-item MoVac-COVID had better fit indices than the 12-item MoVac-COVID due to the negative wording effects existing in the 12-item MoVac-COVID19S. The scale had satisfactory known-group validity in both 9-item and 12-item versions.

Conclusions: The MoVac-COVID19S has promising psychometric properties based on internal consistency, factor structure, and known-group validity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.06.044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8216877PMC
July 2021

Fear of COVID-19 and Perceived COVID-19 Infectability Supplement Theory of Planned Behavior to Explain Iranians' Intention to Get COVID-19 Vaccinated.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Jun 22;9(7). Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin 3419759811, Iran.

One of the most efficient methods to control the high infection rate of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is to have a high coverage of COVID-19 vaccination worldwide. Therefore, it is important to understand individuals' intention to get COVID-19 vaccinated. The present study applied the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to explain the intention to get COVID-19 vaccinated among a representative sample in Qazvin, Iran. The TPB uses psychological constructs of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control to explain an individual's intention to perform a behavior. Fear and perceived infectability were additionally incorporated into the TPB to explain the intention to get COVID-19 vaccinated. Utilizing multistage stratified cluster sampling, 10,843 participants (4092 males; 37.7%) with a mean age of 35.54 years (SD = 12.00) completed a survey. The survey assessed TPB constructs (including attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and intention related to COVID-19 vaccination) together with fear of COVID-19 and perceived COVID-19 infectability. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was performed to examine whether fear of COVID-19, perceived infectability, and the TPB constructs explained individuals' intention to get COVID-19 vaccinated. The SEM demonstrated satisfactory fit (comparative fit index = 0.970; Tucker-Lewis index = 0.962; root mean square error of approximation = 0.040; standardized root mean square residual = 0.050). Moreover, perceived behavioral control, subjective norm, attitude, and perceived COVID-19 infectability significantly explained individuals' intention to get COVID-19 vaccinated. Perceived COVID-19 infectability and TPB constructs were all significant mediators in the relationship between fear of COVID-19 and intention to get COVID-19 vaccinated. Incorporating fear of COVID-19 and perceived COVID-19 infectability effectively into the TPB explained Iranians' intention to get COVID-19 vaccinated. Therefore, Iranians who have a strong belief in Muslim religion may improve their intention to get COVID-19 vaccinated via these constructs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9070684DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8310138PMC
June 2021

Extended theory of planned behavior in explaining the intention to COVID-19 vaccination uptake among mainland Chinese university students: an online survey study.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 Oct 25;17(10):3413-3420. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Nursing, School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.

: The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) is one of the most robust models in explaining health-related behavior. In this study, we tested the extended TPB to predict university students' intentions to uptake COVID-19 vaccination.: An online cross-sectional survey was developed to investigate students' intention to uptake the COVID-19 vaccine based on the components of the TPB (i.e., attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control) and extended components (i.e., knowledge about COVID-19, risk perception of COVID-19, and past influenza vaccination behavior). Non-probability sampling was used to collect data from 3145 students from 43 universities in mainland China in January 2021. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to examine the proposed model. Enrolled students were relatively young (mean age = 20.80 years; SD = 2.09), half of them are female (50.2%), and most of them were studying in undergraduate programs (n = 3026; 96.2%).: The results showed that students' knowledge of the COVID-19 vaccine and risk perception of COVID-19 positively influenced their attitude toward the uptake of a COVID-19 vaccine. Also, students' attitude toward COVID-19 vaccination uptake and their past influenza vaccination uptake behaviors were positively associated with the intention to uptake COVID-19 vaccination. Subjective norm and perceived behavioral control were not significant predictors for the intention to uptake COVID-19 vaccination (R = 0.49).: The present study demonstrated that the extended TPB appears to be an efficient model with the focus on attitude, knowledge, risk perception, and past influenza vaccination uptake behaviors in explaining students' intention for COVID-19 vaccination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2021.1933687DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8437493PMC
October 2021

Sleep problems during COVID-19 pandemic and its' association to psychological distress: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

EClinicalMedicine 2021 Jun 10;36:100916. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.

Background: The emerging novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become one of the leading cause of deaths worldwide in 2020. The present systematic review and meta-analysis estimated the magnitude of sleep problems during the COVID-19 pandemic and its relationship with psychological distress.

Methods: Five academic databases ( and ) were searched. Observational studies including case-control studies and cross-sectional studies were included if relevant data relationships were reported (i.e., sleep assessed utilizing the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index or Insomnia Severity Index). All the studies were English, peer-reviewed papers published between December 2019 and February 2021. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42020181644.

Findings: 168 cross-sectional, four case-control, and five longitudinal design papers comprising 345,270 participants from 39 countries were identified. The corrected pooled estimated prevalence of sleep problems were 31% among healthcare professionals, 18% among the general population, and 57% among COVID-19 patients (all -values < 0.05). Sleep problems were associated with depression among healthcare professionals, the general population, and COVID-19 patients, with Fisher's Z scores of -0.28, -0.30, and -0.36, respectively. Sleep problems were positively (and moderately) associated with anxiety among healthcare professionals, the general population, and COVID-19 patients, with Fisher's z scores of 0.55, 0.48, and 0.49, respectively.

Interpretation: Sleep problems appear to have been common during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, sleep problems were found to be associated with higher levels of psychological distress. With the use of effective programs treating sleep problems, psychological distress may be reduced. Vice versa, the use of effective programs treating psychological distress, sleep problems may be reduced.

Funding: The present study received no funding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2021.100916DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8192091PMC
June 2021

Sleep Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Bangladesh: A Case-Control Study.

Nat Sci Sleep 2021 26;13:673-682. Epub 2021 May 26.

CHINTA Research Bangladesh (Centre for Health Innovation, Networking, Training, Action and Research - Bangladesh), Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Background: Sleep problems in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are highly prevalent, but little information is available on this issue in low- to middle-income countries (LMIC) such as Bangladesh. Therefore, the present study investigated the prevalence and socio-demographic determinants of ASD sleep disturbances in a comparison with typically developing children (TDC).

Methods: A cross-sectional interview study was carried out within a total of 446 Bangladeshi mothers, whose children's mean age was 8.1±2.9 years (151 ASD [8.5±2.7 years] and 295 TDC [7.9±2.9 years]); in addition to socio-demographics, the Child Sleep Habit Questionnaire (CSHQ) was used, and a cut-off score of 41 out of 93 points considered as reflecting sleep problems.

Results: About 89.7% of the children reported having problems in sleep, with ASD reporting higher frequency vs TDC (94.00% vs 87.50%; χ=4.678, =0.031). The overall mean CSHQ score was 48.7±7.6 in total sample, whereas ASD children reported higher scores compared to TDCs (50.9±8.1 vs 47.5±7.0, <0.001). Similarly, subscales of CSHQ such as sleep duration (4.23±1.56 vs 3.90±1.31, =0.017), sleep anxiety (7.23±2.05 vs 6.45±1.92, <0.001), night waking (3.82±1.07 vs 3.17±1.89, <0.001), parasomnias (8.86±2.06 vs 7.85±2.27, <0.001), and sleep disordered breathing (4.02±2.92 vs 3.43±2.07, =0.014) were more problematic among ASD compared to TDC. Lastly, 28.5% of ASD reported taking sleep-related medications vs 0.3% for TDC (n=1).

Conclusion: Bangladeshi ASD children are highly likely to manifest sleep disturbances, which warrant urgent implementation of parental educational and support programs to mitigate the impact of sleep problems in ASD families.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NSS.S309860DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8165216PMC
May 2021

Exploring individual factors influencing human reliability among control room operators: a qualitative study.

Int J Occup Saf Ergon 2021 Jun 24:1-12. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Qazvin Research Center for Social Determinants of Health, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

Identifying the individual factors is a major issue in determining the likelihood of human error and ultimately human reliability. In current human reliability assessment methods, this is determined based on a list of performance shaping factors and experts' judgment. This was a qualitative content analysis study, in which the participants were selected using purposive sampling from combined cycle power plant control rooms. Semi-structured interviews were performed and collected data were analyzed. A total of 32 operators (20 module controllers, eight head operators and four managers) were interviewed. Five categories were extracted, namely 'mental condition', 'consciousness at work', 'professional competence', 'communication skills' and 'quick reactions and decision-making capabilities'. Accordingly, it is suggested to taken into account such factors as professional competence and speed of reactions and to pay more attention to their important factors in the reliability of operators in combined cycle power plant control rooms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10803548.2021.1929698DOI Listing
June 2021

Weight Stigma Model on Quality of Life Among Children in Hong Kong: A Cross-Sectional Modeling Study.

Front Psychol 2021 22;12:629786. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.

We proposed a model to examine the relationship among different types of weight-related stigmas and their relationship to quality of life (QoL). We recruited 430 dyads of elementary school children [mean age = 10.07 years; n = 241 (56.0%); n = 138 (32.1%)] and their parents. Parents completed QoL instruments about their children assessing generic QoL and weight-related QoL. Children completed QoL instruments assessing generic QoL and weight-related QoL and stigma scales assessing experienced weight stigma, weight-related self-stigma, and perceived weight stigma. Experienced weight stigma was significantly associated with perceived weight stigma, and in turn, perceived weight stigma was significantly associated with weight-related self-stigma. However, experienced weight stigma was not directly associated with weight-related self-stigma. In addition, experienced stigma was negatively associated with both child-rated and parent-rated QoL. Perceived weight stigma was associated only with parent-rated weight-related QoL but not child-rated QoL. Self-stigma was associated with child-rated QoL but not parent-rated QoL. Moreover, perceived weight stigma and weight-related self-stigma were significant mediators in the association between body weight and children's QoL; experienced weight stigma was not a significant mediator. The study findings can be used to inform healthcare providers about the relationship among different types of stigmas and their influence on child-rated and parent-rated QoL and help them develop interventions to address the global trend of overweight/obesity in youth and pediatric populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.629786DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8100454PMC
April 2021

Knowledge and preventive behaviors regarding COVID-19 in Bangladesh: A nationwide distribution.

PLoS One 2021 3;16(5):e0251151. Epub 2021 May 3.

CHINTA Research Bangladesh (Centre for Health Innovation, Networking, Training, Action and Research-Bangladesh), Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Assessing individuals' knowledge and preventive behaviors towards the Coronavirus Disease of 2019 (COVID-19) is essential for the related public health surveillance strategies. Although some of the studies were conducted in Bangladesh, none of these studies considered the geographical distribution of knowledge and preventive behaviors towards COVID-19. Therefore, the present nationwide cross-sectional study with 10,067 samples for the first-time aims to assess the knowledge gap by presenting the geographical distribution of the COVID-19 knowledge and preventive behaviors across all administrative districts of Bangladesh. The measures included socio-demographics and questions about knowledge and preventive behaviors related to COVID-19. One-way ANOVA, independent t-test, and multiple linear regression were used to analyze the data. In addition, GIS-based mapping identified district-wise distribution of the outcomes. Results indicated that the overall mean score of knowledge related to COVID-19 was 14.363 ± 3.073, whereas 16.95 ± 2.89 was for preventive behaviors. Participants' being male, being divorced or widowed, consuming alcohol, smoking cigarettes, living in villages, and having no formal education reported lower performing preventive COVID-19 behaviors. Those participants with higher knowledge scores reported higher preventive COVID-19 behaviors (β = 0.053, p<0.001). However, the model predicted only 13.2% of the variation in preventive COVID-19 behaviors while the overall model being significant. The findings suggest that the Bangladeshi government should initiate appropriate far-reaching program of health education focusing on knowledge and preventive behaviors towards COVID-19 at a community level. After all, the strategies to combat COVID-19 will require individuals' involvement to control and prevent the disease outbreak, for which education is essential.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0251151PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8092662PMC
May 2021

Fear of COVID-19 and workplace phobia among Pakistani doctors: A survey study.

BMC Public Health 2021 04 30;21(1):833. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Avicenna Medical and Dental College, Lahore, Pakistan.

Background: The novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has seriously affected the lives of millions of people across the world. It has also heavily burdened healthcare professionals and the virus poses serious risks for their personal and professional lives. Therefore, the present study examined the associations between fear of COVID-19 and workplace phobia among doctors in Pakistan during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: An online survey was conducted among 421 doctors in Pakistan between April 10 and May 25, 2020. The Workplace Phobia Scale (WPS) and the Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) were the main psychometric instruments used in this study.

Results: There was a significant positive relationship between fear of COVID-19 and workplace panic anxiety and workplace avoidance behavior. Significantly higher fear of COVID-19 was found among (i) females compared to males, (ii) doctors with 5 years or less of work experience compared to those with more than 5 years, and (iii) postgraduate trainees compared with other ranks. Two groups (doctors who were above 30 years old and postgraduate trainees) were found to have higher levels of workplace phobia compared to their counterparts. Doctors with severe levels of fear of COVID-19 had significantly higher levels of workplace panic anxiety and workplace avoidance behavior.

Conclusions: Fear of COVID-19 was significantly associated with workplace phobia which may negatively affect doctors' performance. Therefore, important steps are needed to protect doctors' health by providing sufficient resources to allay their fears and anxieties which consequently help them in carrying out their frontline duties in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-10873-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8086971PMC
April 2021

Motivation to Have COVID-19 Vaccination Explained Using an Extended Protection Motivation Theory among University Students in China: The Role of Information Sources.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Apr 13;9(4). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Nursing, School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, 55318 Jönköping, Sweden.

Background: The aims of the present study were to examine the prediction of the threat and coping appraisal utilizing an extended protection motivation theory (PMT) for the motivation to have COVID-19 vaccination and the influence of various information sources on coping appraisal among university students in China.

Methods: The sample comprised 3145 students from 43 universities in China who completed an online survey including PMT constructs as well as constructs added to PMT. The PMT constructs comprised motivation to have COVID-19 vaccination, threat appraisal, and coping appraisal. The extended PMT constructs comprised knowledge about mechanisms and information sources of COVID-19 vaccination.

Results: Perceived severity of COVID-19 was positively associated with motivation to have COVID-19 vaccination. Receiving information concerning COVID-19 vaccination from medical personnel was associated with greater self-efficacy, response efficacy, and knowledge, whereas receiving information concerning COVID-19 vaccination from coworkers/colleagues was associated with less response efficacy and knowledge. Receiving online information concerning COVID-19 vaccination was associated with greater response cost of vaccination efficacy and less knowledge.

Conclusions: This study supported the prediction of perceived severity in the PMT for motivation to have COVID-19 vaccination among university students in China. Vaccination information sources have different effects on students' coping appraisal of COVID-19 vaccination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9040380DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8070343PMC
April 2021

Internet-Related Behaviors and Psychological Distress Among Schoolchildren During the COVID-19 School Hiatus.

Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw 2021 Oct 20;24(10):654-663. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

International Gaming Research Unit, Psychology Department, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, United Kingdom.

This study assessed the mediating roles of problematic gaming, problematic social media use, and problematic smartphone use in the associations between psychological distress and screen time use among primary school children during the school hiatus due to the outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Students ( = 2,026; mean [standard deviation] age = 10.71 years [1.07]; 1,011 [49.9 percent] girls) in Sichuan, China completed a cross-sectional online survey, and this study was approved by the ethics committee of the Hong Kong Polytechnic University (IRB ref: HSEARS20190718001). The Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short Form, Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale, and Smartphone Application-Based Addiction Scale were used to assess problematic gaming, social media use, and smartphone use. The Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale-21 was used to assess distress, and an item rated on a 0-10 scale was included to assess fear of being infected by COVID-19. Fear of being infected by COVID-19 was assessed because this could be a confounding variable in the association between psychological distress and screen time use. Increased time spent on gaming, social media, and smartphones was associated with greater problematic gaming, problematic social media use, problematic smartphone use, and psychological distress, but was not associated with fear of COVID-19 infection. Mediation analyses showed that problematic gaming, problematic social media use, and problematic smartphone use were significant mediators in the association between psychological distress and increased time spent on Internet-related activities during the COVID-19 outbreak period. Children who had psychological distress during COVID-19 outbreak might have spent longer time on Internet-related activities due to the school hiatus and problematic use of Internet-related activities. Parents/caregivers are recommended to monitor their children's use of Internet while encouraging children to engage in positive activities to ease the concern of negative psychological responses during the COVID-19 pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2020.0497DOI Listing
October 2021

A mediating role for mental health in associations between COVID-19-related self-stigma, PTSD, quality of life, and insomnia among patients recovered from COVID-19.

Brain Behav 2021 05 3;11(5):e02138. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.

Introduction: Patients with COVID-19 often suffer from psychological problems such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and self-stigmatization that may negatively impact their quality of life and sleep. This study examined mental health as a potential mediating factor linking self-stigmatization and PTSD to quality of life and sleep.

Methods: Using a cross-sectional design, 844 people who had recovered from COVID-19 were called and interviewed. Data were collected using structured scales. Structural equation modeling was applied to assess fitness of a mediation model including self-stigma and PTSD as independent factors and quality of life and insomnia as dependent variables.

Results: Mental health, COVID-19-related self-stigma, and mental quality of life were associated. Insomnia, PTSD, and COVID-19-related self-stigma displayed significant direct associations (r = .334 to 0.454; p < .01). A mediation model indicated satisfactory goodness of fit (CFI = 0.968, TLI = 0.950, SRMR = 0.071, RMSEA = 0.068). Mental health as a mediator had negative relationships with COVID-19-related self-stigma, PTSD, and insomnia and positive associations with quality of life.

Conclusion: Mental health may mediate effects of COVID-19-related self-stigma and PTSD on quality of life and insomnia. Designing programs to improve mental health among patients with COVID-19 may include efforts to reduce negative effects of PTSD and COVID-19-related self-stigma on quality of life and insomnia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/brb3.2138DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8119851PMC
May 2021

Measurement Invariance of the Drivers of COVID-19 Vaccination Acceptance Scale: Comparison between Taiwanese and Mainland Chinese-Speaking Populations.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Mar 22;9(3). Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Nursing, School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, 55318 Jönköping, Sweden.

The impacts of novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) on human life continue to be serious. To control the spread of COVID-19, the production of effective vaccines is likely to be one of the best solutions. However, vaccination hesitancy may decrease individuals' willingness to get vaccinated. The Drivers of COVID-19 Vaccination Acceptance Scale (DrVac-COVID19S) was recently developed to help healthcare professionals and researchers better understand vaccination acceptance. The present study examined whether DrVac-COVID19S is measurement invariant across different subgroups (Taiwanese vs. mainland Chinese university students; males vs. females; and health-related program majors vs. non-health-related program majors). Taiwanese ( = 761; mean age = 25.51 years; standard deviation (SD) = 6.42; 63.5% females) and mainland Chinese university students ( = 3145; mean age = 20.72 years; SD = 2.06; 50.2% females) were recruited using an online survey between 5 January and 21 February 2021. Factor structure and measurement invariance of the two DrVac-COVID19S scales (nine-item and 12-item) were tested using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The findings indicated that the DrVac-COVID19S had a four-factor structure and was measurement invariant across the subgroups. The DrVac-COVID19S's four-factor structure was supported by the CFA results is a practical and valid instrument to quickly capture university students' willingness to get COVID-19 vaccination. Moreover, the DrVac-COVID19S can be used to compare university students' underlying reasons to get COVID-19 vaccination among different subgroups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9030297DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8004810PMC
March 2021

Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) across countries: Measurement invariance issues.

Nurs Open 2021 07 21;8(4):1892-1908. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Department of Nursing, School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.

Aim: The threats of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have caused fears worldwide. The Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) was recently developed to assess the fear of COVID-19. Although many studies found that the FCV-19S is psychometrically sound, it is unclear whether the FCV-19S is invariant across countries. The present study aimed to examine the measurement invariance of the FCV-19S across eleven countries.

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Methods: Using data collected from prior research on Bangladesh (N = 8,550), United Kingdom (N = 344), Brazil (N = 1,843), Taiwan (N = 539), Italy (N = 249), New Zealand (N = 317), Iran (N = 717), Cuba (N = 772), Pakistan (N = 937), Japan (N = 1,079) and France (N = 316), comprising a total 15,663 participants, the present study used the multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Rasch differential item functioning (DIF) to examine the measurement invariance of the FCV-19S across country, gender and age (children aged below 18 years, young to middle-aged adults aged between 18 and 60 years, and older people aged above 60 years).

Results: The unidimensional structure of the FCV-19S was confirmed. Multigroup CFA showed that FCV-19S was partially invariant across country and fully invariant across gender and age. DIF findings were consistent with the findings from multigroup CFA. Many DIF items were displayed for country, few DIF items were displayed for age, and no DIF items were displayed for gender.

Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, the FCV-19S is a good psychometric instrument to assess fear of COVID-19 during the pandemic period. Moreover, the use of FCV-19S is supported in at least ten countries with satisfactory psychometric properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nop2.855DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8186712PMC
July 2021

The fear of the COVID-19 Scale: validation in the Portuguese general population.

Death Stud 2021 Feb 25:1-7. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Centro de Saúde de Belmonte, Belmonte, Portugal.

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is having a profound effect on mental health and it is therefore fundamental to evaluate individual psychological responses to COVID-19. The 7-item Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) assesses different aspects of the fear of coronavirus and has been applied worldwide. This study aimed to translate and validate the FCV-19S in the Portuguese population. The scale was administered to a convenience sample of 1203 Portuguese adults. Exploratory factor analysis was carried out on the initial model proposed by the authors of the FCV-19S. Further analysis revealed that the Portuguese version has good psychometric properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07481187.2021.1889722DOI Listing
February 2021

Psychometric properties of Postpartum Partner Support Scale-Persian version.

Nurs Open 2021 07 19;8(4):1688-1695. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.

Aim: The aim of the present study was to translate the Postpartum Partner Support Scale (PPSS) into Persian and evaluate its psychometric properties among postpartum women.

Design: A total of 248 women aged 18-39 years participated in this psychometric study. The PPSS was translated into Persian using a forward-backward method. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Rasch model analysis were used to assess the psychometric properties of the PPSS. In addition, the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) was completed simultaneously to assess the construct validity. Internal consistency of the questionnaire was assessed by calculating the Cronbach's alpha coefficient and corrected item-total correlation.

Results: The unidimensionality of the PPSS was supported in both CFA and Rasch analysis. The PPSS had a significant negative association with EPDS (r = -0.39 p < .001). The scale had excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.94) and the correlation between items and total score was satisfactory.

Conclusion: The Persian version of PPSS with 20 items is a valid and reliable scale to assess postpartum support.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nop2.806DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8186706PMC
July 2021

Problematic internet-related behaviors mediate the associations between levels of internet engagement and distress among schoolchildren during COVID-19 lockdown: A longitudinal structural equation modeling study.

J Behav Addict 2021 Feb 10;10(1):135-148. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

3Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong.

Background And Aims: Due to the rapid spread of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), policies based on the nature of "spatial distancing" have been implemented and have resulted in school suspensions and online learning among schoolchildren. In order to examine the impact of such policies on schoolchildren, the aims of the present study were to (i) assess changes in the level of engagement in three internet-related activities (smartphone use, social media use, and gaming) before and during the COVID-19 outbreak, including prolonged and problematic engagement in these activities; (ii) investigate the differences of psychological distress before and after COVID-19 outbreak; and (iii) to use structural equation modeling to investigate the mediating roles of problematic internet-related behaviors in the causal relationships of psychological distress and time spent on internet-related activities.

Methods: Self-report measures were used to assess internet-related activities and psychological distress. Time spent on internet-related activities, problematic use of internet-related activities, and psychological distress were collected from primary school students (N = 535; 265 boys; M age = 10.32 years [SD = 0.84]). The data were first collected before the COVID-19 outbreak (i.e., early November 2019) and then collected again during the school suspension due to COVID-19 outbreak (i.e., end of March 2020) for comparisons of changes.

Results: Schoolchildren spent significantly more time on the smartphone (increased 1.02 h daily; P < 0.001) and social media (increased 0.73 h daily; P < 0.001) but not gaming (increased 0.14 h daily; P = 0.07) during the school suspension compared to the baseline. Schoolchildren who increased by 15 or 30 min daily on internet-related activities showed an increased level of psychological distress. The association between problematic use of social media and psychological distress was stronger during the school suspension (β = 0.584) than at the baseline (β = 0.451; P < 0.001).

Conclusion: Increased problematic use of internet-related activities among schoolchildren was associated with greater psychological distress. Parents should therefore monitor internet-related activities and psychological distress of their children to support their mental health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/2006.2021.00006DOI Listing
February 2021

Internet gaming disorder, psychological distress, and insomnia in adolescent students and their siblings: An actor-partner interdependence model approach.

Addict Behav Rep 2021 Jun 29;13:100332. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.

Background: Associations between internet gaming disorder (IGD), psychological distress, and sleep have been reported. However, little is known whether such associations exist across siblings; that is, whether adolescents' IGD symptomatology may impact their siblings' psychological distress and sleep. This study aimed to examine whether siblings' IGD symptoms may relate to depressive, anxiety symptoms or sleep quality among each other.

Methods: Using a cross-sectional design with two-stage cluster sampling, 320 dyads of adolescent students and their siblings participated in the study. Each dyad completed the Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short Form (IGDS-SF9), the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21), and the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI). The actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) was applied to examine relationships between IGD, psychological well-being, and insomnia severity in the dyadic data.

Results: Actor effects of IGDS-SF9 scores on depression, anxiety, stress, and insomnia severity were significant in both adolescents (e.g., adolescents' IGDS-SF9 scores on their depression scores) and their siblings (e.g., IGDS-SF9 scores of adolescents' siblings' scores on their depression scores). Partner effects of IGDS-SF9 scores on depression, anxiety, stress, and insomnia severity were significant in both adolescents (e.g., adolescents' IGDS-SF9 scores on their siblings' depression scores) and their siblings (e.g., IGDS-SF9 scores of adolescents' siblings on adolescents' depression scores).

Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that adolescent students and their siblings had mutual impacts of IGD on psychological health and sleep. Thus, healthcare providers may consider involving siblings when they design programs reducing IGD-related problems or improving psychological health and sleep for adolescents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.abrep.2020.100332DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7786042PMC
June 2021

Prevalence of food addiction in children and adolescents: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Obes Rev 2021 06 6;22(6):e13183. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.

Food addiction (FA) has been as a construct that is associated with childhood obesity. However, relatively little is known regarding the prevalence of FA among children and adolescents. An instrument designed to assess FA among youth, the Yale Food Addiction Scale for Children and Adolescents (YFAS-C), has been developed and used to estimate FA prevalence among pediatric populations. The present systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to synthesize the results of FA prevalence among youth. Using keywords related to FA and children to search PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science, we identified and analyzed 22 cross-sectional studies. No longitudinal studies were identified in the search. Meta-analysis with Freeman-Tukey Double Arcsine transformation was conducted to estimate FA prevalence. Meta-regression was applied to understand whether weight status (i.e., data from community samples vs. overweight/obese samples) is associated with FA. Eligible studies (N = 22) were analyzed using 6,996 participants. The estimated FA prevalence was 15% (95% CI 11-19%) for all samples, 12% (95% CI 8-17%) for community samples, and 19% (95% CI 14-26%) for overweight/obese samples. Meta-regression indicated that weight status was associated with FA severity (p = 0.002) and marginally with FA prevalence (p = 0.056). Healthcare providers should consider and address the high FA prevalence among pediatric population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.13183DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8244111PMC
June 2021
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