Publications by authors named "Amir Abdoli"

61 Publications

Parasites in surgically removed appendices as a neglected public health concern: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Pathog Glob Health 2021 Nov 27:1-15. Epub 2021 Nov 27.

Medical Microbiology Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.

The role of various parasitic infections in the occurrence of appendicitis is illustrated through cases recorded all over the world. The purpose of the current study was to estimate the global prevalence of parasite infestation (other than ) in appendectomy specimens.In the setting of the PRISMA guidelines, multiple databases (Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, and Google Scholar) were explored in articles published until 28 September 2020. Totally, 62 studies (106 datasets) with 77, 619 participants were included in the analysis.The pooled prevalence of parasites in appendectomy samples was as follows; 0.012% (95% CI; 0.004-0.025) for , 0.004% (95% CI; 0.001-0.009) for , 0.025% (95% CI; 0.007-0.052) for , 0.002% (95% CI; 0.001-0.005) for spp., 0.061% (95% CI; 0.020-0.122) for and 0.034% (95% CI; 0.018-0.056) for .Our results demonstrated that the risk of appendicitis may increase in the presence of helminth and protozoan infections. As such, the most cases of parasites in appendectomy specimens were reported in developing countries. Regular screening plans for diagnosis, treatment and prevention are needed for prevention of parasitic infection as well as parasitic associated appendicitis, especially in endemic regions of the world.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20477724.2021.2008701DOI Listing
November 2021

Environmental Surface Contamination with SARS-CoV-2: Toilets as the Most Contaminated Surfaces in COVID-19 Referral Hospital.

Hosp Top 2021 Aug 27:1-8. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran.

Introduction: The possibility of surface transmission in hospitals with high density of COVID- 19 patients is unneglectable. The aim of this study is to determine the extent of surface contamination in coronavirus central hospital of Ilam province in western Iran.

Materials And Methods: In this experimental study, 205 samples were taken from environmental surfaces in hospital. SARS-CoV-2 RNA detected by Real-time RT-PCR.

Results: 121 out of 205 (50.02%) samples were positive. The most contaminated objects were toilet sites (5/5,100% ICU; 5/5, 100% isolation wards).

Conclusion: High surface contamination with SARS-CoV-2 proposes the surface as a potential route of transmission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00185868.2021.1969870DOI Listing
August 2021

COVID-19-associated opportunistic infections: a snapshot on the current reports.

Clin Exp Med 2021 Aug 23. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran.

Treatment of the novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains a complicated challenge, especially among patients with severe disease. In recent studies, immunosuppressive therapy has shown promising results for control of the cytokine storm syndrome (CSS) in severe cases of COVID-19. However, it is well documented that immunosuppressive agents (e.g., corticosteroids and cytokine blockers) increase the risk of opportunistic infections. On the other hand, several opportunistic infections were reported in COVID-19 patients, including Aspergillus spp., Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans, Pneumocystis jiroveci (carinii), mucormycosis, Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Herpes simplex virus (HSV), Strongyloides stercoralis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Toxoplasma gondii. This review is a snapshot about the main opportunistic infections that reported among COVID-19 patients. As such, we summarized information about the main immunosuppressive agents that were used in recent clinical trials for COVID-19 patients and the risk of opportunistic infections following these treatments. We also discussed about the main challenges regarding diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19-associated opportunistic infections (CAOIs).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10238-021-00751-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8381864PMC
August 2021

Insights into the biochemical features and immunogenic epitopes of common bradyzoite markers of the ubiquitous Toxoplasma gondii.

Infect Genet Evol 2021 11 11;95:105037. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Zoonoses Research Center, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, Iran; Department of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, Iran.

The widespread distribution of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection and its harsh outcomes in pregnant women and immunocompromised patients lead researchers towards vaccination strategies. The present in silico investigation was done to reveal biophysical properties and immunogenic epitopes of six bradyzoite markers for rational vaccine design in future. For this purpose, different web servers were used to predict antigenicity, allergenicity, solubility, physicochemical properties, post-translational modification sites (PTMs), the presence of signal peptide and transmembrane domains. Moreover, the secondary and tertiary structures of the proteins were revealed followed by refinement and validation. Finally, NetCTL server was used to predict cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes, with subsequent immunogenicity analysis. Also, IEDB server was utilized to predict helper T-lymphocyte (HTL) epitopes, followed by IFN-γ and IL-4 induction, antigenicity and population coverage analysis. As well, several linear antigenic B-cell epitopes were found, with good water solubility and without allergenicity. Totally, these proteins showed appropriate antigenicity, abundant PTMs as well as many CTL, HTL and B-cell epitopes, which could be directed for future vaccination studies in the context of multi-epitope vaccine design.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2021.105037DOI Listing
November 2021

in Slaughtered Sheep in High- and Low-Humidity Regions in the South of Iran: Molecular Prevalence and Genotype Identification.

Vet Med Int 2021 5;2021:5576771. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Zoonoses Research Center, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, Iran.

is one of the most common meat-born zoonoses that infect all warm-blooded animals and humans. Sheep () is one of the main reservoirs of worldwide, and the infections induce various sequels, such as abortion and stillbirth. The present study aimed to identify the effects of humidity on the prevalence of in sheep in high- and low-humidity regions. Heart samples from 200 slaughtered sheep (140 samples from a high-humidity region and 60 samples from a low-humidity region) were collected from Hormozgan Province (south of Iran). The samples were tested by nested PCR targeting the RE gene. Genotyping was performed by the PCR-RFLP method using the SAG3 and GRA6 genes. Some isolates were sequenced and recorded in the GenBank. DNA was detected in 10.71 percent of the samples from the highly humid region, whereas no positive samples were detected in the low-humidity region. Genotyping revealed that all isolates belonged to the type III genotype. Our study indicated that humidity is an important factor for the prevalence of in sheep. Additionally, our study also showed the dominance of type III strain of in sheep in the south of Iran.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5576771DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8277495PMC
July 2021

A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis on the Global Molecular Epidemiology of Microsporidia Infection Among Rodents: A Serious Threat to Public Health.

Acta Parasitol 2021 Jun 27. Epub 2021 Jun 27.

Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Microsporidiosis as a zoonotic disease has caused serious health problems in high-risk groups, including immunosuppressed individuals. Among the potential animal reservoirs of microsporidia, rodents play a key role due to close-contact with humans and their dispersion in different environments. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the global status and genetic diversity of microsporidia infection in different rodents.

Methods: The standard protocol of preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched from 1 January 2000 to 15 April 2021. All peer-reviewed original research articles describing the molecular prevalence of microsporidia infection in rodents were included. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. The point estimates and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using a random-effects model. The variance between studies (heterogeneity) were quantified by I index.

Results: Of 1695 retrieved studies, 22 articles (including 34 datasets) were included for final meta-analysis. The pooled global molecular prevalence (95% CI) of microsporidia infection in rodents was 14.2% (95% CI 10.9-18.3%). The highest prevalence of microsporidia was found in Apodemus spp. 27.3% (95% CI 15-44.5%). Enterocytozoon bieneusi was the most common pathogen (26/34; 76.47% studies) according to PCR-based methods, and the genotype D as the highest reported genotype (15 studies).

Conclusions: The findings of the study showed a relatively high prevalence of microsporidia infection in rodents as a potential animal reservoir for infecting human. Given the relatively high incidence of microsporidiosis, designing strategies for control, and prevention of microsporidia infection in rodents should be recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11686-021-00447-8DOI Listing
June 2021

Global prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis among female sex workers: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Parasitol Res 2021 Jul 25;120(7):2311-2322. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Medical Microbiology Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.

Trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted infection (STI), caused by the protozoan parasite, Trichomonas vaginalis. Female sex workers are intensely affected by the infection, since they have frequent direct physical contact. The current systematic review and meta-analysis represents the global prevalence of T. vaginalis in female sex workers. Five databases (Science Direct, Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar) were explored for literatures that published from July 1985 to June 2020. Totally, 85 studies (54,515 participants) from 46 countries met the inclusion criteria. The global pooled prevalence of T. vaginalis was 16% (95% CI 13-19%). The estimated pooled prevalence based on methods including wet mount, culture, and molecular techniques was 15% (95% CI 12-19%), 16% (95% CI 10-24%), and 22% (95% CI 13-32%), respectively. Moreover, the infection was most prevalent at the mean age of 30-36 (20%, 95% CI 11-30%). Regarding the World Health Organization (WHO) regions, the highest pooled prevalence was estimated to be in the African region (23%, 95% CI 7-46%). In addition, we indicated that countries with low-income level have the highest pooled prevalence (23%, 95% CI 14-34%). Our results revealed that the worldwide prevalence of T. vaginalis was significant in female sex workers. Therefore, considering a precise strategy such as a health education program with regard to safe intercourse is needed to increase knowledge and prevent T. vaginalis infection in sex workers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-021-07216-6DOI Listing
July 2021

Current Global Status and the Epidemiology of Entamoeba gingivalis in Humans: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Acta Parasitol 2021 Dec 28;66(4):1102-1113. Epub 2021 May 28.

Metabolic Diseases Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.

Purpose: Entamoeba gingivalis (E. gingivalis) is one of the members of the wide range of oral resident pathogens in humans, particularly found in dental plaques, surfaces of gingiva or teeth, interdental spaces and carious lesions. The purpose of the current review and meta-analysis was to determine the global prevalence of E. gingivalis infection and its association with oral diseases based on published literatures.

Materials And Methods: Multiple English databases (PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, Web of Science and Google Scholar) were explored for papers published until August 2020. A total of 52 studies (including 7596 participants) met the inclusion criteria.

Results: The overall prevalence of E. gingivalis was estimated to be 37% (95% CI 29-46%). With regard to different countries, the highest and lowest pooled prevalence of E. gingivalis infection were related to Jordan with 87% (95% CI 81-92%) and Portugal with 3% (95% CI 0-10%), respectively. Based on WHO regions, the highest prevalence was related to the region of the Americas with 56% (95% CI 31-79%). The infection was most prevalent in 46-55 mean age groups [61% (95% CI 21-94%)]. Among different diagnostic methods, the highest rate of the pooled prevalence was related to the molecular [53% (95% CI 24-81%)] and the direct methods [36% (95% CI 25-47%)], respectively. Our analyses revealed that E. gingivalis infection was associated with 4.34-fold increased risk of oral diseases (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: Our findings revealed a high prevalence rate of the infection among periodontal disease patients with 37% (95% CI 20-57%). To conclude, it must be considered that E. gingivalis can be a risk factor associated with oral diseases and a wide range of research is needed to specify its role in the pathogenesis of these disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11686-021-00423-2DOI Listing
December 2021

Keys to Unlock the Enigma of Ocular Toxocariasis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2021 Apr 28:1-12. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Metabolic Diseases Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences,Qazvin, Iran.

: Ocular toxocariasis (OT) is a zoonotic infection caused by larval stages of and . The current review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the global prevalence of OT.: Five English (PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, Web of Science, and Google Scholar) databases were explored and 101 articles met the inclusion criteria.: The pooled prevalence (95% confidence interval) of OT was higher in immunological studies (9%. 6-12%) than in studies that applied ophthalmic examination (1%. 1-2%). The lower middle-income level countries had the highest prevalence (6%. 2-12%) as well as the African region (10%. 7-13%). The highest infection rate (4%. 2-7%) was detected in the 1-25 mean age group.: Regular anthelminthic treatment of cats and dogs, and removal of animal feces from public places must be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09273948.2021.1875007DOI Listing
April 2021

A dietary pattern rich in fruits and dairy products is inversely associated to gestational diabetes: a case-control study in Iran.

BMC Endocr Disord 2021 Mar 4;21(1):41. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Advanced Medical Sciences and Technologies, School of Medicine, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, Iran.

Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) causes many problems for mother and her neonate. A healthy diet plays an important role in preventing GDM. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between major dietary patterns and the GDM.

Methods: 386 healthy and 306 GDM pregnant women (total 693) completed this case-control study. Basic information and anthropometric indices were recorded, and a food frequency questionnaire was completed. For extracting major dietary patterns, the principal component analysis was performed. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine whether specific dietary patterns are associated to the GDM.

Results: Four dietary patterns were identified: "fruits and dairy products", "red meat and plant-based foods", "snacks and high-fat foods" and "carbohydrate-rich foods". Among these major extracted dietary patterns, "fruits and dairy products" showed an inverse association to the GDM (odds ratio adjusted for confounders: 0.50, confidence interval: 0.284-0.882, p-trend = 0.019, for highest vs. lowest quartile).

Conclusions: It seems using a healthy dietary pattern such as "fruits and dairy products" may decrease GDM risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12902-021-00707-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7934474PMC
March 2021

The Neglected Role of Trichomonas tenax in Oral Diseases: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Acta Parasitol 2021 Sep 17;66(3):715-732. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Metabolic Diseases Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.

Purpose: Trichomonas tenax (T. tenax) is a commensal flagellated protozoan found in periodontal microenvironment of the oral cavity, with a possible role in periodontal diseases. The purpose of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the worldwide prevalence of T. tenax infection and to show the neglected association of this parasitic infection with oral diseases.

Methods: To find literatures published until August 2020, five English databases (PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, Web of Science and Google Scholar) were explored. Finally, 65 papers were qualified to be included in the current study.

Results: Our results revealed a global pooled prevalence of 17% (95% CI 14-22%) for T. tenax infection. The highest prevalence was estimated at 56% (42-69%) in Chile, while the lowest prevalence was related to Kenya with 3% (1-6%). The age-based analysis found that the infection was most common in 46-55 mean age group with 15% (0-100%). The overall prevalence regarding culture method, molecular method and direct method was 21% (12-32%), 19% (8-35%) and 17% (12-23%), respectively. Moreover, the subgroup analysis showed the pooled prevalence in patient with candidiasis [22% (3-52%)], gingivitis [21% (9-36%)] and periodontitis [27% (10-48%)].

Conclusion: Our study specified a connection between T. tenax protozoa and periodontitis disease. However, more epidemiological studies as well as clinical trials are needed to precisely identify this relation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11686-021-00340-4DOI Listing
September 2021

Leishmaniasis and Trace Element Alterations: a Systematic Review.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2021 Oct 6;199(10):3918-3938. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Medical Parasitology, School of Medicine, Dezful University of Medical Sciences, Dezful, Iran.

Leishmaniasis is a worldwide prevalent parasitic infection caused by different species of the genus Leishmania. Clinically, the disease divided into three main forms, including visceral leishmaniasis (VL), cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL). There is no vaccine for human leishmaniasis and their treatment is challenging. Trace elements (TEs) alteration, including the selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), ron (Fe), and magnesium (Mg) have been detected in patients with CL and VL as well as canine leishmaniasis. Because TEs play a pivotal role in the immune system, and host immune responses have crucial roles in defense against leishmaniasis, this systematic review aimed to summarize data regarding TEs alteration in human and animal leishmaniasis as well as the role of these elements as an adjuvant for treatment of leishmaniasis. In a setting of systematic review, we found 29 eligible articles (any date until October 1, 2020) regarding TEs in human CL (N = 12), human VL (N = 4), canine leishmaniasis (N = 3), and treatment of leishmaniasis based on TEs (N = 11), which one study examined the TEs level both in CL and VL patients. Our analysis demonstrated a significantly decreased level of Fe, Zn, and Se among human CL and canine leishmaniasis, and Zn and Fe in patients with VL. In contrast, an increased level of Cu in CL patients and Cu and Mg in VL patients and canine leishmaniasis was observed. Treatment of CL based zinc supplementation revealed enhancement of wound healing and diminished scar formation in human and experimentally infected animals. The results of this systematic review indicate that the TEs have important roles in leishmaniasis, which could be assessed as a prognosis factor in this disease. It is suggested that TEs could be prescribed as an adjuvant for the treatment of CL and VL patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-020-02505-0DOI Listing
October 2021

Infections, inflammation, and risk of neuropsychiatric disorders: the neglected role of "co-infection".

Heliyon 2020 Dec 8;6(12):e05645. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Neuropsychiatric disorders (NPDs) have multiple etiological factors, mainly genetic background, environmental conditions and immunological factors. The host immune responses play a pivotal role in various physiological and pathophysiological process. In NPDs, inflammatory immune responses have shown to be involved in diseases severity and treatment outcome. Inflammatory cytokines and chemokines are involved in various neurobiological pathways, such as GABAergic signaling and neurotransmitter synthesis. Infectious agents are among the major amplifier of inflammatory reactions, hence, have an indirect role in the pathogenesis of NPDs. As such, some infections directly affect the central nervous system (CNS) and alter the genes that involved in neurobiological pathways and NPDs. Interestingly, the most of infectious agents that involved in NPDs (e.g., , cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus) is latent (asymptomatic) and co-or-multiple infection of them are common. Nonetheless, the role of co-or-multiple infection in the pathogenesis of NPDs has not deeply investigated. Evidences indicate that co-or-multiple infection synergically augment the level of inflammatory reactions and have more severe outcomes than single infection. Hence, it is plausible that co-or-multiple infections can increase the risk and/or pathogenesis of NPDs. Further understanding about the role of co-or-multiple infections can offer new insights about the etiology, treatment and prevention of NPDs. Likewise, therapy based on anti-infective and anti-inflammatory agents could be a promising therapeutic option as an adjuvant for treatment of NPDs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e05645DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7725732PMC
December 2020

Iran, sanctions, and the COVID-19 crisis.

Authors:
Amir Abdoli

J Med Econ 2020 Dec 16;23(12):1461-1465. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Zoonoses Research Center, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, Iran.

With an over 80 million population, Iran is the second-largest country in the Middle East. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread over all 31 provinces of Iran, leading to the most cases and death among the Eastern Mediterranean countries. At the same time, Iran is under the United States political and economic sanctions that compromised Iran's health system. Although medicines and basic medical equipment exempted from the economic sanctions, direct and indirect effects of sanctions have restricted Iran's banking system, and consequently has led to a wide range of limitation on trade, manufacturing sector, insurance and ventures. All these circumstances have meant that Iran is restricted to provide the essential basic medical equipment for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of the COVID-19. Although sanctions are not the sole reason for this high rate of mortality and morbidity in a short time period, the chronic and long-term effects of sanctions may be more tangible than their acute impact. In conclusion, providing health services is one of the major problems of Iran's health system during this pandemic that potentially influence on morbidity and mortality of the COVID-19. Iran needs to be free from sanctions for battling against this crisis.Key messagesIran is one of the countries that significantly impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic.Iran is under political and economic sanctions that consequently influence on their health system during the COVID-19 crisis.The chronic and long-term effects of sanctions may be more tangible than their acute impact.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13696998.2020.1856855DOI Listing
December 2020

Toxoplasma oocysts in the soil of public places worldwide: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2021 05;115(5):471-481

Innovative Medical Research Center, Department of Medical Parasitology, School of Medicine, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran.

Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic and cosmopolitan infection. Although a few studies have evaluated the prevalence of Toxoplasma oocysts in the soil of public places, the present study was conducted to provide insights into environmental contamination levels and its potential transmission to humans on a global scale. A systematic search was conducted using bibliographic databases through 30 August 2020. A random effects model was utilized to estimate pooled prevalence with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Subgroup analysis and meta-regressions were also performed on the geographical and environmental parameters. Finally, 22 articles, wherein 15 420 soil samples were examined, met the systematic review and meta-analysis requirements. The mean pooled prevalence of Toxoplasma oocysts was estimated at 16% (95% CI 10 to 26) in public places. The estimated prevalences in Europe, South America, Asia and North America were 23% (95% CI 4 to 65), 22% (95% CI 18 to 26), 15% (95% CI 0.06 to 33) and 8% (95% CI 0.00 to 97), respectively. An increasing trend was observed in the prevalence of Toxoplasma oocysts with increasing latitude (41-56°), decreasing longitude (0-40°) and increasing relative humidity (≥76%). Loop-mediated isothermal amplification and polymerase chain reaction methods revealed the highest and lowest prevalence rates, respectively, in the detection of Toxoplasma oocysts. Awareness of the health authorities and people about Toxoplasma prevalence in the soil of public places and its risk factors is of great importance to developing effective strategies to prevent infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/trstmh/traa133DOI Listing
May 2021

The COVID-19 stress may influence on the sex ratio at birth.

Authors:
Amir Abdoli

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2020 Nov 12:1-6. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, Iran.

The ratio of boys to girls (sex ratio) at birth (SRB) is about 1.01-1.05 in most populations and is influenced by various factors, such as maternal stress, maternal inflammation, and endocrine disruption. Male fetus is biologically weaker and more vulnerable to prenatal events than female fetuses. Hence, premature death (and consequently decline the SRB) is higher in boys than girls. The recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been known to have a variety of stressful and psychological impacts. This stress may consequently enhance maternal inflammation, pregnancy complication, and fetal loss. Also, male fetuses have more adverse outcomes than female fetuses among asymptomatic pregnant women with SARS-Cov-2 infection. Inasmuch as the male fetus are more vulnerable to prenatal events and premature death, it is proposed that the SRB can decline in pregnant women following the COVID-19 stress. However, future studies are needed to define the impact of the COVID-19 on SRB rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2020.1846181DOI Listing
November 2020

Helminths and COVID-19 Co-Infections: A Neglected Critical Challenge.

Authors:
Amir Abdoli

ACS Pharmacol Transl Sci 2020 Oct 30;3(5):1039-1041. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Department of Parasitology and Mycology and Zoonoses Research Center, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, Iran.

Helminth infections are among the most common infectious diseases in underdeveloped countries. Helminths suppress the host immune responses and consequently mitigate vaccine efficacy and increase severity of other infectious diseases. Helminth co-infections might suppress the efficient immune response against SARS-CoV-2 at the early stage of the infection and may increase morbidity and mortality of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsptsci.0c00141DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7552170PMC
October 2020

Global prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and associated risk factors in pregnant women: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2021 05;115(5):457-470

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-111, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) during pregnancy, if left untreated, can cause adverse effects for the mothers, foetuses and newborns. However, limited information is available about the global status of IPIs in pregnant women. Here we undertook a meta-analysis to estimate the global prevalence of IPIs and associated risk factors in pregnant women.

Methods: We searched the PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases for relevant studies that were published between 1 January 1987 and 30 December 2019. A random effects meta-analysis model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

Results: A total of 114 studies comprising 98 342 pregnant women across 35 countries were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. Among IPIs identified from pregnant women, three helminth infections (hookworm 19% [95% CI 15 to 23], Ascaris lumbricoides 17% [95% CI 13 to 21] and Trichuris trichiura 11% [95% CI 7 to 16]) and three protozoan infections (Blastocystis sp. 21% [95% CI 4 to 46], Entamoeba histolytica/dispar 9% [95% CI 3 to 19] and Giardia sp. 8% [95% CI 4 to 13]) were identified as the most prevalent intestinal parasites. Moreover, we found that there was a significant association between IPIs with increased risk of anaemia in pregnant women (OR 2.65 [95% CI 2.08 to 3.37]). The prevalence of IPIs was slightly higher in geophagic pregnant women compared with controls, but this was not significant (OR 1.22 [95% CI 0.87 to 1.71]). According to species, the pooled OR of A. lumbricoides infection had a significantly higher risk in geophagic pregnant women compared with controls (OR 2.66 [95% CI 1.37 to 5.16]). There was a positive relationship between the high prevalence of IPIs in pregnant women living in rural areas compared with urban residents (OR 3.36 [95% CI 1.57 to 7.19]).

Conclusions: The current review revealed a relatively high prevalence of IPIs in pregnant women, especially in some low- and middle-income countries. These results suggest a need for improved prevention and control efforts to reduce the health risks to pregnant women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/trstmh/traa101DOI Listing
May 2021

SARS-CoV-2 infection in an advanced rheumatoid arthritis patient.

APMIS 2020 Dec 7;128(12):654-656. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Zoonoses Research Center and Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apm.13080DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7537220PMC
December 2020

Gossip, Rumors, and the COVID-19 Crisis.

Authors:
Amir Abdoli

Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2020 08 27;14(4):e29-e30. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Zoonoses Research Center and Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/dmp.2020.272DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7443554PMC
August 2020

The COVID-19 pandemic, psychological stress during pregnancy, and risk of neurodevelopmental disorders in offspring: a neglected consequence.

J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol 2020 09 8;41(3):247-248. Epub 2020 May 8.

Research Center for Noncommunicable Diseases, School of Medicine, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0167482X.2020.1761321DOI Listing
September 2020

Global injury morbidity and mortality from 1990 to 2017: results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017.

Inj Prev 2020 10 24;26(Supp 1):i96-i114. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Faculty of Health Sciences - Health Management and Policy, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon.

Background: Past research in population health trends has shown that injuries form a substantial burden of population health loss. Regular updates to injury burden assessments are critical. We report Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 Study estimates on morbidity and mortality for all injuries.

Methods: We reviewed results for injuries from the GBD 2017 study. GBD 2017 measured injury-specific mortality and years of life lost (YLLs) using the Cause of Death Ensemble model. To measure non-fatal injuries, GBD 2017 modelled injury-specific incidence and converted this to prevalence and years lived with disability (YLDs). YLLs and YLDs were summed to calculate disability-adjusted life years (DALYs).

Findings: In 1990, there were 4 260 493 (4 085 700 to 4 396 138) injury deaths, which increased to 4 484 722 (4 332 010 to 4 585 554) deaths in 2017, while age-standardised mortality decreased from 1079 (1073 to 1086) to 738 (730 to 745) per 100 000. In 1990, there were 354 064 302 (95% uncertainty interval: 338 174 876 to 371 610 802) new cases of injury globally, which increased to 520 710 288 (493 430 247 to 547 988 635) new cases in 2017. During this time, age-standardised incidence decreased non-significantly from 6824 (6534 to 7147) to 6763 (6412 to 7118) per 100 000. Between 1990 and 2017, age-standardised DALYs decreased from 4947 (4655 to 5233) per 100 000 to 3267 (3058 to 3505).

Interpretation: Injuries are an important cause of health loss globally, though mortality has declined between 1990 and 2017. Future research in injury burden should focus on prevention in high-burden populations, improving data collection and ensuring access to medical care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2019-043494DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7571366PMC
October 2020

The global prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in dogs: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Vet Parasitol 2020 May 2;281:109093. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

Cryptosporidiosis, caused by the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium spp., is an important zoonotic disease and is considered a global public health concern. Dogs are suggested as one of potential reservoirs for transmitting the Cryptosporidium infection to humans. However, there is a paucity of information about global patterns of occurrence of Cryptosporidium in dogs. A systematic review and meta-analysis were carried out to evaluate the global prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection among dogs. In this study, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases were systematically searched for relevant studies up until October 30, 2019. Finally, 127 articles (including 160 datasets) were eligible for inclusion in the systematic review and meta-analysis. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection was estimated at 8% (95 % CI: 5-11 %) using microscopic methods, 7% (95 % CI: 4-10%) using coprogantigenic methods and 6% (95 % CI: 4-9%) using molecular diagnostic methods. Molecular methods revealed that dogs were most frequently infected by C. canis (3.64 %) and C. parvum (1.28 %). The pooled prevalence different of subgroups (WHO regions, geographic and climate parameters, diagnostic methods, type of dog) were analyzed separately. The pooled odds ratio (OR) of Cryptosporidium was significantly higher than one for diarrhea status, with dogs suffering from diarrhea having a higher likelihood of Cryptosporidium infection, compared to dogs without diarrhea (OR; 3.61 95 % CI: 1.89-6.90%). The present study is the first systematic review and meta-analysis providing a comprehensive view of the global prevalence of Cryptosporidium in dogs and its related risk factors. Awareness of Cryptosporidium prevalence, risk factors, and disease complications for the health authorities, physicians, veterinarians and dog's owners is important for developing effective strategies to prevent infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2020.109093DOI Listing
May 2020

Helminth infections and immunosenescence: The friend of my enemy.

Exp Gerontol 2020 05 30;133:110852. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

Age-associated alterations of the immune system, which known as "immunosenescence", is characterized by a decline in innate and adaptive immunity, which leading to increased susceptibility to age-associated diseases, such as infectious diseases, rheumatic disease and malignancies. On the other hand, helminth infections are among the most prevalent infections in older individuals, especially in the nursing homes. Most of helminth infections have minor clinical symptoms and usually causing chronic infections without treatment. Nevertheless, chronic helminthiasis alters immune responses somewhat similar to the immunosenescence. Some similarities also exist between helminth infections and immunosenescence: 1) both of them led to declining the immune responses; 2) undernutrition is a consequence of immunosenescence and helminthiasis; 3) vaccine efficacy declines in aging and individuals with helminth infections; 4) increase incidence and prevalence of infectious diseases in the elder individuals and patients with helminth infections; and 5) both of them promote tumorigenesis. Hence, it is probable that helminth infections in the elderly population can intensify the immunosenescence outcomes due to the synergistic immunoregulatory effects of each of them. It would be suggested that, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of helminth infections should be more considered in older individuals. Also, it would be suggested that helminths or their antigens can be used for investigation of immunosenescence because both of them possess some similarities in immune alterations. Taken together, this review offers new insights into the immunology of aging and helminth infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2020.110852DOI Listing
May 2020

Blastocystis, urticaria, and skin disorders: review of the current evidences.

Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2020 Jun 24;39(6):1027-1042. Epub 2019 Dec 24.

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, Iran.

Blastocystis is one of the most common intestinal protozoan parasites worldwide, which is linked to cutaneous lesions and urticaria. In a setting of systematic review, the data on the association of Blastocystis infection with cutaneous lesions were searched in order to summarize the main clinical symptoms, diagnostic methods, treatment, and outcome of the patients. The search identified 28 eligible articles, including 12 cross-sectional studies and 16 case reports/case series (including 23 cases). A diverse spectrum of skin symptoms, mainly urticaria, rash, and itching, was reported from the studies. Of the 23 infected cases with the skin symptoms, gastrointestinal symptoms were reported from the 16 cases, whereas 7 cases with urticaria had asymptomatic infection. The most frequent subtypes were ST1, ST2, and ST3, respectively. Metronidazole, paromomycin, and tinidazole were the most prescribed drugs in patients with single Blastocystis infection. Notably, urticaria and other cutaneous symptoms of all treated patients were resolved after treatment. In conclusion, this study indicates that Blastocystis infection can be a neglected cause of urticaria and skin disorders. Since the treatment of Blastocystis infection is simple, screening and treatment of this infection should be considered in patients with urticaria and other skin disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10096-019-03793-8DOI Listing
June 2020

Mapping 123 million neonatal, infant and child deaths between 2000 and 2017.

Nature 2019 10 16;574(7778):353-358. Epub 2019 Oct 16.

School of Health Sciences, Madda Walabu University, Bale Goba, Ethiopia.

Since 2000, many countries have achieved considerable success in improving child survival, but localized progress remains unclear. To inform efforts towards United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 3.2-to end preventable child deaths by 2030-we need consistently estimated data at the subnational level regarding child mortality rates and trends. Here we quantified, for the period 2000-2017, the subnational variation in mortality rates and number of deaths of neonates, infants and children under 5 years of age within 99 low- and middle-income countries using a geostatistical survival model. We estimated that 32% of children under 5 in these countries lived in districts that had attained rates of 25 or fewer child deaths per 1,000 live births by 2017, and that 58% of child deaths between 2000 and 2017 in these countries could have been averted in the absence of geographical inequality. This study enables the identification of high-mortality clusters, patterns of progress and geographical inequalities to inform appropriate investments and implementations that will help to improve the health of all populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1545-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6800389PMC
October 2019

Global, Regional, and National Cancer Incidence, Mortality, Years of Life Lost, Years Lived With Disability, and Disability-Adjusted Life-Years for 29 Cancer Groups, 1990 to 2017: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study.

JAMA Oncol 2019 12;5(12):1749-1768

Department of Family and Community Medicine, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

Importance: Cancer and other noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are now widely recognized as a threat to global development. The latest United Nations high-level meeting on NCDs reaffirmed this observation and also highlighted the slow progress in meeting the 2011 Political Declaration on the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases and the third Sustainable Development Goal. Lack of situational analyses, priority setting, and budgeting have been identified as major obstacles in achieving these goals. All of these have in common that they require information on the local cancer epidemiology. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study is uniquely poised to provide these crucial data.

Objective: To describe cancer burden for 29 cancer groups in 195 countries from 1990 through 2017 to provide data needed for cancer control planning.

Evidence Review: We used the GBD study estimation methods to describe cancer incidence, mortality, years lived with disability, years of life lost, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs). Results are presented at the national level as well as by Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a composite indicator of income, educational attainment, and total fertility rate. We also analyzed the influence of the epidemiological vs the demographic transition on cancer incidence.

Findings: In 2017, there were 24.5 million incident cancer cases worldwide (16.8 million without nonmelanoma skin cancer [NMSC]) and 9.6 million cancer deaths. The majority of cancer DALYs came from years of life lost (97%), and only 3% came from years lived with disability. The odds of developing cancer were the lowest in the low SDI quintile (1 in 7) and the highest in the high SDI quintile (1 in 2) for both sexes. In 2017, the most common incident cancers in men were NMSC (4.3 million incident cases); tracheal, bronchus, and lung (TBL) cancer (1.5 million incident cases); and prostate cancer (1.3 million incident cases). The most common causes of cancer deaths and DALYs for men were TBL cancer (1.3 million deaths and 28.4 million DALYs), liver cancer (572 000 deaths and 15.2 million DALYs), and stomach cancer (542 000 deaths and 12.2 million DALYs). For women in 2017, the most common incident cancers were NMSC (3.3 million incident cases), breast cancer (1.9 million incident cases), and colorectal cancer (819 000 incident cases). The leading causes of cancer deaths and DALYs for women were breast cancer (601 000 deaths and 17.4 million DALYs), TBL cancer (596 000 deaths and 12.6 million DALYs), and colorectal cancer (414 000 deaths and 8.3 million DALYs).

Conclusions And Relevance: The national epidemiological profiles of cancer burden in the GBD study show large heterogeneities, which are a reflection of different exposures to risk factors, economic settings, lifestyles, and access to care and screening. The GBD study can be used by policy makers and other stakeholders to develop and improve national and local cancer control in order to achieve the global targets and improve equity in cancer care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2019.2996DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6777271PMC
December 2019

Parasitic encephalitis in immunocompetent individuals.

Authors:
Amir Abdoli

Lancet 2019 09;394(10202):914-915

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Research Center for Noncommunicable Diseases, and Zoonoses Research Center, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, Iran. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)31776-3DOI Listing
September 2019

Highlights of human ectopic fascioliasis: a systematic review.

Infect Dis (Lond) 2019 Nov - Dec;51(11-12):785-792. Epub 2019 Sep 11.

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences , Jahrom , Iran.

Fascioliasis is a tropical zoonotic disease caused by the parasite. The adult parasite usually resides in the liver and biliary ducts; however, several cases of ectopic fascioliasis (EF) have been reported. This study is a highlight on EF according to the confirmed case reports. In a setting of systematic review, we found 25 eligible articles containing 26 confirmed cases of EF (any date until 30 November 2018), including abdominal and intestinal EF in six cases, skin and subcutaneous tissues in five cases, eye in four cases, brain and pancreas in three cases, neck and lymph node in two cases, and lung, dorsal spine, and peritoneal cavity in one case, respectively. The result indicates that fascioliasis can have diverse ectopic forms and should be more attended in the endemic regions of fascioliasis in order to distinguish from other endemic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23744235.2019.1663362DOI Listing
April 2020

Potential application of helminth therapy for resolution of neuroinflammation in neuropsychiatric disorders.

Metab Brain Dis 2020 01 27;35(1):95-110. Epub 2019 Jul 27.

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

Neuropsychiatric disorders (NPDs) are among the major debilitating disorders worldwide with multiple etiological factors. However, in recent years, psychoneuroimmunology uncovered the role of inflammatory condition and autoimmune disorders in the etiopathogenesis of different NPDs. Hence, resolution of inflammation is a new therapeutic target of NPDs. On the other hand, Helminth infections are among the most prevalent infectious diseases in underdeveloped countries, which usually caused chronic infections with minor clinical symptoms. Remarkably, helminths are among the master regulator of inflammatory reactions and epidemiological studies have shown an inverse association between prevalence of autoimmune disorders with these infections. As such, changes of intestinal microbiota are known to be associated with inflammatory conditions in various NPDs. Conversely, helminth colonization alters the intestinal microbiota composition that leads to suppression of intestinal inflammation. In animal models and human studies, helminths or their antigens have shown to be protected against severe autoimmune and allergic disorders, decline the intensity of inflammatory reactions and improved clinical symptoms of the patients. Therefore, "helminthic therapy" have been used for modulation of immune disturbances in different autoimmunity illnesses, such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). Here, it is proposed that "helminthic therapy" is able to ameliorate neuroinflammation of NPDs through immunomodulation of inflammatory reactions and alteration of microbiota composition. This review discusses the potential application of "helminthic therapy" for resolution of neuroinflammation in NPDs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11011-019-00466-5DOI Listing
January 2020
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