Publications by authors named "Amir Abbas Farshid"

41 Publications

Comparison of the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of fruit, quercetin and vitamin E on monosodium glutamate-induced toxicity in rats.

Vet Res Forum 2020 15;11(2):127-134. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

L. has many biological effects such as antioxidant properties. In the present study, we compared the effects of the hydro-alcoholic extract of fruit, quercetin (Q), and vitamin E (Vit E) on monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced toxicity. The following groups were designed: Control groups (normal saline and/or corn oil); MSG group (4.00 g kg MSG); MSG + low dose extract group (4.00 g kg MSG with 100.00 mg kg extract); MSG + high dose extract (HDE) group (4.00 g kg MSG with 300.00 mg kg extract); MSG + Q group (4.00 g kg MSG with 10.00 mg kg Q); MSG + Vit E group (4.00 g kg MSG with 200.00 mg kg Vit E). All chemicals were orally administered for 14 consecutive days. Tissue specimens from the heart, kidney, and liver tissues and blood samples were collected for histopathological and biochemical evaluations. The results showed that the MSG-induced tissue edema, congestion, and inflammatory cell infiltration were resolved by HDE, Q, and Vit E treatments. These chemicals also restored tissue malondialdehyde level and superoxide dismutase activity. Besides, alterations induced by MSG in serum levels of aspartate transaminase, alanine aminotransferase, urea, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase-MB were also resolved. It is concluded that fruit extract, Q and Vit E can produce approximately similar protective effects on tissue function through oxidative stress alleviation and antioxidant mechanisms restoration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30466/vrf.2018.83041.2091DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7413008PMC
June 2020

Effects of rabbit pinna-derived blastema cells on tendon healing.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2020 Jan;23(1):13-19

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

Objectives: Tendon healing is substantially slow and often associated with suboptimal repair. Cell therapy is one of the promising methods to improve tendon repair. Blastema, a population of undifferentiated cells, represents characteristics of pluripotent mesenchymal stem cells and has the potentials to be used in regenerative medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of blastema allotransplantation in rabbit tendon healing.

Materials And Methods: In this study, one rabbit was used as a blastema donor, and twenty-four rabbits were divided into control and treatment groups. Blastema cells were obtained from ear pinna upon punch hole injury in the donor rabbit. Under general anesthesia, a complete transverse tenotomy was performed on the midsubstance of deep digital flexor tendon followed by suture-repair. In the treatment group, 1 × 10 blastema cells suspended in buffer saline were injected intratendinously at the repair site, while the control group received only the buffer saline. Cast coaptation was maintained for two weeks. Eight weeks after the operation, tendons were harvested, and histopathological, biomechanical, and biochemical assays were performed on samples.

Results: Mechanical testing showed a significant increase in ultimate load, energy absorption, stiffness, yield load, stress, and strain in blastema-treated tendons compared to controls. Also, higher hydroxyproline content and improved collagen alignment along with lower inflammatory cell infiltration and decreased angiogenesis were observed in blastema-treated tendons.

Conclusion: Increased levels of hydroxyproline and improved histopathological and biomechanical parameters in the treatment group suggest that blastema cells could be considered an adjunct to tendon repair in rabbits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22038/IJBMS.2019.29102.7045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7206831PMC
January 2020

Crocin exerts improving effects on indomethacin-induced small intestinal ulcer by antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic mechanisms.

Vet Res Forum 2019 15;10(4):277-284. Epub 2019 Dec 15.

Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

Crocin is a plant-derived carotenoid and bears potent antioxidant property. Ranitidine (a histamine H receptor blocker) is used for peptic ulcer treatment. The present study was planned to investigate the effects of crocin and ranitidine on indomethacin-induced ulcer in small intestine of rats. Animals were randomized into two major groups including indo-methacin (10.00 mg kg, ulcer group, 48 rats) and normal saline (1.00 mL kg, intact group, 48 rats) groups. Each of these two major groups was subdivided into eight subgroups for intra-peritoneal (IP) injections of normal saline, crocin (2.50, 10.00 and 40.00 mg kg), ranitidine (5.00 and 20.00 mg kg), crocin (2.50 and 10.00 mg kg) plus ranitidine (5.00 mg kg). Indomethacin induced intestinal ulcer was characterized by bleeding, inflammation, epithelial hyperplasia and crypt loss. This non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), indomethacin decreased goblet cell number and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and increased small intestine weight, organo-somatic index (OSI), malodealdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and caspase-3 contents of intestine. Crocin resolved all the above-mentioned parameter changes induced by indomethacin. These treatments produced no significant effects on the above-mentioned parameters of intact group. The results of the present study showed tissue protective and anti-ulcer effects of crocin on small intestine by antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic mechanisms. Ranitidine alone showed no effect; however, in combination with crocin it exerted recovery effects. It is recommended that crocin, be considered as a therapeutic agent for NSAIDs-induced intestinal damage management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30466/vrf.2018.93512.2256DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7065578PMC
December 2019

Surgical management of penile sarcoid in a stallion.

J Equine Sci 2019 18;30(4):99-104. Epub 2019 Dec 18.

Department of Surgery and Diagnostic Imaging, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia 5756151818, Iran.

This report describes surgical management and breeding implications of a case of penile sarcoid associated with penis laceration in a 4-year-old Kurdish stallion. A large fleshy mass on the distal end of the penis that resulted in urethral meatus deviation and dysuria was detected in a physical examination. No evidence of local extent or metastasis was detected. Under general anaesthesia, the involved distal portion of the penis was removed through partial phallectomy. Histopathological examination of the mass confirmed a fibroblastic sarcoid. Partial phallectomy was successful for management of penile sarcoid and resulted in no postoperative complications or tumour recurrence in long-term follow up; however, successful ejaculation and semen collection have not been achieved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1294/jes.30.99DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6920054PMC
December 2019

Behavioral, histopathological, and biochemical evaluations on the effects of cinnamaldehyde, naloxone, and their combination in morphine-induced cerebellar toxicity.

Drug Chem Toxicol 2019 Oct 28:1-12. Epub 2019 Oct 28.

Department of Basic Sciences, School of Medicine, Division of Pathology, Urmia University of Medical Sciences , Urmia , Iran.

Long-term morphine use for therapeutic approaches may lead to serious side effects. Several studies have suggested opioid antagonist and antioxidant therapy for reducing adverse effects of morphine. Cinnamaldehyde has a potent anti-oxidant property. In this study, separate and combined effects of cinnamaldehyde and naloxone (an opioid receptor antagonist) on behavioral changes and cerebellar histological and biochemical outcomes were investigated after long-term morphine administration. Seventy-eight rats were divided into two major morphine-treated and morphine-untreated groups. Morphine-treated group was subdivided into seven subgroups for receiving vehicle, normal saline, cinnamaldehyde (1.25, 5, and 20 mg/kg), naloxone, and cinnamaldehyde plus naloxone before morphine. Morphine-untreated group was subdivided into six subgroups and treated with vehicle, cinnamaldehyde (1.25, 5, and 20 mg/kg), naloxone, and their combination. Chemical compounds were administered for 28 consecutive days. Behavioral tests including footprint, rotarod, and beam balance tests were employed. Histopathological and biochemical alterations of cerebellum were determined. Body and cerebellum weights, stride width, time spent on the rotarod, Purkinje cell number, thickness of molecular and granular layers, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) decreased as a result of administrating morphine. Morphine increased beam transverse time, malondealdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and caspase-3 levels. Histopathological changes such as cellular vacuolation and loss were also produced as a result of treatment with morphine. Cinnamaldehyde, naloxone, and their combination treatments improved all the above-mentioned alterations induced by morphine. We concluded that cinnamaldehyde produced a neuroprotective effect through anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, apoptotic, and probably naloxone-sensitive opioid receptor interaction mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01480545.2019.1681446DOI Listing
October 2019

Safranal, a constituent of saffron, exerts gastro-protective effects against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer.

Life Sci 2019 May 23;224:88-94. Epub 2019 Mar 23.

Division of Physiology, Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

Aims: Several natural products have been evaluated for management of gastric ulcer induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Safranal, a plant-derived chemical, has a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study was aimed to evaluate possible gastro-protective effects of safranal against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Lansoprazole (a proton pump inhibitor) was used as a reference drug.

Materials And Methods: Thirty rats were divided into five groups. Groups 1 and 2 received vehicle. Groups 3, 4 and 5 treated with 0.063, 0.25 and 1 mg/kg safranal. Group 6 received 30 mg/kg lansoprazole. All groups except of group 1 received indomethacin (50 mg/kg) ingestion. Six hours later, animals were euthanized and their stomachs were removed. Gastric contents volume and pH were measured. Gastric ulcer area and protective index were evaluated using image J software. Histological changes were evaluated by light microscope. Malondialdehyde (MDA) level, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) content, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and Caspase-3 levels were determined in the gastric tissue.

Key Findings: Safranal and lansoprazole normalized gastric volume and pH, reduced gastric ulcer area and produced gastric protection. Indomethacin-induced histological changes and tissue biochemical alterations were ameliorated by the above-mentioned treatments.

Significance: The results of the present study suggest the involvement of anti-secretory, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic mechanisms in gastro-protective effect of safranal. In addition, gastro-protective effect of safranal was comparable to lansoprazole.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2019.03.054DOI Listing
May 2019

Carnosine improves functional recovery and structural regeneration after sciatic nerve crush injury in rats.

Life Sci 2018 Dec 1;215:22-30. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Division of Pathology, Department of Basic Sciences, School of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran.

Aims: Peripheral nerve injury represents a substantial clinical problem with insufficient or unsatisfactory treatment options. Current researches have extensively focused on the new approaches for the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries. Carnosine is a naturally occurring pleotropic dipeptide and has many biological functions such as antioxidant property. In the present study, we examined the regenerative ability of carnosine after sciatic nerve crush injury using behavioral, biochemical, histological and ultrastructural evaluations.

Materials And Methods: Seventy-two rats were divided into six groups including control, sham, crush and carnosine (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) groups. Crush injury in left sciatic nerve was induced by a small haemostatic forceps. Carnosine was administered for 15 consecutive days after induction of crush injury. Sciatic functional index (SFI) was recorded weekly. Histopathological and ultrastructural evaluations were made using light and electron microscopes, respectively. Sciatic nerve tissue malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels were measured. Gastrocnemius muscle weight was determined.

Key Findings: Carnosine at the doses of 20 and 40 mg/kg accelerated SFI recovery. Wallerian degeneration severity and myelinated fibers density, myelin sheath thickness and diameter as well as ultrastructural changes of myelinated axons were improved. It also recovered nerve tissue biochemical (MDA, SOD and TNF-α) changes induced by crush injury. Muscle weight ratio was reached to near normal values. Our results suggest a regenerative effect of carnosine. Inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammatory pathways, along with provocation of myelination and prevention of muscular atrophy might be involved in this effect of carnosine.

Significance: Carnosine treatment might be considered as a therapeutic agent for peripheral nerve regeneration and its functional recovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2018.10.043DOI Listing
December 2018

The effects of safranal, a constitute of saffron, and metformin on spatial learning and memory impairments in type-1 diabetic rats: behavioral and hippocampal histopathological and biochemical evaluations.

Biomed Pharmacother 2018 Nov 6;107:203-211. Epub 2018 Aug 6.

Division of Biochemistry, Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran. Electronic address:

Safranal is one of saffron constituents and has antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. Metformin is used as an anti-diabetic drug. This study was planned to investigate the separate and combined treatment effects of safranal and metformin on diabetes-induced learning and memory impairments by behavioral and hippocampal histopathological and biochemical evaluations. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ), treatments with safranal (0.025, 0.1 and 0.4 mg/kg), metformin (50 and 200 mg/kg), and a combination of low doses of this chemicals were initiated after confirmation of diabetes and continued for 37 days. Blood glucose concentration was measured before and on days 15, 25 and 35 after injection of streptozotocin. Learning and memory tested using Morris Water Maze (MWM) on days 40-45 and on day 45 hippocampal specimens were collected for determination of malodialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and Caspase-3 levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. The hippocampus was also designed for light microscopy evaluation. Hyperglycemia, spatial learning and memory impairments, hippocampal neuron loss, increase of hippocampal MDA, TNF-α and caspase-3 levels and decrease of SOD activity were observed in diabetic rats. Safranal (0.1 and 0.4 mg/kg), metformin (200 mg/kg) and safranal (0.025 mg/kg) with metformin (50 mg/kg) improved the above-mentioned behavioral, histopathological and biochemical changes. Safranal and metformin and their combination improved learning and memory impairments in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic mechanisms might be involved. It is recommended that safranal be considered for diabetes management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2018.07.165DOI Listing
November 2018

Fabrication of novel tubular scaffold for tendon repair from chitosan in combination with zinc oxide nanoparticles.

Vet Res Forum 2018 15;9(2):105-111. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

Department of Surgery and Diagnostic Imaging, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

Chitosan bears numerous properties, such as biocompatibility, biodegradability and non-toxicity making it suitable for use in different biomedical fields. Zinc (Zn) is required for fibroblasts proliferation and collagen synthesis as essential elements of wound healing. Its nanoparticles are well known for their capability to enhance wound healing by cell adhesion and migration improvement through growth factors-mediated mechanisms. Poor blood supply and unique histological characteristics of tendon make its regeneration always slow. Also, adhesion formation between tendon and its surrounding tissues is another problem for neotendon to return to its normal structure and functional activities. In this study, a novel tubular scaffold of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles loaded chitosan has been fabricated for tendon repair. Experimental complete tenotomy of deep digital flexor tendon in a rabbit model was done and scaffolds were placed in the transected area after two ends suturing. After four and eight weeks, adhesion formation around the tendons and tissue reaction to the scaffolds were evaluated macroscopically. Inflammation, angiogenesis and collagen fibers arrangement were also analyzed in histopathological evaluations. After eight weeks, the scaffolds were absorbed completely, adhesions around the tendon were decreased and there was no sign of significant tissue reaction and/or infection in histopathological analyses. The reduced adhesion formation, improved gliding function and better histopathological characteristics suggest this scaffold application as a potential therapy in treatment of tendon acute injuries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30466/VRF.2018.29979DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6047579PMC
June 2018

The effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells on ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma and cytokine responses in mice.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2018 May;21(5):483-488

Division of Pathology, Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

Objectives: Allergic Asthma is an inflammatory disease of the lungs that is characterized by increased infiltration of leukocytes into the airways, limiting the respiratory function. Studies suggest that a defective general regulatory system against inflammation could be a significant factor in allergic asthma. It has been shown that Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have a cellular immunosuppressive therapeutic potential for inflammatory disorders. We investigated whether administration of MSCs during allergen challenge would affect the underlying mechanisms in allergic airways inflammation.

Materials And Methods: Fifty mice were used in five control and experimental groups; the experimental mice sensitized by intraperitoneal injection of OVA and aluminum hydroxide emulsion on days 0, 7, and 14, were then challenged intranasally with OVA or sterile PBS on days 14, 25, 26, and 27. Before allergen challenge on day 14, experimental mice received tail vein injection of MSCs in PBS, whereas control mice received PBS alone. Cytokine and IgE analyses were carried out using lung washes as well as serum samples.

Results: Our, results showed that MSCs significantly reduced total cells and eosinophilia and serum OVA-specific IgE concentration in OVA-sensitized and challenged mice. Also, results showed that MSCs markedly inhibited expressions of Th2 and Th17 cytokines and elevated levels of Treg cytokines.

Conclusion: we found that administration of MSCs could be used as a potential therapeutic approach for allergic asthma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22038/IJBMS.2018.26898.6575DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6000221PMC
May 2018

Role of ventrolateral orbital cortex muscarinic and nicotinic receptors in modulation of capsaicin-induced orofacial pain-related behaviors in rats.

Eur J Pharmacol 2017 Nov 29;815:399-404. Epub 2017 Sep 29.

Division of Pathology, Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia 5756151818, Iran.

Acetylcholine, as a major neurotransmitter, mediates many brain functions such as pain. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of microinjection of muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonists and agonists into the ventrolateral orbital cortex (VLOC) on capsaicin-induced orofacial nociception and subsequent hyperalgesia. The right side of VLOC was surgically implanted with a guide cannula in anaesthetized rats. Orofacial pain-related behaviors were induced by subcutaneous injection of a capsaicin solution (1.5µg/20µl) into the left vibrissa pad. The time spent face rubbing with ipsilateral forepaw and general behavior were recorded for 10min, and then mechanical hyperalgesia was determined using von Frey filaments at 15, 30, 45 and 60min post-capsaicin injection. Alone intra-VLOC microinjection of atropine (a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist) and mecamylamine (a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist) at a similar dose of 200ng/site did not alter nocifensive behavior and hyperalgesia. Microinjection of oxotremorine (a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist) at doses of 50 and 100ng/site and epibatidine (a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist) at doses of 12.5, 25, 50 and 100ng/site into the VLOC suppressed pain-related behaviors. Prior microinjections of 200ng/site atropine and mecamylamine (200ng/site) prevented oxotremorine (100ng/site)-, and epibatidine (100ng/site)-induced antinociception, respectively. None of the above-mentioned chemicals changed general behavior. These results showed that the VLOC muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors might be involved in modulation of orofacial nociception and hypersensitivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2017.09.048DOI Listing
November 2017

Effects of silver nanoparticles on contaminated open wounds healing in mice: An experimental study.

Vet Res Forum 2017 15;8(1):23-28. Epub 2017 Mar 15.

Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

The microorganisms have been noted as the main cause of delayed wound healing. The most common pathogen causing the wound infections is . Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) show ample antibacterial activities. In the present study, the effect of AgNPs on mouse wounds inoculated with was investigated. Sixty male mice (20 to 30 g) were anesthetized, full-thickness skin wounds were made on their back and then the bacterial suspension was added to each wound bed. Treatments were administered on wound bed topically including gentamicin (8 mg kg), AgNPs (0.08 mg kg, 0.04 mg kg and 0.02 mg kg) and normal saline in the control group. Wound healing was monitored macroscopically by taking digital photographs on days 0, 7, 14 and 21 of the experiment. Topical application of gentamicin and AgNPs (0.08 and 0.04 mg kg) significantly increased the rate of wound healing more than treatment with AgNPs at a dose of 0.02 mg kgand normal saline. The presence of silver nanoparticles in AgNPs groups (especially 0.08 mg kg) improved wound appearance better than other groups without silver nanoparticles (gentamicin and control groups) and led to lesser wound scars. According to data analysis, healing rate of treated mice with gentamicin and AgNPs (0.08 mg kg) was significantly ( < 0.001) faster than treated mice with other AgNPs doses and normal saline. The results of current study introduced an nanosilver accelerating effects on the treatment of on infected skin wounds.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5413307PMC
March 2017

The effects of crocin, insulin and their co-administration on the heart function and pathology in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

Avicenna J Phytomed 2016 Nov-Dec;6(6):658-670

Division of Pathology, Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

Objective: Crocin is a saffron constituent with a potent anti-oxidant activity. The present study investigated the effects of crocin and insulin treatments (alone or in combination) on cardiac function and pathology in diabetic rats.

Materials And Methods: Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 50 mg/kg). Thereafter, crocin (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.), subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of insulin (4 IU/kg) and their combination were administered for eight weeks. Blood glucose level and whole heart and body weights were measured. Electrocardiography (ECG) was carried out using the lead II. Serum concentrations of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase-MB isoenzyme (CK-MB), and the heart tissue malodialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) contents were determined. The heart lesions were evaluated by light microscopy.

Results: STZ decreased body weight and increased whole heart weight/body weight ratio. It also decreased heart rate, and increased RR and QT intervals and T wave amplitude. STZ increased blood glucose, serum LDH and CK-MB levels, augmented heart tissue MDA content, decreased SOD content of heart tissue, and produced hemorrhages, degeneration, interstitial edema, and fibroblastic proliferation in the heart tissue. Crocin (10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.), insulin (4 IU/kg, s.c.) and their combination (5 mg/kg of crocin with 4 IU/kg of insulin) treatments recovered the ECG, biochemical and histopathological changes induced by STZ.

Conclusion: The results showed cardioprotective effects of crocin and insulin in STZ-induced diabetic rats. The antioxidant and anti-hyperglycemic properties of crocin and insulin may be involved in their cardioprotective actions.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5206923PMC
January 2017

Effects of histidine and vitamin C on isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial infarction in rats.

Vet Res Forum 2016 15;7(1):47-54. Epub 2016 Mar 15.

Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

In the present study, we investigated the effects of histidine and vitamin C (alone or in combination) treatments against isoproterenol (a β-adrenergic receptor agonist)-induced acute myocardial infarction in rats. We used propranolol (a β-adrenergic receptor blocker) to compare the results. Rats were given intraperitoneal injections of histidine (40 mg kg(-1)) and vitamin C (40 mg kg(-1)) alone and combined daily for 21 days. Propranolol (10 mg kg(-1)) was orally administered daily for 10 days (from day 11 to day 21). Myocardial infarction was induced by subcutaneous injections of 150 mg kg(-1) of isoproterenol at an interval of 24 hr on days 20 and 21. Blood and tissue samples were taken for histopathological and biochemical evaluations following electrocardiography recording on day 21. Isoproterenol elevated ST segment, increased heart weight, heart rate, serum activities of aspartate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase-MB and heart tissue content of malondialdehyde, and decreased R wave amplitude and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities of heart tissue. Necrosis, edema and inflammatory cells infiltration were observed in myocardial tissue sections. Our results indicated that histidine and vitamin C alone, and especially in combination prevent isoproterenol-induced cardiotoxicity and have similar protective effects with propranolol. Cardioprotective effects of histidine and vitamin C may be associated with their ability to reduce free radical-induced toxic effects.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4867037PMC
May 2016

Histopathological and behavioral evaluations of the effects of crocin, safranal and insulin on diabetic peripheral neuropathy in rats.

Avicenna J Phytomed 2015 Sep-Oct;5(5):469-78

Division of Physiology, Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

Objectives: Crocin and safranal, the major constituents of saffron, exert neuroprotective effects. In the present study, we investigated the effects of crocin and safranal (alone or in combination with insulin) on peripheral neuropathy in diabetic rats.

Materials And Methods: Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 60 mg/kg of streptozotocin (STZ) and confirmed by blood glucose level higher than 250 mg/dl. After confirmation of diabetes, crocin (30 mg/kg, i.p.), safranal (1 mg/kg, i.p.) (alone or in combination with insulin) and insulin (5 IU/kg, s.c.) were administered for eight weeks. Neuropathic pain was evaluated using acetone drop test. Histopathological changes of sciatic nerve were evaluated using light microscope. Blood glucose levels and sciatic nerve malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were also measured.

Results: STZ caused cold allodynia, edema and degenerative changes of sciatic nerve, hyperglycemia and an elevation of sciatic nerve MDA levels. Crocin, safranal and insulin improved STZ-induced behavioral, histopathological and biochemical changes. Combined treatments produced more documented improving effects.

Conclusion: The results of the present study showed neuroprotective effects of crocin, safranal and insulin in a rat model of diabetic neuropathy. In addition, crocin and safranal enhanced the neuroprotective effect of insulin. The neuroprotective effects of theses chemical compounds could be associated with their anti-hyperglycemic and antioxidant properties.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4599108PMC
October 2015

Hawthorn ethanolic extracts with triterpenoids and flavonoids exert hepatoprotective effects and suppress the hypercholesterolemia-induced oxidative stress in rats.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2015 Jul;18(7):691-9

Division of Veterinary Pharmacy, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, The Netherlands ; Division of Pharmacology, Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, The Netherlands.

Objectives: The current study was aimed to determine the bioactive constituents and biological effects of the Crataegus monogyna ethanolic extracts from bark, leaves and berries on hypercholesterolemia.

Materials And Methods: Oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, quercetin and lupeol concentrations were quantified by HPLC. Total phenol content and radical scavenging activity of extracts were also measured. The hypocholesterolemic, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective effects of the extracts were examined in hypercholesterolemic rats and compared with orlistat.

Results: The highest phenol content, oleanolic acid, quercetin and lupeol levels and free radical scavenging potency were found in the bark extract, and the highest ursolic acid level was found in the berries extract. Orlistat and extracts significantly (P<0.05) lowered the hypercholesterolemia-increased serum level of hepatic enzymes and lipid peroxidation level. Hawthorn's extracts protected from hepatic thiol depletion and improved the lipid profile and hepatic damages.

Conclusion: Data suggested that hawthorn's extracts are able to protect from hypercholesterolemia-induced oxidative stress and hepatic injuries. Moreover, the hypocholesterolemic effect of extracts was found comparable to orlistat.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4556763PMC
July 2015

Effects of microinjection of histamine into the anterior cingulate cortex on pain-related behaviors induced by formalin in rats.

Pharmacol Rep 2015 Jun 15;67(3):593-9. Epub 2015 Jan 15.

Division of Pathology, Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

Background: The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of microinjection of histamine and its H1, H2 and H3 receptor antagonists, mepyramine, ranitidine and thioperamide, respectively, into the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) on pain-related behaviors induced by formalin in rats.

Methods: Two stainless steel guide canulas were bilaterally implanted into the ACC of anaesthetized rats. For induction of pain, intraplantar (ipl) injection of a 2.5% formalin solution was performed. The duration of paw licking/biting and the number of paw flinching were recorded in 5 min blocks for 60 min. Locomotor activity was assessed using an open-field test.

Results: Formalin produced a marked biphasic pattern of pain. Histamine reduced the second phases of paw licking/biting and flinching. Mepyramine (2 μg/side) prevented the suppressive effect of histamine (1 μg/side) on second phase of pain, but at a dose of 8 μg/side it did not inhibit the suppressive effects of 4 μg/side of histamine. Ranitidine at doses of 2 and 8 μg/side prevented histamine (1 and 4 μg/side)-induced antinociception. Thioperamide not only suppressed the second phases of pain, but also increased the suppressive effect of histamine. Naloxone prevented suppressive effects of histamine and thioperamide on pain. Mepyramine (8 μg/side) suppressed locomotor activity.

Conclusion: The results of the present study showed pain suppressing effects for histamine. Histamine H2 and H3, and to a lesser extent, H1 receptors might be involved in histamine-induced antinociception. Opioid receptors might be involved in suppressive effects of histamine and thioperamide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pharep.2014.12.019DOI Listing
June 2015

The role of nicotinic acetylcholine and opioid systems of the ventral orbital cortex in modulation of formalin-induced orofacial pain in rats.

Eur J Pharmacol 2015 Jul 9;758:147-52. Epub 2015 Apr 9.

Division of Pathology, Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

Nicotinic acetylcholine and opioid receptors are involved in modulation of pain. In the present study, we investigated the effects of microinjection of nicotinic acetylcholine and opioid compounds into the ventral orbital cortex (VOC) on the formalin-induced orofacial pain in rats. For this purpose, two guide cannulas were placed into the left and right sides of the VOC of the brain. Orofacial pain was induced by subcutaneous injection of a diluted formalin solution (50μl, 1.5%) into the right vibrissa pad and face rubbing durations were recorded at 3-min blocks for 45min. Formalin produced a marked biphasic pain response (first phase: 0-3min and second phase: 15-33min). Epibatidine (a nicotinic receptor agonist) at doses of 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2μg/site, morphine (an opioid receptor agonist) at doses of 0.5, 1 and 2μg/site and their sub-analgesic doses (0.025μg/site epibatidine with 0.25μg/site morphine) combination treatment suppressed the second phase of pain. The antinociceptive effect induced by 0.2μg/site of epibatidine, but not morphine (2μg/site), was prevented by 2μg/site of mecamylamine (a nicotinic receptor antagonist). Naloxone (an opioid receptor antagonist) at a dose of 2μg/site prevented the antinociceptive effects induced by 2μg/site of morphine and 0.2μg/site of epibatidine. No above-mentioned chemical compounds affected locomotor activity. These results showed that at the VOC level, epibatidine and morphine produced antinociception. In addition, opioid receptor might be involved in epibatidine-induced antinociception, but the antinociception induced by morphine was not mediated through nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2015.04.002DOI Listing
July 2015

Effects of histidine and n-acetylcysteine on experimental lesions induced by doxorubicin in sciatic nerve of rats.

Drug Chem Toxicol 2015 Oct 27;38(4):436-41. Epub 2014 Nov 27.

a Division of Pathology, Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and.

In this study, the effect of separate and combined intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of histidine and n-acetylcysteine were investigated on experimental damage induced by doxorubicin (DOX) in sciatic nerve of rats. DOX was i.p. injected at a dose of 4 mg/kg once weekly for four weeks. Histidine and n-acetylcysteine were i.p. injected at a same dose of 20 mg/kg. Cold and mechanical allodynia were recorded using acetone spray and von Frey filaments tests, respectively. The sciatic nerve damage was evaluated by light microscopy. Plasma levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured. Histidine and especially n-acetylcysteine at a same dose of 20 mg/kg suppressed cold and mechanical allodynia, improved sciatic nerve lesions and reversed MDA and TAC levels in DOX-treated groups. Combination treatment with histidine and n-acetylcysteine showed better responses when compared with them used alone. The results of the present study showed peripheral neuroprotective effects for histidine and n-acetylcysteine. Reduction of free radical-induced toxic effects may have a role in neuroprotective properties of histidine and n-acetylcysteine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/01480545.2014.981753DOI Listing
October 2015

A novel dispersive micro solid phase extraction using zein nanoparticles as the sorbent combined with headspace solid phase micro-extraction to determine chlorophenols in water and honey samples by GC-ECD.

Talanta 2014 Oct 12;128:493-9. Epub 2014 Jun 12.

Department of Environmental Geology, Faculty of Science, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

This study presents a new technique, dispersive micro solid phase extraction (DMSPE) combined with headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) for extraction and determination of chlorophenols (CPs) in water and honey samples using a Gas Chromatography-Electron Capture Detector (GC-ECD). Zein nanoparticles were made by liquid-liquid dispersion and applied for the first time as the sorbent phase in DMSPE. In the proposed DMSPE-HS-SPME method, 1% w/v of ethanolic zein solution was added to an aqueous sample and then a dose of the in-situ generated zein nanoparticles was applied to a pre-concentration of target analytes. Thermal desorption of analytes was performed after the isolating sorbent phase, and then HS-SPME was applied for enrichment prior to introducing to gas chromatography. All the important parameters influencing efficiency of the extraction process such effects of salt, pH, sorbent concentration, temperature, sorbent solution volume in DMSPE procedure, extraction temperature, extraction time, desorption temperature and time in the HS-SPME procedure were investigated and optimized. Results showed that under optimum extraction conditions, detection limits (signal to noise ratio=3) were in the range of 0.08-0.6 ng mL(-1) and evaluations for relative standard deviations (RSDs %) were between 6.62% and 8.36%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2014.06.002DOI Listing
October 2014

Allogenous skin fibroblast transplantation enhances excisional wound healing following alloxan diabetes in sheep, a randomized controlled trial.

Int J Surg 2014 24;12(8):751-6. Epub 2014 Jun 24.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

Background: Healing of skin wound is a multi-factorial and complex process. Treatment of diabetic wounds is still a major clinical challenge. Recently, stem cell transplantation to chronic wounds is favored. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of pre-labeled allogenous skin fibroblasts on healing of ovine diabetic wound model.

Methods: Eight 4-month-old Iranian Makoui wethers were used in this study. Alloxan monohydrate was used for induction of diabetes. In each wether two excisional wound were created on dorsum of the animal. Wounds of one side were randomly chosen as treatment group (n = 8), and wounds of the other side were considered as control group (n = 8). Pre-labeled skin fibroblasts with bromodeoxyuridine were used in wounds of one side as treatment. Photographs were taken in distinct times for planimetric evaluation. Wound samples were taken for BrdU detection and histopathologic evaluations on day 21 post-wounding.

Results: The planimetric study showed closure of fibroblast treated wounds is significantly faster than control group (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical staining with anti-bromodeoxyuridine antibody indicated presence of transplanted cells in the wounds. Histopathologic evaluations of H&E stained sections disclosed significantly increasing of re-epithelialization, number of fibroblasts, and number of blood vessels in treatment group in comparison to control group (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: [corrected] The results of this study indicated that allogenous skin fibroblast transplantation can positively affect wound healing in diabetic sheep.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsu.2014.06.007DOI Listing
July 2015

The mesenchymal stem cell-derived microvesicles enhance sciatic nerve regeneration in rat: a novel approach in peripheral nerve cell therapy.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2014 Apr;76(4):991-7

From the Departments of Clinical Sciences (A.R., S.A.), and Pathobiology (A.A.F.), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, and Department of Cellular and Molecular Biotechnology (N.D.), Institute of Biotechnology, Urmia University; and Neurophysiology Research Center (B.H.), Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran; and Department of Veterinary Pathology (K.A.), Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.

Background: The accomplishment for desired functional peripheral nerve regeneration is still challenging despite various materials and methods. The effects of local application of omental adipose mesenchymal stromal cell-derived microvesicles (MVs) on peripheral nerve regeneration were studied using a rat sciatic nerve transection model.

Methods: A 10-mm gap of sciatic nerve was bridged with a chitosan conduit. The rats were divided into five experimental groups randomly as follows: cultured undifferentiated omental adipose-derived stromal cells, rest mesenchymal stem cell-derived MVs (c-MVs), anti-inflammatory mesenchymal stem cell-derived MVs (anti-MVs), proinflammatory mesenchymal stem cell-derived MVs (pro-MVs), and negative control (Chit).

Results: The functional assessment of nerve regeneration (walking track analyses), electrophysiologic measurements, muscle mass measurements, as well as histomorphometrical and immunohistochemical indices showed drastic improvement in nerve regeneration in c-MVs and anti-MVs animals compared with pro-MVs animals (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: The anti-inflammatory stem cell-derived MVs can be used as an alternative for the improvement of rat sciatic nerve regeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TA.0000000000000186DOI Listing
April 2014

Comparison of the effects of crocin, safranal and diclofenac on local inflammation and inflammatory pain responses induced by carrageenan in rats.

Pharmacol Rep 2013 ;65(5):1272-80

Division of Physiology, Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia 57153-1177, Iran. and

Background: Crocin and safranal are the active substances of saffron and have many biological properties. In the present study, we compared the effects of crocin, safranal and diclofenac on local inflammation and its induced pain in rats.

Methods: Local inflammation was induced by intraplantar (ipl) injection of carrageenan (100 μl, 2%). Paw thickness was measured before and after carrageenan injection. Inflammatory pain responses including cold allodynia, mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia were assessed using acetone spray and von Frey filament tests, respectively. The number of neutrophils in inflammatory zone was counted 6.5 h after injection of carrageenan.

Results: Carrageenan produced edema, cold allodynia, mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia and caused neutrophil infiltration in paw tissues. Crocin at doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, safranal at doses of 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg and diclofenac (as a reference drug) at a dose of 10 mg/kg attenuated edema, suppressed inflammatory pain responses and decreased the number of neutrophils.

Conclusion: The present study showed anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities for crocin, safranal and diclofenac in carrageenan model of local inflammation and inflammatory pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1734-1140(13)71485-3DOI Listing
August 2014

Effects of histidine and N-acetylcysteine on doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy in rats.

Cardiovasc Toxicol 2014 Jun;14(2):153-61

Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, 57153-1177, Urmia, Iran,

The amino acids histidine and n-acetylcysteine have many biological activities such as antioxidant effect. The present study investigated the effects of histidine and n-acetylcysteine on the heart lesions induced by doxorubicin (DOX) in rats. Forty-eight male Wistar rats were divided into two major groups treated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with normal saline and 4 mg/kg of DOX, respectively. Each group was further divided into four subgroups that were treated with separate and combined i.p. injections of histidine and n-acetylcysteine (NAC) at a same dose of 40 mg/kg. Electrocardiography (ECG) was recorded using lead II. The heart lesions were evaluated by light microscopy. Serum levels of creatine phosphokinase and lactate dehydrogenase and heart tissue malondialdehyde levels were measured. Histidine and especially NAC at a same dose of 40 mg/kg recovered ECG changes, improved heart lesions and prevented biochemical changes induced by DOX. Co-administration of histidine and NAC showed better responses when compared with them used alone. The results of the present study showed protective effects for histidine and NAC on the heart. Reduction in free radical-induced toxic effects may be involved in cardioprotective properties of histidine and NAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12012-013-9239-6DOI Listing
June 2014

Effects of safranal, a constituent of saffron, and vitamin E on nerve functions and histopathology following crush injury of sciatic nerve in rats.

Phytomedicine 2014 Apr 4;21(5):717-23. Epub 2013 Dec 4.

Division of Physiology, Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia 57153-1177, Iran.

Safranal is one of the major components of saffron and has many biological effects such as antioxidant property. The present study investigated the effects of safranal on sciatic nerve function after induction of crush injury. We also used of vitamin E as a reference potent antioxidant agent. In anesthetized rats, right sciatic nerve was crushed using a small haemostatic forceps. Functional recovery was assessed using sciatic functional index (SFI). Acetone spray and von Frey filament tests were used for neuropathic pain assay. Histopathological changes including severities of Wallerian degeneration of sciatic nerve and gastrocnemius muscle atrophy were investigated by light microscopy. Blood levels of malodialdehyde (MDA) were also measured. The SFI values were accelerated, cold and mechanical allodynia were suppressed, the severities of Wallerian degeneration and muscular atrophy were improved, and the increased MDA level was reversed with 10 consecutive days intraperitoneal injections of 0.2 and 0.8 mg/kg of safranal and 100 mg/kg of vitamin E. It is concluded that safranal and vitamin E produced same improving effects on crushed-injured sciatic nerve functions. Inhibition of oxidative stress pathway may be involved in improving effects of safranal and vitamin E on functions and histopathology of an injured peripheral nerve.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2013.10.031DOI Listing
April 2014

Healing of excisional wound in alloxan induced diabetic sheep: A planimetric and histopathologic study.

Vet Res Forum 2013 ;4(3):149-55

Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Healing of skin wound is a multi-factorial and complex process. Proper treatment of diabetic wounds is still a major clinical challenge. Although diabetes mellitus can occur in ruminants, healing of wounds in diabetic ruminants has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate healing of ovine excisional diabetic wound model. Eight 4-month-old Iranian Makoui wethers were equally divided to diabetic and nondiabetic groups. Alloxan monohydrate (60 mg kg(-1), IV) was used for diabetes induction. In each wether, an excisional wound was created on the dorsum of the animal. Photographs were taken in distinct times for planimetric evaluation. Wound samples were taken on day 21 post-wounding for histopathologic evaluations of epidermal thickness, number of fibroblasts and number of new blood vessels. The planimetric study showed slightly delay in wound closure of diabetic animals, however, it was not significantly different from nondiabetic wounds (p ≥ 0.05). Furthermore, epidermal thickness, number of fibroblasts and number of blood vessels were significantly lower in diabetic group (p < 0.05). We concluded that healing of excisional diabetic wounds in sheep may be compromised, as seen in other species. However, contraction rate of these wounds may not be delayed due to metabolic features of ruminants and these animals might go under surgeries without any serious concern. However, healing quality of these wounds may be lower than normal wounds.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4312373PMC
February 2015

Oral administration of vitamin C and histidine attenuate cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis in rats.

Indian J Pharmacol 2013 Mar-Apr;45(2):126-9

Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

Objectives: Cyclophosphamide (CP), a widely used antineoplastic drug causes hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) mainly via induction of oxidative stress. Both vitamin C and histidine have antioxidant properties. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of oral (p.o.) administration of vitamin C and histidine on the CP-induced HC in rats.

Materials And Methods: The animals were divided into two major groups I and II with four subgroups (a, b, c, and d) in each. Groups I and II were treated with intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of normal saline and CP (200 mg/kg), respectively, thereafter, normal saline, vitamin C (200 mg/kg), histidine (200 mg/kg) and vitamin C plus histidine were p.o. administered in subgroups a, b, c, and d, respectively, three times (2, 6, and 24 h) after i.p. injections of normal saline and CP. Blood samples were assayed for total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Histopathological changes of bladder wall were investigated.

Results: The decreased TAC and increased MDA levels of plasma and the severity of hemorrhages, congestion, edema, and leukocyte infiltration of bladder induced by CP were recovered with vitamin C and histidine treatments. Combined treatment with vitamin C and histidine showed a potentiation effect.

Conclusion: The results indicated that vitamin C and histidine attenuated the CP-induced HC by reducing of free radical-induced toxic effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0253-7613.108283DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3660922PMC
January 2014

Crocin improved learning and memory impairments in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2013 Jan;16(1):91-100

Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

Objective(s): Crocin influences many biological functions including memory and learning. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of crocin on learning and memory impairments in streptozotocine-induced diabetic rats.

Materials And Methods: Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal (IP) injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 45 mg/kg). Transfer latency (TL) paradigm in elevated plus-maze (EPM) was used as an index of learning and memory. Plasma levels of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and malondialdehyde (MDA), blood levels of glucose, and serum concentrations of insulin were measured. The number of hippocampal neurons was also counted.

Results: STZ increased acquisition transfer latency (TL1) and retention transfer latency (TL2), and MDA, decreased transfer latency shortening (TLs) and TCA, produced hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia, and reduced the number of neurons in the hippocampus. Learning and memory impairments and blood TCA, MDA, glucose, and insulin changes induced by streptozotocin were improved with long-term IP injection of crocin at doses of 15 and 30 mg/kg. Crocin prevented hippocampal neurons number loss in diabetic rats.

Conclusion: The results indicate that oxidative stress, hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia, and reduction of hippocampal neurons may be involved in learning and memory impairments in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Antioxidant, antihyperglycemic, antihypoinsulinemic, and neuroprotective activities of crocin might be involved in improving learning and memory impairments.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3637909PMC
January 2013

Crocin enhanced functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush injury in rats.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2013 Jan;16(1):83-90

Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

Objective(s): Crocin is a constituent of saffron and has many biological functions. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of intraperitoneal (IP) injection of crocin on sciatic nerve regeneration in male Wistar rats.

Materials And Methods: Fifty-four rats were divided into 9 groups: groups 1-4 (intact + normal saline and intact + crocin at doses of 5, 20 and 80 mg/kg, respectively); group 5 (sham surgery + normal saline); groups 6-9 (crush + normal saline and crush + crocin at doses of 5, 20 and 80 mg/kg, respectively). Normal saline and crocin were IP injected for 10 consecutive days after induction of a standard crush injury in left sciatic nerve. Footprints were obtained 1 day before and weekly after induction of nerve injury for evaluation of sciatic functional index (SFI). Blood samples were taken for evaluation of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Histopathological changes of sciatic nerve were investigated by light microscopy.

Results: Sciatic nerve crush-injured rats showed SFI values reduction, increased plasma MDA levels and produced Wallerian degeneration in sciatic nerve. Crocin at a dose of 5 mg/kg had no significant effects. At doses of 20 and 80 mg/kg, crocin accelerated the SFI recovery, decreased MDA levels and reduced Wallerian degeneration severity.

Conclusion: The present study suggests that the neuroprotective effects afforded by crocin may be due in part to reduction of free radicals-induced toxic effects.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3637908PMC
January 2013