Publications by authors named "Amina Bakhchane"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Omenn syndrome caused by a novel homozygous mutation in recombination activating gene 1.

Immunobiology 2021 May 28;226(3):152090. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Laboratory of Genomics and Human Genetics,Institut Pasteur du Maroc, 1 Place Louis Pasteur, 20360 Casablanca, Morocco. Electronic address:

Omenn syndrome (OS) is a type of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) that is distinguished by, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, erythroderma, alopecia with normal to elevated T-cell counts, eosinophilia, and elevated serum IgE levels. Recombination activation gene (RAG) 1 or RAG2 mutations that result in partial V(D)J recombination activity are known to be the main cause of OS. Other genes (DCLRE1C, LIG4, IL7RA, common gamma chain, ADA, RMRP, and CHD7) have also been linked to OS, although with low frequency. Here, we report a two-month-old Moroccan girl from consanguineous marriage with chronic diarrhea, recurrent and opportunistic infections, failure to thrive, desquamative erythroderma, hepatosplenomegaly, and axillary lymphadenitis. The immunological assessment showed normal lymphocyte and NK cell counts but an absence of B cells, agammaglobulinemia contrasting with a high level of IgE. On the other hand, Sanger sequencing of RAG1 and RAG2 exon 2 regions revealed a new homozygous deleterious mutation in the RAG1 gene. This c.1184C > T mutation caused a change from Proline to Leucine at position 395 of the protein, leading to a partial loss of function. Early and rapid diagnosis of the disease may facilitate urgent life-saving treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.imbio.2021.152090DOI Listing
May 2021

A Homozygous RAG1 Gene Mutation in a Case of Combined Immunodeficiency: Clinical, Molecular, and Computational Analysis.

Hum Hered 2019 19;84(6):272-278. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Laboratory of Genomics and Human Genetics, Institut Pasteur du Maroc, Casablanca, Morocco,

Background: The recombination-activating gene 1 and 2 (RAG1/RAG2) proteins are essential to initiate the V(D)J recombination process, the result is a diverse repertoire of antigen receptor genes and the establishment of the adaptive immunity. RAG1 mutations can lead to multiple forms of combined immunodeficiency.

Methods: In this report, whole exome sequencing was performed in a Moroccan child suffering from combined immunodeficiency, with T and B lymphopenia, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection.

Results: After filtering data and Sanger sequencing validation, one homozygous mutation c.2446G>A (p.Gly816Arg) was identified in the RAG1 gene.

Conclusion: This finding expands the spectrum of immunological and genetic profiles linked to RAG1 mutation, it also illustrates the necessity to consider RAG1 immunodeficiency in the presence of autoimmune hemolytic anemia and CMV infection, even assuming the immunological phenotype appears more or less normal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000510062DOI Listing
October 2020

Further Evidence for the Implication of the MET Gene in Non-Syndromic Autosomal Recessive Deafness.

Hum Hered 2019 4;84(3):109-116. Epub 2019 Dec 4.

Laboratoire de Génomique et Génétique Humaine, Institut Pasteur du Maroc, Casablanca, Morocco,

Mutations in the mesenchymal epithelial transition factor (MET) gene are frequently associated with multiple human cancers but can also lead to human non-syndromic autosomal recessive deafness (DFNB97). In the present study, we identified a novel homozygous missense mutation in the METgene causing a non-syndromic hearing impairment DFNB97 form. Whole-exome sequencing was performed to determine the genetic causes of hearing loss in a Moroccan consanguineous family with an affected daughter. The structural analysis of native and mutant in the SEMA domain of the MET receptor was investigated using a molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) approach. We identified a novel pathogenic homozygous c.948A>G (p.Ile316Met) mutation in the MET gene in one deaf Moroccan young girl carrying a total bilateral non-syndromic hearing impairment. The results of the MDS approach show that an Ile316Met mutation in the SEMA domain leads to protein flexibility loss. This may produce a major impact on the structural conformation of the MET receptor, which also affects the function and binding site of the receptor. This is the first time that a mutation in the MET gene is described in a Moroccan family. Moreover, this study reports the second family in the world associating deafness and mutation in the MET gene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000503450DOI Listing
May 2020

A Novel Homozygous Missense Mutation in the FU-CRD2 Domain of the R-spondin1 Gene Associated with Familial 46,XX DSD.

Sex Dev 2017 21;11(5-6):269-274. Epub 2017 Dec 21.

Laboratoire de Génétique Moléculaire Humaine, Département de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut Pasteur du Maroc, Casablanca, Morocco.

R-spondin proteins are secreted agonists of canonical WNT/β-catenin signaling. Homozygous RSPO1 mutations cause a syndrome of 46,XX disorder of sexual development (DSD), palmoplantar keratoderma (PPK), and predisposition to squamous cell carcinoma. We report exome sequencing data of two 46,XX siblings, one with testicular DSD and the other with suspected ovotesticular DSD. Both have PPK and hearing impairment and carried a novel homozygous mutation c.332G>A (p.Cys111Tyr) located in the highly conserved furin-like cysteine-rich domain-2 (FU-CRD2). Cysteines in the FU-CRDs are strictly conserved, indicating their functional importance in WNT signaling through interaction with the leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptors. This is the first RSPO1 missense mutation reported in association with human disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000485393DOI Listing
October 2018

Genetic investigation of XPA gene: high frequency of the c.682C>T mutation in Moroccan XP patients with moderate clinical profile.

BMC Res Notes 2017 Dec 6;10(1):704. Epub 2017 Dec 6.

Human Molecular Genetics Laboratory, Institut Pasteur du Maroc, 1, Place Louis Pasteur, 20360, Casablanca, Morocco.

Objective: Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous disease, associated with an inherited defect in one of eight different genes (XPA to XPG and XPV). In addition to the early onset of the skin manifestations, the XP group A is marked by the presence of a mild to severe neural disorders which appear tardily and worsens with age. In this study, 9 patients with moderate clinical profile belonging to 6 XP families were recruited to determine the XPA mutational spectrum in Morocco, using the direct sequencing of the whole coding region of the XPA gene.

Results: The genetic investigation of the XPA gene showed that 7 from 9 patients were homozygous for the c.682C>T, p.Arg228X mutation, while all their investigated family members were heterozygous. The frequency of this mutation was estimated to be 83.33% (5/6 families) .The molecular analysis of the 5 other exons of the XPA gene, showed that the 2 negative siblings carried no mutation in the XPA gene. This finding suggests that c.682C>T (p.Arg228X) mutation is relatively associated with moderate phenotype in XP group A Moroccan families; this result will also contribute to improve the molecular diagnosis of XP disease in Moroccan patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-017-3042-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5718079PMC
December 2017

Homozygous mutations in PJVK and MYO15A genes associated with non-syndromic hearing loss in Moroccan families.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2017 Oct 21;101:25-29. Epub 2017 Jul 21.

Human Molecular Genetics Laboratory, Institut Pasteur du Maroc, Casablanca, Morocco. Electronic address:

Objectives: Autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss is a heterogeneous disorder and the most prevalent human genetic sensorineural defect. In this study, we investigated the geneticcause of sensorineural hearing loss in Moroccan patients and presented the importance of whole exome sequencing (WES) to identify candidate genes in two Moroccan families with profound deafness.

Methods: After excluding mutations previously reported in Moroccan deaf patients, whole exome sequencing was performed and Sanger sequencing was used to validate mutations in these genes.

Results: Our results disclosed the c.113_114insT (p.Lys41GlufsX8) and c.406C > T (p.Arg130X) homozygous mutations in PJVK and a homozygous c.5203C > T (p.Arg1735Trp) mutation in MYO15A, both genes responsible for non-syndromic recessive hearing loss DFNB59 and DFNB3, respectively.

Conclusion: We identified in Moroccan deaf patients two mutations in PJVK and one mutation in MYO15A described for the first time in association with non-syndromic recessive hearing loss. These results emphasize that whole exome sequencing is a powerful diagnostic strategy to identify pathogenic mutations in heterogeneous disorders with many various causative genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijporl.2017.07.024DOI Listing
October 2017

Novel compound heterozygous mutations in the GPR98 (USH2C) gene identified by whole exome sequencing in a Moroccan deaf family.

Mol Biol Rep 2017 Oct 26;44(5):429-434. Epub 2017 Sep 26.

Human Molecular Genetics Laboratory, Institut Pasteur du Maroc, 1, Place Louis Pasteur, 20360, Casablanca, Morocco.

In the present work, we identified two novel compound heterozygote mutations in the GPR98 (G protein-coupled receptor 98) gene causing Usher syndrome. Whole-exome sequencing was performed to study the genetic causes of Usher syndrome in a Moroccan family with three affected siblings. We identify two novel compound heterozygote mutations (c.1054C > A, c.16544delT) in the GPR98 gene in the three affected siblings carrying post-linguale bilateral moderate hearing loss with normal vestibular functions and before installing visual disturbances. This is the first time that mutations in the GPR98 gene are described in the Moroccan deaf patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-017-4129-9DOI Listing
October 2017

Novel compound heterozygous MYO7A mutations in Moroccan families with autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss.

PLoS One 2017 4;12(5):e0176516. Epub 2017 May 4.

Human Molecular Genetics Laboratory, Institut Pasteur du Maroc, Casablanca, Morocco.

The MYO7A gene encodes a protein belonging to the unconventional myosin super family. Mutations within MYO7A can lead to either non syndromic hearing loss or to the Usher syndrome type 1B (USH1B). Here, we report the results of genetic analyses performed on Moroccan families with autosomal recessive non syndromic hearing loss that identified two families with compound heterozygous MYO7A mutations. Five mutations (c.6025delG, c.6229T>A, c.3500T>A, c.5617C>T and c.4487C>A) were identified in these families, the latter presenting two differently affected branches. Multiple bioinformatics programs and molecular modelling predicted the pathogenic effect of these mutations. In conclusion, the absence of vestibular and retinal symptom in the affected patients suggests that these families have the isolated non-syndromic hearing loss DFNB2 (nonsyndromic autosomal recessive hearing loss) presentation, instead of USH1B.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0176516PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5417485PMC
September 2017

A novel mutation in a Moroccan family with Zellweger spectrum disorders.

Hum Genome Var 2017 13;4:17009. Epub 2017 Apr 13.

Human Molecular Genetics Laboratory, Institut Pasteur du Maroc, Casablanca, Morocco.

Mutations in the gene are usually associated with recessive inherited diseases including Zellweger spectrum disorders. In this work, we identified a new pathogenic missense homozygous mutation (p.Leu1026Pro, c.3077T>C) in two Moroccan syndromic deaf siblings from consanguineous parents. This variation is located in the P-loop containing nucleoside triphosphate hydrolase of protein domain and probably causes an alteration in the hydrolysis of ATP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/hgv.2017.9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5390255PMC
April 2017

Novel variants of mitochondrial DNA associated with Type 2 diabetes mellitus in Moroccan population.

Mitochondrial DNA A DNA Mapp Seq Anal 2018 01 11;29(1):9-13. Epub 2016 Oct 11.

a Institut Pasteur, Human Molecular Genetic Laboratory , Casablanca , Morocco.

In this study, we investigated the association of mtDNA variants and haplogroups with Type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Moroccan patients. The Hypervariable Segments 1 of the mtDNA was sequenced in 108 diabetic patients and 97 controls. Association analyses were performed using Fisher's exact test and multivariate logistic regression. The prevalence of five mtDNA variants (C16187T, C16270T, T16172C, A16293G, and C16320T) was significantly higher in cases than in controls. Among these variants, only C16270T (p = .02) and C16320T (p = .03) remains significant after adjusting by age and gender. We showed that C16270T and C16320T variants were strongly associated with increased risk of T2D in Moroccan patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/24701394.2016.1233530DOI Listing
January 2018

Update of the spectrum of GJB2 gene mutations in 152 Moroccan families with autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss.

Eur J Med Genet 2016 Jun 8;59(6-7):325-9. Epub 2016 May 8.

Institut Pasteur, laboratoire de génétique moléculaire humaine, 20360 Casablanca, Morocco. Electronic address:

Deafness is one of the most common genetic diseases in humans and is subject to important genetic heterogeneity. The most common cause of non syndromic hearing loss (NSHL) is mutations in the GJB2 gene. This study aims to update and evaluate the spectrum of GJB2 allele variants in 152 Moroccan multiplex families with non syndromic hearing loss. Seven different mutations were detected: c.35delG, p.V37I, p.E47X, p.G200R, p.Del120E, p.R75Q, the last three mutations were described for the first time in Moroccan deaf patients, in addition to a novel nonsense mutation, the c.385G>T which is not referenced in any database. Sixty six families (43.42%) have mutations in the coding region of GJB2, while the homozygous c.35delG mutation still to date the most represented 51/152 (33.55%). The analysis of the geographical distribution of mutations located in GJB2 gene showed more allelic heterogeneity in the north and center compared to the south of Morocco. Our results showed that the GJB2 gene is a major contributor to non syndromic hearing loss in Morocco. Thus, this report of the GJB2 mutations spectrum all over Morocco has an important implication for establishing a suitable molecular diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmg.2016.05.002DOI Listing
June 2016

X-Linked Agammagobulinemia in a Large Series of North African Patients: Frequency, Clinical Features and Novel BTK Mutations.

J Clin Immunol 2016 Apr 1;36(3):187-94. Epub 2016 Mar 1.

Departments of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong.

Purpose: X-linked agammagobulinemia (XLA) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) gene defect. XLA patients have absent or reduced number of peripheral B cells and a profound deficiency in all immunoglobulin isotypes. This multicenter study reports the clinical, immunological and molecular features of Bruton's disease in 40 North African male patients.

Methods: Fifty male out of 63 (male and female) patients diagnosed with serum agammaglobulinemia and non detectable to less than 2% peripheral B cells were enrolled. The search for BTK gene mutations was performed for all of them by genomic DNA amplification and Sanger sequencing.

Results: We identified 33 different mutations in the BTK gene in 40 patients including 12 missense mutations, 6 nonsense mutations, 6 splice-site mutations, 5 frameshift, 2 large deletions, one complex mutation and one in-frame deletion. Seventeen of these mutations are novel. This large series shows a lower frequency of XLA among male patients from North Africa with agammaglobulinemia and absent to low B cells compared with other international studies (63.5% vs. 85%). No strong evidence for genotype-phenotype correlation was observed.

Conclusions: This study adds to other reports from highly consanguineous North African populations, showing lower frequency of X-linked forms as compared to AR forms of the same primary immunodeficiency. Furthermore, a large number of novel BTK mutations were identified and could further help identify carriers for genetic counseling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10875-016-0251-zDOI Listing
April 2016

A novel mutation in the ABCD1 gene of a Moroccan patient with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy: case report.

BMC Neurol 2015 Nov 25;15:244. Epub 2015 Nov 25.

Genetics and Molecular Pathology Laboratory, Medical school of Casablanca, Hassan II University, Casablanca, Morocco.

Background: X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD; OMIM: 300100) is the most common peroxisomal disease caused by mutations in the ATP-binding cassette, sub-family D member 1 gene or ABCD1 (geneID: 215), the coding gene for the adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ALDP), which is an ATP-binding transport protein associated to an active transport of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs). Dysfunction of ALDP induces an accumulation of VLCFAs in all tissues leading to a neurodegenerative disorder that involves the nervous system white matter.

Case Presentation: In our case report, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as well as the high levels of VLCFAs prompted the diagnosis the X-ALD. Molecular analysis of ABCD1 gene have shown a pathogenic homozygous nonsense mutation (c.1677C > G; p.(Tyr559*)) in exon 7.

Conclusion: Thus, we identified here a novel mutation in the ABCD1 gene in a Moroccan patient causing X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12883-015-0503-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4660798PMC
November 2015

Recessive TBC1D24 Mutations Are Frequent in Moroccan Non-Syndromic Hearing Loss Pedigrees.

PLoS One 2015 15;10(9):e0138072. Epub 2015 Sep 15.

Laboratoire de Génétique Moléculaire Humaine, Département de Recherche Scientifique, Institut Pasteur du Maroc, Casablanca, Morocco.

Mutations in the TBC1D24 gene are responsible for four neurological presentations: infantile epileptic encephalopathy, infantile myoclonic epilepsy, DOORS (deafness, onychodystrophy, osteodystrophy, mental retardation and seizures) and NSHL (non-syndromic hearing loss). For the latter, two recessive (DFNB86) and one dominant (DFNA65) mutations have so far been identified in consanguineous Pakistani and European/Chinese families, respectively. Here we report the results of a genetic study performed on a large Moroccan cohort of deaf patients that identified three families with compound heterozygote mutations in TBC1D24. Four novel mutations were identified, among which, one c.641G>A (p.Arg214His) was present in the three families, and has a frequency of 2% in control Moroccan population with normal hearing, suggesting that it acts as an hypomorphic variant leading to restricted deafness when combined with another recessive severe mutation. Altogether, our results show that mutations in TBC1D24 gene are a frequent cause (>2%) of NSHL in Morocco, and that due to its possible compound heterozygote recessive transmission, this gene should be further considered and screened in other deaf cohorts.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0138072PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4570774PMC
May 2016

A novel mutation in the TMC1 gene causes non-syndromic hearing loss in a Moroccan family.

Gene 2015 Dec 28;574(1):28-33. Epub 2015 Jul 28.

Laboratoire de Génétique Moléculaire Humaine, Département de Recherche Scientifique, Institut Pasteur du Maroc, Casablanca, Morocco. Electronic address:

Autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL) is one of the most common genetic diseases in human and is subject to important genetic heterogeneity, rendering molecular diagnosis difficult. Whole-exome sequencing is thus a powerful strategy for this purpose. After excluding GJB2 mutation and other common mutations associated with hearing loss in Morocco, whole-exome sequencing was performed to study the genetic causes of one sibling with ARSHNL in a consanguineous Moroccan family. After filtering data and Sanger sequencing validation, one novel pathogenic homozygous mutation c.1810C>G (p.Arg604Gly) was identified in TMC1, a gene reported to cause deafness in various populations. Thus, we identified here the first mutation in the TMC1 gene in the Moroccan population causing non-syndromic hearing loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2015.07.075DOI Listing
December 2015

Mediterranean Founder Mutation Database (MFMD): Taking Advantage from Founder Mutations in Genetics Diagnosis, Genetic Diversity and Migration History of the Mediterranean Population.

Hum Mutat 2015 Nov 30;36(11):E2441-53. Epub 2015 Jul 30.

Laboratoire de Génétique Moléculaire Humaine, Institut Pasteur du Maroc, 1 Place Louis Pasteur, 20360, Casablanca, Morocco.

The Mediterranean basin has been the theater of migration crossroads followed by settlement of several societies and cultures in prehistoric and historical times, with important consequences on genetic and genomic determinisms. Here, we present the Mediterranean Founder Mutation Database (MFMD), established to offer web-based access to founder mutation information in the Mediterranean population. Mutation data were collected from the literature and other online resources and systematically reviewed and assembled into this database. The information provided for each founder mutation includes DNA change, amino-acid change, mutation type and mutation effect, as well as mutation frequency and coalescence time when available. Currently, the database contains 383 founder mutations found in 210 genes related to 219 diseases. We believe that MFMD will help scientists and physicians to design more rapid and less expensive genetic diagnostic tests. Moreover, the coalescence time of founder mutations gives an overview about the migration history of the Mediterranean population. MFMD can be publicly accessed from http://mfmd.pasteur.ma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.22835DOI Listing
November 2015

Screening of exon 11 of BRCA1 gene using the high resolution melting approach for diagnosis in Moroccan breast cancer patients.

BMC Cancer 2015 Feb 25;15:81. Epub 2015 Feb 25.

Genetics and Molecular Pathology Laboratory, Medical school of Casablanca, Casablanca, Morocco.

Background: Identification of specific mutations in cancer patients may lead to the discovery of genes, which can affect susceptibility and/or prognosis. It has previously been reported that mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are linked to breast cancer. Here, we evaluated the use of the High Resolution Melting (HRM) approach to screen for mutations in exon 11 of BRCA1 gene in Moroccan patients.

Methods: HRM analysis was used to screen exon 11 from 71 breast cancer patients in order to detect different variants. Conventional Sanger sequencing was used to confirm the presence of possible mutations. Distribution of different SNPs was determined by SNaPshot analysis software.

Results: In order to assess the efficacy of the HRM approach to screen for mutations, especially in diagnosis, we first used two samples with previously known mutations, "2924delA and 3398delC". Indeed, these previously known sequence variants were detected by the HRM approach and yielded melting curves with atypical shape relative to wild-type control sequences. We then analyzed, 69 samples from breast cancer patients using the HRM method, and were able to detect two samples with atypical curves. Sequencing of the two samples, using the conventional Sanger approach, confirmed the presence of the same SNP (c.2612C > T) in both samples.

Conclusions: Our results strongly suggest that the HRM approach represents a reliable and highly sensitive method for mutation scanning, especially in diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-015-1040-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4351675PMC
February 2015

Analysis of CLDN14 gene in deaf Moroccan patients with non-syndromic hearing loss.

Gene 2013 Jul 13;523(1):103-5. Epub 2013 Apr 13.

Laboratoire de Génétique Moléculaire et Humaine, Département de Recherche Scientifique, Institut Pasteur du Maroc, 20100 Casablanca, Morocco.

Mutations in the CLDN14 gene, encoding the tight junction claudin 14 protein has been reported to date in an autosomal recessive form of isolated hearing loss DFNB29. In order to identify the contribution of CLDN14 to inherited deafness in Moroccan population, we performed a genetic analysis of this gene in 80 Moroccan familial cases. Our results show the presence of 7 mutations: 6 being conservative and one leading to a missense mutation (C11T) which was found at heterozygous and homozygous states, with a general frequency of 6.87%. The pathogenicity of the resulting T4M substitution is under discussion. Finally, our study suggests that CLDN14 gene can be implicated in the development of hearing loss in the Moroccan population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2013.03.123DOI Listing
July 2013