Publications by authors named "Amin Laglaoui"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Genotypic diversity of multi- and pre-extremely drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Morocco.

PLoS One 2021 2;16(7):e0253826. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Life Sciences, Medical and Biological Research Unit, National Center of Energy, Sciences and Nuclear Techniques, Rabat, Morocco.

In Morocco, the prevalence of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) continues to increase especially within previously treated cases; these MDR cases may evolve to extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) raising major concern to TB control programs. From an epidemiological window, scarce informations are available about the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains fueling these forms of resistance. The aim of this study was to assess to genetic diversity of MDR-MTB strains. Hence, this prospective study was conducted on patients diagnosed with MDR-TB at Pasteur Institute of Casablanca from 2010 to 2013. A total of 70 MDR-MTB isolates were genotyped by spoligotyping and 15-loci MIRU-VNTR methods. Spoligotyping generated four orphan patterns, five unique profiles whereas 61 strains were grouped in nine clusters (2 to 25 strains per cluster), the clustering rates being 87.1%. Subtyping by 15 loci MIRU-VNTR splitted all clusters already established by spoligotyping and generated 70 unique profiles not recognized in SITVIT2 database; clustering rate was equal to zero. HGDI analysis of 15 loci MIRU demonstrated that eight out of 15 loci were highly discriminant. Of note, all pre-XDR strains belongs to many clades, meaning that there no association between gyrA mutants and particular clade. Overall, the data generated by this study (i) describe the population structure of MDR MTBC in Morocco which is highly homogenous, (ii) confirm that TB in Morocco is almost exclusively transmitted by modern and evolutionary lineages with high level of biodiversity seen by MIRU, and (iii) validate the use of optimized 15-loci MIRU-VNTR format for future investigations in Morocco.
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November 2021

Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in farm animals and breeders in north of Morocco.

BMC Infect Dis 2020 Aug 14;20(1):602. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Biotechnology and Biomolecule Engineering Research Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences and Techniques of Tangier, Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Tetouan, Morocco.

Background: The objectives of this study were to determine for the first time, in Morocco, the nasal carriage rate, antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and virulence genes of Staphylococcus. aureus isolated from animals and breeders in close contact.

Methods: From 2015 to 2016, 421 nasal swab samples were collected from 26 different livestock areas in Tangier. Antimicrobial susceptibility phenotypes were determined by disk diffusion according to EUCAST 2015. The presence of nuc, mecA, mecC, lukS/F-PV, and tst genes were determined by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for all isolates.

Results: The overall S. aureus nasal carriage rate was low in animals (9.97%) and high in breeders (60%) with a statistically significant difference, (OR = 13.536; 95% CI = 7.070-25.912; p < 0.001). In general, S. aureus strains were susceptible to the majority of antibiotics and the highest resistance rates were found against tetracycline (16.7% in animals and 10% in breeders). No Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was detected in animals and breeders. A high rate of tst and lukS/F-PV genes has been recovered only from animals (11.9 and 16.7%, respectively).

Conclusion: Despite the lower rate of nasal carriage of S. aureus and the absence of MRSA strains in our study, S. aureus strains harbored a higher frequency of tst and lukS/F-PV virulence genes, which is associated to an increased risk of infection dissemination in humans. This highlights the need for further larger and multi-center studies to better define the transmission of the pathogenic S. aureus between livestock, environment, and humans.
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August 2020

Frequency of genomic mutations mediating resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates to rifampicin in Northern Morocco.

Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2020 5;62:e37. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Institut Pasteur du Maroc, Laboratoire de Biologie Moléculaire, Service de Recherche, Tanger, Morocco.

Drug resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is challenging particularly in developing countries. As such, a previous investigation gave the first insight into the mutational status of the Rifampicin Resistance Determining Region (RRDR) of rpoB gene among a restricted number of MTB patients' residents in the Northern Morocco. The purpose of this study was to investigate rpoB mutation types and frequencies associated with resistance to Rifampicin in a larger panel of MTB patients and to evaluate the usefulness of these mutations to improve the diagnosis of resistance to Rifampicin. A panel of 301 consecutive sputum samples belonging to patients suscpected of having TB from Northern Morocco was collected at the Pasteur Institute of Tangier between 2014-2017. Samples were subjected to conventionel microbiological tests. Evaluation of rpoB muational status was assessed by PCR amplification and sequencing of the RRDR of the rpoB gene. DST results showed that 26.4% of strains were MDR. Sequencing results reported single point mutations in 36 of 65 RIFR isolates of which two had two mutations. Aminoacid substitutions in the codon Ser531Leu occurred at the highest frequency (34.46%). Overall, 10 aminoacid substitutions have been registered, and the H526S substitution was reported for the first time. The present study highlighted that resistance to RIF is a reliable marker of MDR-TB, the common mutations successfully detected in the rpoB 531, rpoB526 and rpoB516 codons provide a foundation for the implementation of molecular approaches such as Hain and GeneXpert as a routine tests to detect DR-TB. However, considerable work is still necessary to identify extensive mutations associated with DR-TB.
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June 2020

Virulence genes and antibiotic resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from patients in the Northwestern of Morocco.

J Infect Dev Ctries 2019 10 31;13(10):892-898. Epub 2019 Oct 31.

Department of Research, Institut Pasteur du Maroc, Tangier, Morocco.

Introduction: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an ubiquitous bacterium causes various community-acquired and nosocomial infections. In this investigation, we aimed to screen the antibiotic susceptibility patterns and the prevalence of virulence factor genes in a set of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from nosocomial and community-acquired infections in the Northwestern of Morocco.

Methodology: A total of 155 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were collected (January 2015 - December 2016) from nosocomial and community-acquired infections at hospital centers and clinical laboratories in the Northwestern of Morocco. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed by the standard disk diffusion method. In addition, PCR assays were used for screening five virulence encoding genes (lasB, algD, plcH, exoA, and exoS).

Results: Our results revealed that high level of antimicrobial resistance was detected towards aztreonam (27.1%) followed by meropenem (14.2%). The resistance to imipenem was significantly higher in strains isolated from nosocomial infections (12.7%) than strains isolated from community-acquired infections (1.5%). The results highlighted that lasB (98.7%) and exoS (98.7%) were the most frequent virulence genes.

Conclusions: This survey provides data about phenotypic and genotypic properties of Pseudomonas aeruginosa emerged in the Northwestern of Morocco. It could be helpful for the health workers to improve infection control measures and to establish a surveillance system.
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October 2019

Molecular characterization of mutations associated with resistance to second-line tuberculosis drug among multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients from high prevalence tuberculosis city in Morocco.

BMC Infect Dis 2018 02 27;18(1):98. Epub 2018 Feb 27.

Unité de Biologie et Recherches Médicales, Centre National de l'Energie, des Sciences et Techniques Nucléaires, BP 1382 RP, 10001, Rabat, Morocco.

Background: The emergence of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) has raised public health concern for global TB control. Although multi drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR- TB) prevalence and associated genetic mutations in Morocco are well documented, scarce information on XDR TB is available. Hence, the evaluation of pre-XDR and XDR prevalence, as well as the mutation status of gyrA, gyrB, rrs, tlyA genes and eis promoter region, associated with resistance to second line drugs, is of great value for better management of M/XDR TB in Morocco.

Objectives: To evaluate pre-XDR and XDR prevalence, as well as the mutation status of gyrA, gyrB, rrs, tlyA genes and eis promoter region, associated with resistance to second line drug resistance, in 703 clinical isolates from TB patients recruited in Casablanca, and to assess the usefulness of molecular tools in clinical laboratories for better management of M/XDR TB in Morocco.

Methods: Drug susceptibility testing (DST) was performed by the proportional method for first line drugs, and then the selected MDR isolates were tested for second line drugs (Ofloxacin, Kanamycin, Amikacin and Capreomycin). Along with DST, all samples were subjected to rpoB, katG and p-inhA mutation analysis by PCR and DNA sequencing. MDR isolates as well as 30 pan-susceptible strains were subjected to PCR and DNA sequencing of gyrA, gyrB, rrs, tlyA genes and eis promoter, associated with resistance to fluoroquinolones and injectable drugs.

Results: Among the 703 analysed strains, 12.8% were MDR; Ser531Leu and Ser315Thr being the most common recorded mutations within rpoB and katG genes associated with RIF and INH resistance respectively. Drug susceptibility testing for second line drugs showed that among the 90 MDR strains, 22.2% (20/90) were resistant to OFX, 2.22% (2/90) to KAN, 3.33% (3/90) to AMK and 1.11% (1/90) to CAP. Genotypic analysis revealed that 19 MDR strains harbored mutations in the gyrA gene; the most recorded mutation being Asp91Ala accounting for 47.6% (10/21), and 2 isolates harbored mutations in the promoter region of eis gene. No mutation was found in gyrB, rrs and tlyA genes. Moreover, none of the pan-susceptible isolates displayed mutations in targeted genes.

Conclusion: Most of mutations associated with SLD resistance occurred in gyrA gene (codons 90-94) and eis promoter region. These findings highlight the impact of mutations in gyrA on the development of fluroquinolones resistance and provide the first estimates of the proportion of pre-XDR-TB among MDR-TB cases in Morocco.
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February 2018

Performance of GenoType MTBDRplus assay in the diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis in Tangier, Morocco.

J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2018 03 9;12:63-67. Epub 2017 Sep 9.

Service de recherche, Laboratoire de biologie moléculaire, Institut Pasteur du Maroc, 90 000 Tangier, Morocco.

Objectives: In Morocco, tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem with high morbidity and mortality. The main problem faced by the national TB programme is the high rate of drug-resistant (DR), particularly multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains. Diagnosis of DR-TB is mainly performed by conventional techniques that are time consuming with limited efficacy. In 2014, the GenoType MTBDRplus assay was introduced in Morocco for drug susceptibility testing (DST). In this regard, the present study was planned to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the GenoType MTBDRplus assay.

Methods: A total of 70 samples from suspected TB cases in Tangier (Morocco) were analysed by conventional DST and GenoType MTBDRplus assay.

Results: Among the 70 samples, 37.1% were MDR, whereas monoresistance to isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF) was detected in 186% and 17.1% of strains, respectively, by DST. Using the GenoType MTBDRplus approach, 12 isolates (17.1%) were identified as INH monoresistant, 9 (12.9%) as RIF monoresistant and 26 (37.1%) as MDR. rpoB531 and katG315 mutations were the most common mutations associated with resistance to RIF and INH, respectively. Significantly, all phenotypically MDR strains were also MDR by GenoType MTBDRplus. The sensitivity of GenoType MTBDRplus was 92.1% for RIF resistance and 97.4% for INH resistance, whereas the specificity was 100% for the two tested drugs.

Conclusions: GenoType MTBDRplus assay is a rapid, reliable and accurate tool for the detection of DR-TB in clinical specimens. Its routine use will be of a great interest to prevent the dissemination of DR-TB in the community.
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March 2018

Nasal carriage of sequence type 22 MRSA and livestock-associated ST398 clones in Tangier, Morocco.

J Infect Dev Ctries 2017 Jul 31;11(7):536-542. Epub 2017 Jul 31.

Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Tangier, Morocco.

Introduction: This study aimed to provide data of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nasal carriage as well as to determine the genetic lineages of this circulating MRSA in the Tangier community.

Methodology: Between 2012 and 2013 two subpopulations consisting of randomly chosen healthy volunteers and outpatients in 11 healthcare facilities were screened. The antibiotic resistance phenotype was determined by disk diffusion. Toxin Panton-Valentin Leukocidin (PVL), toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 gene (tst), and mecA were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Nasal swabs were obtained from persons with no identified risk factors for MRSA acquisition. MRSA molecular typing was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec, and Staphylococcus protein A (spa) typing.

Results: A total of400 subjects (33.3%) were nasally colonized with S. aureus, and 17 (1.4%) were nasal carriers of MRSA. The analysis did not identify age, gender, and the two subpopulations as predictors for MRSA colonization. MRSA were more likely to harbor the tst gene (p < 0.05). This work highlighted a low prevalence of nasal MRSA carriage, with 52.94% belonging to sequence type (ST) ST22. The remaining isolates were distributed as singletons (ST8, ST1, and ST398), whereas approximately one-third of MRSA was not identified, including three novel spa-types (t13247, t13248, and t13249).

Conclusions: Although we highlighted the current clones present in the Tangier community, they are limited in space and time. Therefore, further studies would be required to obtain a comprehensive picture of the dissemination of MRSA in the community, hospital, and livestock.
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July 2017

Antioxidant-enzyme reaction to the oxidative stress due to alpha-cypermethrin, chlorpyriphos, and pirimicarb in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2015 Nov 16;22(22):18115-26. Epub 2015 Jul 16.

INPMA, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, Fes, Morocco.

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) becomes one of the world's foremost vegetables, and its world production and consumption have increased fairly quickly. The capacity to induce oxidative stress in tomato plant, exposed to three xenobiotics such as alpha-cypermethrin, chlorpyriphos, and pirimicarb, was investigated by the evaluation of lipid peroxidation by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) rate; also, we studied the response of tomato to this stress by assessing the response of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), and glutathione reductase (GR). The effect of the insecticides was observed using four concentrations (25, 50, 75, and 100%) for germinating seeds and only the recommended concentration in agriculture (100%) for growing plants. Our results show an important accumulation of MDA, demonstrating the increase of lipid peroxidation in consequence of the excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production due to insecticide treatment. In response to this oxidative stress in tomato seedlings and plants, the activities of antioxidant-enzyme system were generally enhanced. The electrophoretic analysis showed also the apparition of new isoenzymes as the case for CAT and POD.
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November 2015

Microbiological and physicochemical characterization of dry-cured Halal goat meat. Effect of salting time and addition of olive oil and paprika covering.

Meat Sci 2014 Oct 2;98(2):129-34. Epub 2014 Jun 2.

Área de Tecnología de los Alimentos, Universidad de Vigo, Facultad de Ciencias del Campus de Ourense, 32004 Ourense, Spain. Electronic address:

The objective of this work was to define a simple technological process for dry-cured Halal goat meat elaboration. The aims of this study were to analyze physicochemical parameters and to enumerate the microbial population at the end of the different manufacturing processes (two salting times and the addition of olive oil and paprika covering) on 36 units of meat product. A total of 532 strains were isolated from several selective culture media and then identified using classical and molecular methods. In general, salt effect and the addition of olive oil and paprika were significant for all the studied microbial groups as well as on NaCl content and water activity. Molecular analysis proves that staphylococci, especially Staphylococcus xylosus and Staphylococcus equorum, were the most common naturally occurring microbiota. The best manufacturing process would be obtained with a longer salting time and the addition of the olive oil and paprika covering.
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October 2014

Characterization of bottom ash from two hospital waste incinerators in Rabat, Morocco.

Waste Manag Res 2013 Dec 4;31(12):1228-36. Epub 2013 Nov 4.

1Unité de Biologie et Recherche Médicale, Cnesten, Rabat, Morocco.

The uncontrolled disposal of bottom ash generated by the incineration units of hazardous and infected wastes in developed countries are the main cause of significant damage, such as contamination of the soil, as well as surface and underground waters, which may put both the environment and public health at risk. In Morocco, little information is available on the chemical properties of the resulting ashes. In this study, 16 hospital waste ash samples were collected from the incinerators of the two main hospitals in Rabat: Ibn Sina and Cheikh Zayd. A series of tests was conducted, including particle size distribution, mineralogical and chemical composition, and heavy metal leaching behaviour. The results showed that the samples were composed mainly of P2O5 (18%), SiO2 (17%), Na2O (16%), CaO (14%) and SO3 (10%). Moreover, chemical analysis clearly demonstrated that medical waste (MW) contains large amounts of waste generated by domestic activities in the hospital, with a lack of sorting system in the monitoring of MW. Furthermore, the ashes contained high concentrations of heavy metals such as zinc, lead, chromium and nickel with a vast range of 0.5-25071 mg/kg. Leaching tests showed that the extracted amounts of all the heavy metals were lower, with concentrations < 2.85 mg/kg. Comparison of the corresponding heavy metal concentrations with the limit values set by the Council Decision 2003/33/EC allowed us to conclude that bottom ashes meet the waste acceptance criteria regarding these heavy metals.
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December 2013

Chemical composition and antioxidant properties of Laurus nobilis L. and Myrtus communis L. essential oils from Morocco and evaluation of their antimicrobial activity acting alone or in combined processes for food preservation.

J Sci Food Agric 2014 Apr 16;94(6):1197-204. Epub 2013 Oct 16.

Université Abdelmalek Essaâdi, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Equipe de Recherche en Biotechnologies et Génie des Biomolécules (ERBGB), B.P. 416, Tanger, Morocco.

Background: This study describes the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Laurus nobilis L. and Myrtus communis L. essential oils (EOs). This is the first report of the synergistic antimicrobial effect of these EOs in combination with physical food preservation treatments.

Results: EOs obtained by steam distillation from aerial parts of Laurus nobilis and Myrtus communis were analysed by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main compounds were 1,8-cineole and 2-carene (L. nobilis EO); and myrtenyl acetate, 1,8-cineole and α-pinene (M. communis EO). L. nobilis EO showed higher antioxidant activity than M. communis EO in three complementary antioxidant tests. Although antimicrobial activity tests demonstrated the effectiveness of L. nobilis EO and the lack of bactericidal effect of M. communis EO, synergistic lethal effects were observed when combining each EO (0.2 µL mL(-1)) with mild heat (54°C for 10 min) or high hydrostatic pressure (175-400 MPa for 20 min). In contrast, combination of EOs with pulsed electric fields (30 kV cm(-1) for 25 pulses) showed no additional effects.

Conclusion: This study shows the great potential of these EOs in combined treatments with mild heat and high hydrostatic pressure to obtain a higher inactivation of foodborne pathogens, which might help in the design of safe processes applied at low intensity.
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April 2014

Synergistic combinations of high hydrostatic pressure and essential oils or their constituents and their use in preservation of fruit juices.

Int J Food Microbiol 2013 Jan 28;161(1):23-30. Epub 2012 Nov 28.

Departamento de Producción Animal y Ciencia de los Alimentos, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Zaragoza, Miguel Servet 177, 50013 Zaragoza, Spain.

This work addresses the inactivation achieved with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes EGD-e by combined processes of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and essential oils (EOs) or their chemical constituents (CCs). HHP treatments (175-400 MPa for 20 min) were combined with 200 μL/L of each EO (Citrus sinensis L., Citrus lemon L., Citrus reticulata L., Thymus algeriensis L., Eucalyptus globulus L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Mentha pulegium L., Juniperus phoenicea L., and Cyperus longus L.) or each CC ((+)-limonene, α-pinene, β-pinene, p-cymene, thymol, carvacrol, borneol, linalool, terpinen-4-ol, 1,8-cineole, α-terpinyl acetate, camphor, and (+)-pulegone) in buffer of pH 4.0 or 7.0. The tested combinations achieved different degrees of inactivation, the most effective being (+)-limonene, carvacrol, C. reticulata L. EO, T. algeriensis L. EO and C. sinensis L. EO which were capable of inactivating about 4-5 log(10) cycles of the initial cell populations in combination with HHP, and therefore showed outstanding synergistic effects. (+)-Limonene was also capable of inactivating 5 log(10) cycles of the initial E. coli O157:H7 population in combination with HHP (300 MPa for 20 min) in orange and apple juices, and a direct relationship was established between the inactivation degree caused by the combined process with (+)-limonene and the occurrence of sublethal injury after the HHP treatment. This work shows the potential of EOs and CCs in the inactivation of foodborne pathogens in combined treatments with HHP, and proposes their possible use in liquid food such as fruit juices.
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January 2013

Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Thymus algeriensis, Eucalyptus globulus and Rosmarinus officinalis from Morocco.

J Sci Food Agric 2011 Nov 18;91(14):2643-51. Epub 2011 Jul 18.

Department of Animal Production and Food Science, Veterinary Faculty, University of Zaragoza, Miguel Servet 177, 50013 Zaragoza, Spain.

Background: The present study reports on the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of the essential oils (EOs) of Thymus algeriensis, Eucalyptus globulus and Rosmarinus officinalis from Morocco.

Results: The composition of these species was analysed by GC-MS, and 65 components were identified. Eucalyptus globulus EO showed a great similarity with EOs from other regions, with 1,8-cineole (79.85%) the major component. Also rich in this constituent was Rosmarinus officinalis (43.99%). However, the chemical profile of Thymus algeriensis was rather different, and for the first time such a high content of borneol (23.48%) has been described in this EO. The antimicrobial activity of these species has also been studied against seven pathogenic and spoiling bacteria of significant importance. According to the results, Thymus algeriensis showed the best bacteriostatic and bactericidal effect, followed by Eucalyptus globulus and Rosmarinus officinalis.

Conclusions: As far as we know this is the first time that minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentration values have been reported for Eucalyptus globulus EO. Our data support the possible use of this EO as well as Thymus algeriensis EO, as potential natural agents in preservatives for food and pharmaceutical products.
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November 2011

Antibiotic resistance patterns of bacterial strains isolated from Periplaneta americana and Musca domestica in Tangier, Morocco.

J Infect Dev Ctries 2010 May 1;4(4):194-201. Epub 2010 May 1.

Faculty of Sciences and Techniques, Abdelmalek Essaâdi University, Tangier, Morocco.

Background: Flies and cockroaches are two insects in close contact with human beings. They are carriers of human pathogenic bacteria on the external areas of their bodies or in their digestive tracts. This study examines Periplaneta americana and Musca domestica collected from the residential areas of six districts in Tangier, Morocco.

Methodology: In total, 251 bacteria were isolated from external areas of the participants' bodies and the antimicrobial susceptibility was calculated.

Results: The predominant bacterial species included Escherichia coli (17.9%), Klebsiella spp. (14.7%), Providencia spp. (9.6%), Staphylococcus spp. (15.1%) and Enterococcus spp. (11.6%). The study showed no difference between the species of bacterial strains from American cockroaches and houseflies. Carbapenems and aminoglycosides were active against 100% of the Gram-negative bacilli isolated in this study. Staphylococcus spp. strains were susceptible to linezolid, vancomycin, daptomycin, levofloxacin and cotrimoxazole, and no antibiotic resistance was found in Enterococcus spp.

Conclusions: In our setting, although both cockroaches and flies collected from residential areas may be vectors of human pathogenic bacteria, the infections caused by them are easily treatable as a result of the high susceptibility of their bacteria to antibiotics routinely used in the community or in hospitals.
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May 2010

Characterization of Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from foods and patients in northern Morocco.

J Infect Dev Ctries 2009 Oct 26;3(9):695-703. Epub 2009 Oct 26.

Service de recherche, Laboratoire de biologie moléculaire, Institut Pasteur du Maroc, Tanger, Maroc.

Objectives: This study aimed to investigate Salmonella Enteritidis strains isolated from human and food sources in the north of Morocco by means of phenotypic and genotypic methods.

Methodology: Fifteen isolates from humans and food were submitted to phage typing, XbaI-macrorestriction (pulsed field gel electrophoresis [PFGE]), enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC-PCR), antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and PCR assay targeting the spvR and invA genes.

Results: Six fingerprinting profiles were obtained with the ERIC-PCR method, four with PFGE profiling, five with antimicrobial resistance, three with phage typing, and only one with plasmid profiling. spvR gene was detected in six strains, which did not harbour plasmids of 90 kb.

Conclusions: The conclusions of this study are drawn from a limited number of isolates. It would be desirable to investigate a greater and more diverse population of Salmonella isolates. S. Enteritidis was genotyped and showed four different patterns by PFGE and six by ERIC-PCR. Accordingly, high genetic similarity and limited genetic diversity were found for these strains from north of Morocco.
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October 2009