Publications by authors named "Amin Abdel Baki"

7 Publications

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Management of liver disease patients in different clinical situations during COVID-19 pandemic.

Egypt Liver J 2021 26;11(1):21. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Endemic Medicine and Hepatology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Chronic liver diseases are common worldwide, especially in developing countries. The rapid spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)/(COVID-19) leads to the infection of many patients with underlying chronic liver diseases. As a relatively new disease, management of COVID-19, in the context of chronic liver disease, is mainly based on the experience of the treating physician and the available data. In this review, we summarize the available evidence about the management of liver disease patients, in the context of COVID-19 infection, which can increase the severity of viral hepatitis B. Also, its clearance in HBV patients is delayed. A sixfold increased severity of COVID-19 was reported in obese patients with metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFDL). In patients with autoimmune liver disease (AILD), it is not recommended to change their immunosuppressive therapy (as long as they are not infected with COVID-19), in order to avoid a flare of liver disease. However, immunosuppressant drugs should be modified, in the case of infection with COVID-19. To date, no data suggest an increased risk or severity in metabolic liver diseases, such as hemochromatosis, Wilson's disease, or alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. Patients with liver cirrhosis should be carefully managed with minimum exposure to healthcare facilities. Basic investigations for follow-up can be scheduled at wider intervals; if patients need admission, this should be in COVID-19-clean areas. Patients with hepatocellular carcinomas may have a poor prognosis according to preliminary reports from China. The course of COVID-19 in liver transplant recipients on immunosuppression seems to have a benign course, based on few reports in children and adults. The hepatotoxicity of COVID-19 drugs ranges from mild liver enzyme elevation to a flare of underlying liver diseases. Therefore, the decision should be customized. Telemedicine can minimize the exposure of healthcare workers and patients to infection with COVID-19 and decrease the consumption of personal protective equipment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s43066-021-00091-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7994958PMC
March 2021

Clinical evaluation of pregnant women with SARS-COV2 pneumonia: a real-life study from Egypt.

J Egypt Public Health Assoc 2021 Nov 4;96(1):29. Epub 2021 Nov 4.

MOHP, Cairo, Egypt.

Background: Knowledge about the outcome of COVID-19 on pregnant women is so important. The published literature on the outcomes of pregnant women with COVID-19 is confusing. The aim of this study was to report our clinical experience about the effect of COVID-19 on pregnant women and to determine whether it was associated with increased mortality or an increase in the need for mechanical ventilation in this special category of patients.

Methods: This was a cohort study from some isolation hospitals of the Ministry of Health and Population, in eleven governorates, Egypt. The clinical data from the first 64 pregnant women with COVID-19 whose care was managed at some of the Egyptian hospitals from 14 March to 14 June 2020 as well as 114 non-pregnant women with COVID-19 was reviewed.

Results: The two groups did not show any significant difference regarding the main outcomes of the disease. Two cases in each group needed mechanical ventilation (p 0.617). Three cases (4.7%) died among the pregnant women and two (1.8%) died among the non-pregnant women (p 0.352).

Conclusions: The main clinical outcomes of COVID-19 were not different between pregnant and non-pregnant women with COVID-19. Based on our findings, pregnancy did not exacerbate the course or mortality of COVID-19 pneumonia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s42506-021-00092-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8567119PMC
November 2021

Predictors for Severity of SARS-CoV-2 Infection Among Healthcare Workers.

J Multidiscip Healthc 2021 25;14:2973-2981. Epub 2021 Oct 25.

Department of Hepatogastroenterology and Infectious Diseases, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

Background: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are still at higher risk of acquiring severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections than the general population. Identifying risk factors associated with severe SARS-CoV-2 infections is of paramount importance to protect HCWs and the non-infected patients attending different healthcare facilities.

Purpose: To recognize the predictors for severity of SARS-CoV2 infection among HCWs working in either COVID-19 or non-COVID-19 healthcare settings. Also, to assess compliance of HCW to standard precautions of infection control and explore the possible risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection among HCWs.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among HCWs with suspected or confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, from different Egyptian governorates. They were asked to fill in a web-based self-reporting questionnaire. The questionnaire assessed the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of participants, compliance of HCWs to standard precautions of infection control and COVID-19 presentation.

Results: Our study enrolled 204 HCWs (52.3% physicians). Infection of SARS-CoV-2 was confirmed in 61.3% by RT- PCR; 35.8% were admitted to hospital, and of these, 3.9% were admitted to the intensive care unit. While 30.4% had mild disease, 48.5% had moderate disease, 17.2% had severe disease and 3.9% had critical disease. Regression analysis for variables predicting COVID-19 severity among study healthcare workers showed that associated chronic diseases and management at home were the main independent variables predicting severity of their SARS-COV-2 infection, while the variables age, sex, residence, occupation or drug history of immunosuppressives had no role in severity prediction.

Conclusion: Associated chronic diseases and management at home were the main independent variables predicting severity of SARS-COV-2 infection among HCWs. So, HCWs with chronic diseases should not work in COVID-19 designated hospitals, and there should be a screening strategy for their infection with SARS-COV-2. HCWs must not be negligent in adhering to strict precautions of infection control. HCWs infected with SARS-COV-2 must be managed in hospital not at home.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JMDH.S335226DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8557804PMC
October 2021

Rifaximin microbial resistance and its efficacy and safety as a secondary prophylaxis of hepatic encephalopathy in patients with hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 Nov 17;75(11):e14807. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Clinical Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Background And Aim: Rifaximin is an oral antibiotic with promising efficacy in the reduction of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) recurrence. Development of microbial resistance to rifaximin is not studied yet in HE. The study aim was to assess the microbial resistance, safety and efficacy of rifaximin as secondary prophylaxis of HE.

Method: In this open-label parallel, prospective interventional study, 100 patients were randomly allocated either to receive 400 mg rifaximin 3 times/d plus 30-45 mL lactulose 3 times/d (intervention group) or to receive the standard of care only which is lactulose alone (control group) for 6 months. The primary outcome of the study was the difference between minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of rifaximin among the two studied groups at the end of treatment. The secondary outcomes included the time to first episode of HE, time to first hospitalisation, and patient's survival.

Results: The MIC did not differ significantly after treatment exposure compared with baseline either between groups or within the same group. The time to new episode of HE was 18.84 ± 6.49 weeks (mean ± SD) in the intervention group and was significantly longer (P = .002) than that in the control group 14 ± 7.52 weeks. Moreover, only 23 (46%) patients developed overt HE in the intervention group compared with 35 patients (70%) in the control group (P = .005). Also, there was an observed 32% reduction in the risk of hospitalisation in intervention group compared with control group.

Conclusion: Rifaximin succeeded to maintain remission from new episodes of HE in hepatitis C virus cirrhotic patients with limited potential for development of microbial resistance over the study period. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04736836.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijcp.14807DOI Listing
November 2021

Utility of Lung Ultrasound in Decision-making to Prioritize Hospital Admission for COVID-19 Patients: A Developing Country Perspective.

Curr Med Imaging 2021 ;17(12):1473-1480

Minister of Health and Population, Cairo, Egypt.

Background And Aims: In the midst of this pandemic, planning the prioritization of hospital admissions for patients affected with COVID-19 should be of prime concern, particularly in healthcare settings with limited resources. Thus, in this study, we aimed to develop a novel approach to triage COVID-19 patients and attempt to prioritize their hospital admission using Lung Ultrasonography (LUS). The efficacy of LUS in triaging suspected COVID-19 patients and assessing the severity of COVID-19 pneumonia was evaluated; the findings were then compared with those obtained by chest computed tomography (CT).

Methods: This multicenter, cross-sectional study comprised 243 COVID-19 patients who presented to the emergency department in 3 major university hospitals in Egypt. LUS was performed by an experienced emergency or chest physician, according to the local protocol of each hospital. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were then collected from each patient. Each patient was subjected to chest CT scans and LUS.

Results: The mean age of the 243 patients was 46.7 ± 10.4 years. Ground-glass opacity, subpleural consolidation, translobar consolidation, and crazy paving were reported in the chest CT scans of 54.3%, 15.2%, 11.1%, and 8.6% of the patients, respectively. B-line artifacts were observed in 81.1% of the patients (confluent pattern, 18.9%). The LUS findings completely coincided with the CT findings (Kappa agreement value, 0.77) in 197 patients (81.1%) and offered a diagnostic sensitivity of 74%, diagnostic specificity of 97.9%, positive predictive value of 90.2%, and negative predictive value of 93.6% for the COVID-19 patients. Following the addition of O2 saturation to the lung imaging findings, the ultrasound method was able to demonstrate 100% sensitivity and specificity in accurately differentiating between severe and non-severe lung diseases.

Conclusion: LUS with oxygen saturation might prove to be effective in prioritizing the hospital admission of COVID-19 patients, particularly in healthcare settings with limited resources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1573405617666210506164243DOI Listing
January 2022

ITPA gene polymorphism (94C>A) effects on ribavirin-induced anemia during therapy in Egyptian patients with chronic hepatitis C.

J Med Virol 2017 10 29;89(10):1823-1829. Epub 2017 May 29.

Department of Clinical Pathology, Kasr Al Ainy, School of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Inosine triphosphatase (ITPA) gene variants can protect against ribavirin (RBV)-induced anemia in patients treated for chronic hepatitis C. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between genetic variants of ITPA polymorphism, anemia, RBV dose reduction, and treatment response in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. This study was conducted on 97 Egyptian chronic HCV patients who were scheduled for pegylated-interferon (PEG-INF) /RBV therapy. ITPA genotypes rs1127354 were determined by Real Time PCR melting curve analysis. Effects of ITPA polymorphism on hemoglobin (Hb) levels, RBV dose reduction and treatment response were analyzed. The homozygous wild genotype (CC) was associated with Hb reduction at week 4 (P = 0.004). The minor allele protected against Hb reduction. No association with sustained virological response was observed (P = 0.492). Female gender; lower baseline Hb and higher baseline WBC were associated with week 4 anemia (P = 0.04; P = 0.023; 0.033, respectively). The ITPA gene polymorphism rs1127354 heterozygous genotype (CA) may influence Hb levels and protect against hemolytic anemia during RBV-containing regimens for HCV. However, such findings were not significantly related to treatment outcomes. Patients with wild ITPA genotype (CC) experienced a more Hb drop and RBV dose reductions more frequently.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.24844DOI Listing
October 2017

Protein kinase expression as a predictive factor for interferon response in chronic hepatitis C patients.

J Adv Res 2014 Jan 14;5(1):117-23. Epub 2013 Mar 14.

Tropical Department, National Hepatology and Tropical Medicine Research Institute, Egypt.

Egypt has the highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide. Currently, combined pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy are the standard treatment. The biological activity of interferon (IFN) is mediated by the induction of intracellular antiviral proteins, such as 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase, and dsRNA-activated protein kinase. IFN-inducible double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) is thought to play a key antiviral role against HCV. Some studies observed that PKR expression was higher in sustained viral responders compared with the non-responders. The PKR is considered as antiviral toward HCV and responsible for IFN's effect against HCV while others have showed that, there were kinetic results indicate that HCV infection is not altered by reduced levels of PKR, indicating that HCV is resistant to the translational inhibitory effects of the phosphorylated forms of PKR. This study was conducted on 50 consecutive patients with chronic HCV infection (CHC) and 20 healthy controls. All the patients were subjected to clinical and laboratory assessment, abdominal ultrasound, and liver biopsy. Determination of PKR gene quantity by using a real time PCR was done at the baseline and at the end of treatment for all patients and controls. Pre-treatment levels of protein kinase gene were significantly higher in responders in comparison with non-responders (P < 0.001). It was found that 97.06% of patients who were responding to treatment had the expression of protein kinase gene greater than 2(6) cycle threshold.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jare.2013.01.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4294718PMC
January 2014
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