Publications by authors named "Amer Samdani"

216 Publications

Early and late hospital readmissions in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

Spine Deform 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Shriners Hospitals for Children-Philadelphia, 3551 N Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA, 19140, USA.

Study Design: Retrospective review of a prospectively collected multicenter database.

Objectives: To identify risk factors for early and late readmission of surgically treated patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Specific risk factors associated with readmission in patients with AIS remain poorly understood.

Methods: Patients with AIS who were operatively treated from 19 centers specializing in the treatment of pediatric spinal deformity were studied. Data from a minimum 2 years of clinical follow-up and any readmission were available for analysis. Characteristics of patients with no readmission, early readmission (< 90 days), and late readmission (> 90 days) were evaluated. Both univariate and multivariate analyses of risk factors for readmission were performed.

Results: 2049 patients were included in our cohort, with 1.6% requiring early readmission and 3.3% late readmission. In the multivariate analysis, greater preoperative coronal imbalance was associated with early readmission. Longer operative time was associated with late readmission. Finally, greater preoperative pain (SRS-22 pain scale) was associated with both early and late readmission. GI complications accounted for a higher proportion of early readmissions than previously reported in the literature.

Conclusions: Preoperative counseling of patients with higher levels of pain and coronal imbalance and the implementation of a thorough postoperative bowel regimen may help optimize patient outcomes.

Level Of Evidence: 3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43390-021-00294-7DOI Listing
May 2021

What happens to the unfused upper thoracic curve after posterior spinal fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis?

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2021 Apr 23:1-7. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

2Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Neurosurgery, Shriners Hospitals for Children-Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Objective: Spontaneous lumbar curve correction after selective thoracic fusion in surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is well described. However, only a few articles have described the course of the uninstrumented upper thoracic (UT) curve after fusion, and the majority involve a hybrid construct. In this study, the authors sought to determine the outcomes and associated factors of uninstrumented UT curves in patients with AIS.

Methods: The authors retrospectively reviewed a prospectively collected multicenter AIS registry for all consecutive patients with Lenke type 1-4 curves with a 2-year minimum follow-up. UT curves were considered uninstrumented if the upper instrumented vertebra (UIV) did not extend above 1 level from the lower end vertebra of the UT curve. The authors defined progression as > 5°, and divided patients into two cohorts: those with improvement in the UT curve (IMP) and those without improvement in the UT curve (NO IMP). Radiographic, demographic, and Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-22 survey outcome measures were compared using univariate analysis, and significant factors were compared using a multivariate regression model.

Results: The study included 450 patients (370 females and 80 males). The UT curve self-corrected in 86% of patients (n = 385), there was no change in 14% (n = 65), and no patients worsened. Preoperatively, patients were similar with respect to Lenke classification (p = 0.44), age (p = 0.31), sex (p = 0.85), and Risser score (p = 0.14). The UT curves in the IMP group self-corrected from 24.7° ± 6.5° to 12.6° ± 5.9°, whereas in the NO IMP group UT curves remained the same, from 20.3° ± 5.8° to 18.5° ± 5.7°. In a multivariate analysis, preoperative main thoracic (MT) curve size (p = 0.004) and MT curve correction (p = 0.001) remained significant predictors of UT curve improvement. Greater correction of the MT curve and larger initial MT curve size were associated with greater likelihood of UT curve improvement.

Conclusions: Spontaneous UT curve correction occurred in the majority (86%) of unfused UT curves after MT curve correction in Lenke 1-4 curve types. The magnitude of preoperative MT curve size and postoperative MT curve correction were independent predictors of spontaneous UT curve correction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.10.PEDS20671DOI Listing
April 2021

Complete paraplegia 36 h after attempted posterior spinal fusion for severe adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a case report.

Spinal Cord Ser Cases 2021 Apr 20;7(1):33. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Institute for Spine and Scoliosis, 3100 Princeton Pike, Lawrenceville, NJ, 08648, USA.

Introduction: The incidence of neurologic complications with spinal surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) has been reported to be 0.69%. This rare complication typically occurs during surgery or immediately postoperatively. We report the occurrence of a delayed neurologic deficit that presented 36 h after the initial surgery of a staged posterior spinal fusion for severe AIS.

Case Presentation: A 12-year-old girl with severe thoracolumbar AIS of 125° underwent attempted posterior spinal fusion from T2-L4. The case was complicated by a transient loss of transcutaneous motor evoked potentials (TcMEP) that resolved with an increase in the mean arterial pressure (MAP) and relaxation of curve correction with rod removal. The patient awoke with normal neurologic function. She had a transient decrease in MAP 36 h post-op and awoke on postoperative day #2 with nearly complete lower extremity paraplegia (American Spinal Injury Association [ASIA] Impairment Scale B). Emergent exploration and removal of the concave apical pedicles resulted in improvement of TcMEPs and return of function.

Discussion: Delayed postoperative neurologic deficit is a very rare phenomenon, with only a few case reports in the literature to date. The delayed neurologic decline of our patient was likely secondary to a transient episode of postoperative hypotension combined with spinal cord compression by the apical concave pedicles. Close monitoring and support of spinal cord perfusion as well as emergent decompression are imperative in the setting of a delayed neurologic deficit. Further multicenter study on this rare occurrence is underway to identify potential causes and improve treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41394-021-00386-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8058337PMC
April 2021

Use of postoperative neurophysiological testing to help guide management in a case of delayed neurological injury.

Childs Nerv Syst 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Shriners Hospitals for Children-Philadelphia, 3551 N Broad St, Philadelphia, PA, 19140, USA.

Bimodal intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM), combining transcranial motor-evoked potentials (tcMEP) and somatosensory-evoked potentials (SSEP), enables real-time detection and prevention of spinal cord injury during pediatric spinal deformity correction. Although rare, false-positive and false-negative signal alerts have been reported. However, no previously published accounts have described the use of postoperative neurophysiological testing to both identify new-onset neurological injury and guide reintervention. Here, we describe the case of an 18-year-old young man with achondroplasia, thoracolumbar kyphosis, and L2 wedge vertebra who underwent T12-L4 posterior spinal fusion with L2 vertebral column resection. Despite two intraoperative decreases in tcMEP amplitude, corrective measures on both occasions produced a return of IONM signal. Curiously, despite movement of the bilateral lower extremities upon waking, continued observation demonstrated minimal movement of the left lower extremity. Postoperative neurophysiological testing then identified limited muscle group activation below the left quadriceps, prompting operative reintervention. After cage removal and laminectomy lengthening, the patient recovered bilateral lower extremity function. He later returned to surgery for repeat cage placement at L2 via a retroperitoneal exposure, with no noted IONM changes and subsequent neurological improvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00381-021-05071-5DOI Listing
March 2021

Cost-Utility Analysis of Anterior Vertebral Body Tethering versus Spinal Fusion in Idiopathic Scoliosis from a US Integrated Healthcare Delivery System Perspective.

Clinicoecon Outcomes Res 2021 15;13:175-190. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Zimmer Biomet, Warsaw, IN, USA.

Purpose: Anterior vertebral body tethering (VBT) is a non-fusion, minimally invasive, growth-modulating procedure with some early positive clinical outcomes reported in pediatric patients with idiopathic scoliosis (IS). VBT offers potential health-related quality of life (HRQoL) benefits over spinal fusion in allowing patients to retain a greater range of motion after surgery. We conducted an early cost-utility analysis (CUA) to compare VBT with fusion as a first-choice surgical treatment for skeletally immature patients (age >10 years) with moderate to severe IS, who have failed nonoperative management, from a US integrated healthcare delivery system perspective.

Patients And Methods: The CUA uses a Markov state transition model, capturing a 15-year period following index surgery. Transition probabilities, including revision risk and subsequent fusion, were based on published surgical outcomes and an ongoing VBT observational study (NCT02897453). Patients were assigned utilities derived from published patient-reported outcomes (PROs; SRS-22r mapped to EQ-5D) following fusion and the above VBT study. Index and revision procedure costs were included. Probabilistic (PSA) and deterministic sensitivity analyses (DSA) were performed.

Results: VBT was associated with higher costs but also higher quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) than fusion (incremental costs: $45,546; QALYs gained: 0.54). The subsequent incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for VBT vs fusion was $84,391/QALY gained. Mean PSA results were similar to the base case, indicating that results were generally robust to uncertainty. The DSA indicated that results were most sensitive to variations in utility values.

Conclusion: This is the first CUA comparing VBT with fusion in pediatric patients with IS and suggests that VBT may be a cost-effective alternative to fusion in the US, given recommended willingness-to-pay thresholds ($100,000-$150,000). The results rely on HRQoL benefits for VBT compared with fusion. For improved model accuracy, further analyses with longer-term PROs for VBT, and comparative effectiveness studies, would be needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CEOR.S289459DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7979350PMC
March 2021

Crossing the cervicothoracic junction in complex pediatric deformity using anterior cervical discectomy and fusion: a case series.

Childs Nerv Syst 2021 Mar 17. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Shriners Hospitals for Children-Philadelphia, 3551 N Broad St, Philadelphia, PA, 19140, USA.

Purpose: Proximal instrumentation failure is a challenge in posterior spinal fusions (PSFs) crossing the cervicothoracic junction. High rates of proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) and loss of fixation have been reported. In this single-center retrospective cohort study, we evaluate the utility of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) in addition to traditional PSF crossing the cervicothoracic junction in order to mitigate implant-related complications.

Methods: All patients who underwent PSF across the cervicothoracic junction with ACDF with 2 years of follow-up data were reviewed. We analyzed clinical, surgical, and radiographic measures such as operative details, presence of PJK, complications, instrumentation migration, curve angles, and vertebral translation. Measurements were compared statistically using paired samples t-tests.

Results: Ten patients (6 girls, 4 boys) met inclusion criteria with a mean age at surgery of 12.8 ± 3.3 years and follow-up of 3.38 ± 0.9 years. All patients underwent ACDF (range 1-3 levels), and 8 (80%) underwent traction. The average number of levels fused posteriorly was 16.7 ± 4.7 and anteriorly was 2.4 ± 0.7. The major coronal curve averaged 48.8 ± 34.7° preoperatively and 23.3±13.3° postoperatively (p = 0.028). The average major sagittal curve was 83.5 ± 24.2° preoperatively, resolving to 53.9 ± 25.5° (p=0.001). One patient suffered rod breakage at T7, and another developed symptomatic PJK 19 months postoperatively.

Conclusion: Our data suggest that ACDF procedures added to PSFs crossing the cervicothoracic junction offer promise for reducing risk for instrumentation-related complications. ACDF also significantly helps improve and maintain both coronal and sagittal correction over 2 years.

Level Of Evidence: 4.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00381-021-05109-8DOI Listing
March 2021

The Effect of Proximal Anchor Choice During Distraction-based Surgeries for Patients With Nonidiopathic Early-onset Scoliosis: A Retrospective Multicenter Study.

J Pediatr Orthop 2021 May-Jun 01;41(5):290-295

IWK Health Centre, Halifax, NS, Canada.

Background: It is unclear whether the type of proximal anchor affects the spine length achieved with distraction-based surgeries in patients with nonidiopathic early-onset scoliosis (EOS). Since distraction may produce kyphosis, spine length should be assessed in the sagittal plane using the sagittal spine length (SSL-curved arc length of the spine in the sagittal plane). Our purpose was to determine if the type of proximal anchor in distraction-based surgeries will affect final spine length.

Methods: Patients with nonidiopathic EOS treated with distraction-based systems (minimum 5 y follow-up, 5 lengthenings) were identified from 2 EOS registries. Radiographic analysis preoperative, postimplant (L1), and after each lengthening (L2-L5, L6-L10, L11-L15) was performed with the primary outcome of T1-S1 SSL.

Results: We identified 126 patients-70 had rib-based implants (52 congenital, 9 syndromic, 9 neuromuscular) and 56 had spine-based implants (15 congenital, 29 syndromic, 12 neuromuscular) with preoperative age 4.6 years, scoliosis 75 degrees, and kyphosis 48 degrees. After initial correction (P<0.05), scoliosis remained constant [58 degrees (13 to 104 degrees) at L11-L15] and kyphosis increased over time [38 degrees (9 to 108 degrees) at L1 to 60 degrees (17 to 134 degrees) at L11-L15] (P<0.05). Preoperative SSL was higher in the spine-based group (29.6 cm) when compared with the rib-based group (25.2 cm) (P<0.05). This difference was maintained after initial implantation (spine-based: 32.2 cm vs. rib-based: 26.7 cm, P<0.05) and at final follow-up (spine-based: 37.0 cm vs. rib-based: 34.4 cm, P<0.05). As preoperative SSL differed between groups, maximum SSL gains per interval were also normalized to preoperative SSL. There was no statistically significant difference between groups at L1, L2-L5, and L6-L10. However, at L11-L15, the rib-based group achieved a more relative increase in spine length compared with the spine-based group (45% vs. 31%, P<0.05).

Conclusion: At minimum 5 year follow-up, distraction-based surgeries increased spine length for patients with nonidiopathic EOS; regardless of proximal anchor type.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BPO.0000000000001784DOI Listing
March 2021

Congenital Scoliosis of the Pediatric Cervical Spine: Characterization of a 17-Patient Operative Cohort.

J Pediatr Orthop 2021 Mar;41(3):e211-e216

Departments of Orthopaedic Surgery and Neurosurgery, Shriners Hospitals for Children-Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA.

Background: Congenital cervical scoliosis is rare, and there is a paucity of literature describing surgical outcomes. We report surgical outcomes in a 17-patient cohort with surgical correction for congenital cervical scoliosis and identify risk factors associated with complications.

Methods: Data were retrospectively collected from a single-center cohort of 17 consecutive patients (9 boys, 8 girls) receiving surgical deformity correction for congenital cervical scoliosis. The mean age at surgery was 7.1±3.4 years with an average follow-up of 3.6±1.1 years.

Results: There were 24 operations performed on 17 patients, and 4 complications (17%) were reported in the series, including one each of pressure ulcer, asystole, vertebral artery injury, and pseudarthrosis. The mean preoperative major curve angle was 36±20 degrees, which improved to 24±14 degrees (P=0.02). The mean operative time was 8±2 hours with a mean estimated blood loss of 298±690 mL. Halo-gravity traction was used in 5 patients and 6 cases were staged with anterior/posterior procedures.

Conclusions: Congenital scoliosis of the cervical spine is a complex process. The spinal deformity of this nature can be managed successfully with carefully planned and executed surgical correction.

Level Of Evidence: Level IV-retrospective review.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BPO.0000000000001718DOI Listing
March 2021

Growth-Friendly Spine Surgery in Arthrogryposis Multiplex Congenita.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2021 Apr;103(8):715-726

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio.

Background: Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) is a condition that describes neonates born with ≥2 distinct congenital contractures. Despite spinal deformity in 3% to 69% of patients, inadequate data exist on growth-friendly instrumentation (GFI) in AMC. Our study objectives were to describe current GFI trends in children with AMC and early-onset scoliosis (EOS) and to compare long-term outcomes with a matched idiopathic EOS (IEOS) cohort to determine whether spinal rigidity or extremity contractures influenced outcomes.

Methods: Children with AMC and spinal deformity of ≥30° who were treated with GFI for ≥24 months were identified from a multicenter EOS database (1993 to 2017). Propensity scoring matched 35 patients with AMC to 112 patients with IEOS with regard to age, sex, construct, and curve. Multivariable linear mixed modeling compared changes in spinal deformity and the 24-item Early Onset Scoliosis Questionnaire (EOSQ-24) across cohorts. Cohort complications and reoperations were analyzed using multivariable Poisson regression.

Results: Preoperatively, groups did not differ with regard to age (p = 0.87), sex (p = 0.96), construct (p = 0.62), rate of nonoperative treatment (p = 0.54), and major coronal curve magnitude (p = 0.96). After the index GFI, patients with AMC had reduced percentage of coronal correction (35% compared with 44%; p = 0.01), larger residual coronal curves (49° compared with 42°; p = 0.03), and comparable percentage of kyphosis correction (17% compared with 21%; p = 0.52). In GFI graduates (n = 81), final coronal curve magnitude (55° compared with 43°; p = 0.22) and final sagittal curve magnitude (47° compared with 47°; p = 0.45) were not significantly different at the latest follow-up after definitive surgery. The patients with AMC had reduced T1-S1 length (p < 0.001), comparable T1-S1 growth velocity (0.66 compared with 0.85 mm/month; p = 0.05), and poorer EOSQ-24 scores at the time of the latest follow-up (64 compared with 83 points; p < 0.001). After adjusting for ambulatory status and GFI duration, patients with AMC developed 51% more complications (incidence rate ratio, 1.51 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11 to 2.04]; p = 0.009) and 0.2 more complications/year (95% CI, 0.02 to 0.33 more; p = 0.03) compared with patients with IEOS.

Conclusions: Patients with AMC and EOS experienced less initial deformity correction after the index surgical procedure, but final GFI curve magnitudes and total T1-S1 growth during active treatment were statistically and clinically comparable with IEOS. Nonambulatory patients with AMC with longer GFI treatment durations developed the most complications. Multidisciplinary perioperative management is necessary to optimize GFI and to improve quality of life in this complex population.

Level Of Evidence: Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.20.00600DOI Listing
April 2021

Growth-friendly Spinal Instrumentation in Marfan Syndrome Achieves Sustained Gains in Thoracic Height Amidst High Rates of Implant Failure.

J Pediatr Orthop 2021 Mar;41(3):e204-e210

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT.

Background: There are few reports on the surgical management of early-onset scoliosis (EOS) associated with Marfan syndrome (MFS). Affected patients tend to have more rapid curve progression than those with idiopathic EOS, and their course is further complicated by medical comorbidities. As surgical techniques and implants for growing spines become more widely applied, this study seeks to better delineate the safety and efficacy of growth-friendly spinal instrumentation in treating this population.

Methods: A prospective registry of children treated for EOS was queried for MFS patients treated between 1996 and 2016. Forty-two patients underwent rib-based or spine-based growing instrumentation and were assessed on preoperative, surgical, and postoperative clinical and radiographic parameters including complications and reoperations. Subgroup analysis was performed based on spine-based versus rib-based fixation.

Results: Patients underwent their index surgery at a mean age of 5.5 years, when the major coronal curve and kyphosis measured 77 and 50 degrees, respectively. Over half were treated with traditional growing rods. Patients underwent 7.2 total surgical procedures-4.7 lengthening and 1.9 revision surgeries not including conversion to fusion-over a follow-up of 6.5 (±4.1) years. Radiographic correction was greatest at index surgery but maintained over time, with a final thoracic height measuring 23.8 cm. Patients experienced a mean of 2.6 complications over the course of the study period; however, a small group of 6 patients experienced ≥6 complications while over half of patients experienced 0 or 1. Implant failures represented 42% of all complications with infection and pulmonary complications following.

Conclusions: This is the largest report on patients with EOS and MFS. All subtypes of growth-friendly constructs reduced curve progression in this cohort, but complications and reoperations were nearly universal; patients were particularly plagued by implant failure and migration. Further collaborations are needed to enhance understanding of optimal timing and fixation constructs for those with MFS and other connective tissue diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BPO.0000000000001730DOI Listing
March 2021

Long-term Patient Perception Following Surgery for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis if Dissatisfied at 2-year Follow-up.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2021 Apr;46(8):507-511

Rady Children's Hospital, San Diego, CA.

Study Design: Longitudinal.

Objectives: To evaluate whether the rate of patients who report low health-related quality of life (HRQOL) scores at 2 years following surgical correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) improves by 5 years postoperatively.

Summary Of Background Data: HRQOL scores are dependent upon a number of factors and even in instances of good surgical correction of a spinal deformity, are not guaranteed to be high postoperatively. Understanding how a low HRQOL score varies over the postoperative period can help surgeons more effectively counsel patients and temper expectations.

Methods: A multicenter database was reviewed for patients with both 2 and 5-year follow-up after spinal fusion and instrumentation for AIS. From a cohort of 916 patients, 52 patients with low HRQOL scores at their 2-year follow-up were identified and reevaluated at 5-year follow-up. A low HRQOL outcome was defined as having SRS-22 domain or total scores less than 2 standard deviations below the mean score. Reoperations were also evaluated to determine if they were associated with HRQOL scores.

Results: Of those patients with low SRS-22 HRQOL scores at 2 years postoperatively, improvements were seen in all SRS-22 domains and total scores at the 5-year time point. The greatest change was seen in the satisfaction category where 41 patients showed improvement. The rate of reoperations during this period did not significantly impact patient-reported outcomes.

Conclusions: Having a low HRQOL score 2 years after surgery for AIS does not guarantee a low score 5 years after surgery. Promisingly, most patients demonstrate some improvement in all domains for patient-reported SRS-22 scores at 5-year compared to 2-year follow-up. Understanding the longer term postoperative evolution in patient-reported outcomes may help surgeons to effectively manage and counsel patients who are dissatisfied in the short term.Level of Evidence: 3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000003828DOI Listing
April 2021

Risk factors for gastrointestinal complications after spinal fusion in children with cerebral palsy.

Spine Deform 2021 Mar 17;9(2):567-578. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University Hospital Cleveland Medical Center, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital, 201 Adelbert Road, Cleveland, OH, 44106, USA.

Design: Prospective cerebral palsy (CP) registry review.

Objectives: (1) Evaluate the incidence/risk factors of gastrointestinal (GI) complications in CP patients after spinal fusion (SF); and (2) investigate the validity of the modified Clavien-Dindo-Sink classification.

Background: Perioperative GI complications result in increased length of stay (LOS) and patient morbidity/mortality. However, none have analyzed the outcomes of GI complications using an objective classification system.

Methods: A prospective/multicenter CP database identified 425 children (mean, 14.4 ± 2.9 years; range, 7.9-21 years) who underwent SF. GI complications were categorized using the modified Clavien-Dindo-Sink classification. Grades I-II were minor complications and grades III-V major. Patients with and without GI complications were compared.

Results: 87 GI complications developed in 69 patients (16.2%): 39 minor (57%) and 30 major (43%). Most common were pancreatitis (n = 45) and ileus (n = 22). Patients with preoperative G-tubes had 2.2 × odds of developing a GI complication compared to oral-only feeders (OR 2.2; 95% CI 0.98-4.78; p = 0.006). Similarly, combined G-tube/oral feeders had 6.7 × odds compared to oral-only (OR 6.7; 95% CI 3.10-14.66; p < 0.001). The likelihood of developing a GI complication was 3.4 × with normalized estimated blood loss (nEBL) ≥ 3 ml/kg/level fused (OR 3.41; 95% CI 1.95-5.95; p < 0.001). Patients with GI complications had more fundoplications (29% vs. 17%; p = 0.03) and longer G-tube fasting periods (3 days vs. 2 days; p < 0.001), oral fasting periods (5 days vs. 2 days; p < 0.001), ICU admissions (6 days vs. 3 days; p = 0.002), and LOS (15 days vs. 8 days; p < 0.001). LOS correlated with the Clavien-Dino-Sink classification.

Conclusion: Gastrointestinal complications such as pancreatitis and ileus are not uncommon after SF in children with CP. This is the first study to investigate the validity of the modified Clavien-Dindo-Sink classification in GI complications after SF. Our results suggest a correlation between complication severity grade and LOS. The complexity of perioperative enteral nutritional supplementation requires prospective studies dedicated to enteral feeding protocols.

Level Of Evidence: Therapeutic-level III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43390-020-00233-yDOI Listing
March 2021

Can distraction-based surgeries achieve minimum 18 cm thoracic height for patients with early onset scoliosis?

Spine Deform 2021 Mar 29;9(2):603-608. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

IWK Health Centre, Halifax, NS, Canada.

Purpose: Karol et al. introduced the concept that 18 cm thoracic height is the critical point where a patient with early onset scoliosis (EOS) can maintain adequate pulmonary function. Our purpose was to determine if distraction-based surgeries will increase thoracic spine height to at least 18 cm in patients with EOS.

Methods: Patients with EOS treated with distraction-based systems (minimum 5 years follow up, minimum five lengthenings). Radiographic analysis of thoracic spine height (T1-T12) at the last lengthening procedure.

Results: One hundred and fifty-three patients (67 congenital, 21 neuromuscular, 38 syndromic, 27 idiopathic) with pre-operative mean age 4.6 years, scoliosis 75°, kyphosis 47° were evaluated. Their mean age at final lengthening procedure was 11 years (6-16), average number of lengthening procedures was 10.5 (4-21), mean final scoliosis was 53°, and mean final kyphosis was 58°. Final thoracic height was > 18 cm in 65% and was > 22 cm in 31% of patients. Based on etiology, only 48% of the congenital patients reached 18 cm compared to 81% neuromuscular, 84% syndromic and 67% idiopathic. This height gain was closely related to the percentage of scoliosis correction achieved for each etiology. Comparing congenital etiology to other etiologies, there was a lower percentage of patients in the congenital group that passed the 18 cm threshold (48% vs. 78%) (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: At minimum 5 years follow up, distraction-based surgeries increased thoracic height for patients with EOS to greater than 18 cm in 65% of patients; however, only 48% of congenital patients reached this thoracic height threshold.

Design: Retrospective review of prospectively collected registry data. LOI III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43390-020-00230-1DOI Listing
March 2021

Risk Factors for Proximal Junctional Kyphosis Following Surgical Deformity Correction in Pediatric Neuromuscular Scoliosis.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2021 Feb;46(3):169-174

Departments of Orthopaedic Surgery and Neurosurgery, Shriners Hospitals for Children-Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA.

Study Design: Single-center retrospective cohort analysis.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate risk factors associated with the development of proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) in pediatric neuromuscular scoliosis (NMS).

Summary Of Background Data: PJK is a common cause of reoperation in adult deformity but has been less well reported in pediatric NMS.

Methods: Sixty consecutive pediatric patients underwent spinal fusion for NMS with a minimum 2-year follow-up. PJK was defined as >10° increase between the inferior end plate of the upper instrumented vertebra (UIV) and the superior end plate of the vertebra two segments above. Regression analyses as well as binary correlational models and Student t tests were employed for further statistical analysis assessing variables of primary and compensatory curve magnitudes, thoracic kyphosis, proximal kyphosis, lumbar lordosis, pelvic obliquity, shoulder imbalance, Risser classification, and sagittal profile.

Results: The present cohort consisted of 29 boys and 31 girls with a mean age at surgery of 14 ± 2.7 years. The most prevalent diagnoses were spinal cord injury (23%) and cerebral palsy (20%). Analysis reflected an overall radiographic PJK rate of 27% (n = 16) and a proximal junctional failure rate of 7% (n = 4). No significant association was identified with previously suggested risk factors such as extent of rostral fixation (P = 0.750), rod metal type (P = 0.776), laminar hooks (P = 0.654), implant density (P = 0.386), nonambulatory functional status (P = 0.254), or pelvic fixation (P = 0.746). Significant risk factors for development of PJK included perioperative use of halo gravity traction (38%, P = 0.029), greater postoperative C2 sagittal translation (P = 0.030), decreased proximal kyphosis preoperatively (P = 0.002), and loss of correction of primary curve magnitude at follow-up (P = 0.047). Increase in lumbar lordosis from post-op to last follow-up trended toward significance (P = 0.055).

Conclusion: Twenty-seven percent of patients with NMS developed PJK, and 7% had revision surgery. Those treated with halo gravity traction or with greater postoperative C2 sagittal translation, loss of primary curve correction, and smaller preoperative proximal kyphosis had the greatest risk of developing PJK.Level of Evidence: 4.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000003755DOI Listing
February 2021

What are parents willing to accept? A prospective study of risk tolerance in AIS surgery.

Spine Deform 2021 Mar 13;9(2):381-386. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Alfred I. DuPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE, USA.

Introduction: Surgical treatment of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) involves healthy individuals with spinal deformity. Parents are responsible for surgical consent on behalf of their children, a burden which causes trepidation and concern. Therefore, explanation of operative risk is a critical component of informed consent and parent decision-making. We set out to quantify parental risk aversion (RA).

Methods: RA questionnaires were administered preoperatively to parents of 58 AIS patients undergoing spinal fusion (SF). RA is the likelihood of a parent to consent to their child's SF (1- least likely, 10- most) with increasing allotments of data about potential complications at each stage (S1-complication named, S2-explained, S3-incidence given, S4-all information). A statistically significant mean difference in answers for each stage was assessed using paired sample t test or Wilcoxon rank t test. Normality was assessed by performing Shapiro-Wilk test.

Results: AIS patients (age 14.2 years, 85% female, major curve 61°) were included. Mean scores for each of the stages were 4.4 ± 3.1, 4.9 ± 3.1, 6.5 ± 3.0, 6.6 ± 3.0, respectively. Highest and lowest RA were reported for death and infection, respectively. The greatest increase in likelihood to proceed with surgery was seen after education on malposition of implants and on death, 2.6 and 2.5, respectively (p < 0.001). The lowest increase in likelihood to proceed with surgery was seen after education on infection, 1.5 (p < 0.001). For all complications, there was an increase in parent willingness to proceed after providing descriptions and occurrence rate with a mean increase from S1 to S4 of 2.1 (95% CI 1.4-2.4), p < 0.001.

Conclusion: As more detailed information was made available regarding potential complications with SF for AIS, parental RA toward surgery decreased and their willingness to proceed with surgery for their child improved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43390-020-00216-zDOI Listing
March 2021

New neurologic deficit and recovery rates in the treatment of complex pediatric spine deformities exceeding 100 degrees or treated by vertebral column resection (VCR).

Spine Deform 2021 Mar 9;9(2):427-433. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Department of Orthopedics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Study Design: Prospective multicenter international observational study.

Objective: To investigate incidence of new neurologic deficit (NND) and the long-term recovery patterns following complex pediatric spine deformity surgery. The SRS M&M reports identify pediatric patients as having higher rate of new neurologic deficit compared with adults, while congenital and neuromuscular deformities are associated with higher new neurologic risks. Very few studies have had the large numbers of pediatric patients with curves exceeding 100 deg to ascertain the new neurologic deficit (NND) rates and recovery patterns as it relates to curve laterality and diagnosis.

Method: The FOX pediatric database from 17 international sites was queried for New Neurologic Deficit (NND) as characterized by change in American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Lower or Upper Extremity Motor Score. Recovery rates at specific intervals were recorded and related to the curve type and etiology.

Results: Data of 286 consecutive patients with normal pre-operative neurologic exams were reviewed. There were 160 females vs 125 males with an average age of 14.6 years. NND occurred in 27 patients (9.4%) in the immediate post-operative period. Diagnostic categories included idiopathic scoliosis (3 patients); idiopathic kyphoscoliosis(5 patients); congenital scoliosis (7 patients); congenital kyphoscoliosis (4 patients); congenital kyphosis (6 patients), other kyphosis (1 patient) and syndromic (1 patient). 1 patient was lost to follow-up (f/u) after discharge; 1 had chronic deficits at the first post-operative erect visit (from discharge to 9 months f/u) and was subsequently lost to follow-up; 2 patients were improving at 1-year f/u but lost to subsequent f/u. 16 patients had normal neurologic function by the time of the first post-operative erect visit, 21 patients at 1-year f/u and 21 patients at the 2-year f/u. 2 patients (0.69%) had improved NND at 2-year mark.

Conclusion: A significant proportion of patients with complex spine deformity experience NND. However, significant improvement in neurologic function can be expected over time as seen in this study without additional surgical intervention in most cases. Congenital deformities accounted for 63% of the patients experiencing NND.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43390-020-00211-4DOI Listing
March 2021

The growth-friendly surgical treatment of scoliosis in children with osteogenesis imperfecta using distraction-based instrumentation.

Spine Deform 2021 Jan 12;9(1):263-274. Epub 2020 Sep 12.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Purpose: The study was undertaken to determine the feasibility of growth-friendly distraction-based surgery in children with OI.

Methods: Two multi-center databases were queried for children with OI who had undergone GR or VEPTR surgery. Inclusion criteria were a minimum 2-year follow-up and three lengthening procedures following the initial implantation. Details of the surgical techniques, surgical complications, and radiographic measurements of deformity correction, T1-T12 and T1-S1 elongation and growth were recorded.

Results: Five patients were identified. There was one patient with type I OI and two patients each with type III and type IV. Four patients had GR constructs and one a VEPTR construct. The initial scoliosis deformity averaged 80° (70°-103°), and the subsequent corrections averaged 32% for initial correction, 48% at last follow-up, and 54% for the two patients that had a final fusion. The T1-T12 and T1-S1 growth averaged 31 mm and 44 mm respectively, and yearly growth averaged 4 mm and 6 mm, respectively. Growth was notably much less in those with more severe disease. There were 13 complications in 4 patients. Nine of the 10 surgical complications were anchor failures which were corrected in 7 planned and 2 un-planned procedures. Significant migration occurred in one patient with severe OI type III.

Conclusion: The results varied in this heterogeneous population. In general, satisfactory deformity corrections were obtained and maintained, modest growth was obtained, and complications were similar to those reported in other series of growth-friendly surgery. Limited growth and significant anchor migration are to be anticipated in this population.

Level Of Evidence: IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43390-020-00196-0DOI Listing
January 2021

Restoration of Thoracic Kyphosis in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Over a Twenty-year Period: Are We Getting Better?

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2020 Dec;45(23):1625-1633

Orthopedics and Scoliosis Division, Rady Children's Hospital, San Diego, CA.

Study Design: A multicenter, prospectively collected database of 20 years of operatively treated adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) was utilized to retrospectively examine pre- and postoperative thoracic kyphosis at 2-year follow-up.

Objective: To determine if the adoption of advanced three-dimensional correction techniques has led to improved thoracic kyphosis correction in AIS.

Summary Of Background Data: Over the past 20 years, there has been an evolution of operative treatment for AIS, with more emphasis on sagittal and axial planes. Thoracic hypokyphosis was well treated with an anterior approach, but this was not addressed sufficiently in early posterior approaches. We hypothesized that patients with preoperative thoracic hypokyphosis prior to 2000 would have superior thoracic kyphosis restoration, but the learning curve with pedicle screws would reflect initially inferior restoration and eventual improvement.

Methods: From 1995 to 2015, 1063 patients with preoperative thoracic hypokyphosis (<10°) were identified. A validated formula for assessing three-dimensional sagittal alignment using two-dimensional kyphosis and thoracic Cobb angle was applied. Patients were divided into 1995-2000 (Period 1, primarily anterior), 2001-2009 (Period 2, early thoracic pedicle screws), and 2010-2015 (Period 3, modern posterior) cohorts. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance and post-hoc Bonferroni corrections were utilized with P < 0.05 considered significant.

Results: Significant differences were demonstrated. Period 1 had excellent restoration of thoracic kyphosis, which worsened in Period 2 and improved to near Period 1 levels during Period 3. Period 3 had superior thoracic kyphosis restoration compared with Period 2.

Conclusion: Although the shift from anterior to posterior approaches in AIS was initially associated with worse thoracic kyphosis restoration, this improved with time. The proportion of patients restored to >20° kyphosis with a contemporary posterior approach has steadily improved to that of the era when anterior approaches were more common.

Level Of Evidence: 3.
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December 2020

Does thoracoplasty adversely affect lung function in complex pediatric spine deformity? A 2-year follow-up review.

Spine Deform 2021 Jan 18;9(1):105-111. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Department of Orthopedics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

Study Design: Retrospective review of prospective multi-center cohort.

Objective: To investigate the impact of thoracoplasty on pulmonary function at 2-year follow-up among complex pediatric spine deformity patients. Complex pediatric spine deformities may be associated with significant rib prominence causing body image concerns. Surgical correction of spine deformity may include thoracoplasty to correct the rotational prominence. Some surgeons refrain from performing thoracoplasty due to its purported negative effect on pulmonary function. There is paucity of literature on the effect of thoracoplasty on pulmonary function at 2-year follow-up in pediatric patients with complex spine deformity.

Methods: We reviewed data of 312 patients (> 100°, with or without vertebral column resection (VCR)) or (< 100° with VCR)) from an international multicenter database. Data of 106 patients with complete radiographic and pulmonary function test (PFT) assessment with a minimum of 2-year follow-up was analyzed. Paired t test was performed to compare pre-op and 2-year PFT results. PFT comparison was stratified based on thoracoplasty status (thoracoplasty: Group 1 vs. no thoracoplasty: Group 2).

Results: 106 patients (61 patients Group 1 vs. 45 in Group 2). The average age and gender ratio were similar in both groups (p  >  0.05). Group 1 had significantly lower body mass index (BMI) compared to Group 2 (18.4 kg m ± 2.8 vs. 19.9 kg m  ±  4.8, p  =  0.0351). The average baseline coronal and sagittal Cobbs were larger for Group 1 relative to Group 2 (p  < 0.05). The distribution of deformity etiology and curve types, and apices were similar between the two groups (p  >  0.05). The rate of pre-op utilization of halo gravity traction (HGT) was 52.5% vs. 26.7% (p  =  0.008), at an average duration of 103 days vs. 47 days, p  =  0.0001. The rate of surgical osteotomies was similar in both groups. Estimated blood volume (EBV) loss was greater in Group 1 (63.1% vs. 43.1%, p  =  0.0012). Post-op coronal and sagittal Cobb correction was similar in both groups. The incidence of post-op pulmonary complication was similar in both groups (8.2% vs. 8.9%, p  =  0.899). Baseline and 2-year follow-up PFT did not differ significantly between and within the groups. Vertebral column resection (VCR) did not negatively affect PFT in both groups.

Conclusion: Despite higher curve magnitudes in patients undergoing surgical correction and thoracoplasty for complex pediatric spine deformity, our findings revealed that thoracoplasty does not negatively affect pulmonary function at 2-year follow-up.
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January 2021

Major complications following surgical correction of spine deformity in 257 patients with cerebral palsy.

Spine Deform 2020 12 27;8(6):1305-1312. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Division of Orthopedics and Scoliosis, Rady Children's Hospital, 3020 Children's Way, MC 5062, San Diego, CA, 92123, USA.

Study Design: Observational.

Objectives: To report on the rate of major complications following spinal fusion and instrumentation to treat spinal deformity in patients with cerebral palsy (CP). Understanding the risk of major complications following the surgical treatment of spine deformities in patients with CP is critical.

Methods: A prospectively collected, multicenter database of patients with CP who had surgical correction of their spinal deformity (scoliosis or kyphosis) was reviewed for all major complications. Patients with ≥ 2 year follow-up or who died ≤ 2 years of surgery were included. A complication was defined as major if it resulted in reoperation, re-admission to the hospital, prolongation of the hospital stay, was considered life-threatening, or resulted in residual disability. Overall complication and revision rates were calculated for the perioperative (Peri-op; occurring ≤ 90 days postoperative) and delayed postoperative (Delayed; > 90 days) time periods.

Results: Two hundred and fifty-seven patients met inclusion. Seventy-eight (30%) patients had a major complication, 18 (7%) had > 1. There were 92 (36%) major complications; 64 (24.9%) occurred Peri-op. The most common Peri-op complications were wound (n = 16, 6.2%) and pulmonary issues (n = 28, 10.9%), specifically deep infections (n = 12, 4.7%) and prolonged ventilator support (n = 21, 8.2%). Delayed complications (n = 28, 10.9%) were primarily deep infections (n = 8, 3.1%) and instrumentation-related (n = 6, 2.3%). There were 42 additional surgeries for an overall unplanned return to the operating room rate of 16% (Peri-op: 8.6%, Delayed: 7.8%). Thirty-six (14.0%) reoperations were spine related surgeries (wound or instrumentation-related). Eleven (4.3%) patients died between 3 months to 5.6 years postoperatively; 4 occurred ≤ 1 year of surgery. Two deaths were directly related to the spinal deformity surgery.

Conclusion: Spinal deformity surgery in CP patients with greater than 2 years of follow-up have a postoperative major complication rate of 36% with a spine-related reoperation rate of 14.0%.

Level Of Evidence: Therapeutic-IV.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7384279PMC
December 2020

Comparing short-term AIS post-operative complications between ACS-NSQIP and a surgeon study group.

Spine Deform 2020 12 27;8(6):1247-1252. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Rady Children's Hospital, Encinitas, USA.

Study Design: Prospective cohort review.

Objective: To compare two AIS databases to determine if a performance improvement-based surgeon group has different outcomes compared to a national database. The American College of Surgeon's National Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) and a surgeon study group (SG) collect prospective data on AIS surgery outcomes. NSQIP offers open enrollment to all institutions, and SG membership is limited to 15 high-volume institutions, with a major initiative to improve surgeon performance. While both provide important outcome benchmarks, they may reflect outcomes that are not relatable nationwide.

Methods: The ASC-NSQIP Pediatric Spine Fusion and SG database were queried for AIS 30- and 90-day complication data for 2014 and 2015. Prospective enrollment and a dedicated site coordinator with rigorous data quality assurance protocols existed for both registries. Outcomes were compared between groups with respect to superficial and deep surgical site infections (SSI), neurologic injury, readmission, and reoperation.

Results: There were a total of 2927 AIS patients included in the ASC-NSQIP data and 721 in the SG database. Total complication rate was 9.4% NSQIP and 3.6% SG. At 90 days, there were fewer surgical site infections reported by SG than ASC-NSQIP (0.6% vs. 1.6%, p = 0.03). Similarly, there were less spinal cord injuries (0.8% vs 1.5%, p = 0.006), 30-day readmissions (0.8% vs. 2.6%, p = 0.002), and 30-day reoperations (0.6% vs. 1.7%, p = 0.02) in the SG cohort.

Conclusions: Comparison of these two data sets suggests a range of complications and readmission rates, with the SG demonstrating lower values. These results are likely multi-factorial with the performance improvement initiative of the SG playing a role. Understanding the rate and ultimate risk factors for readmission and complications from big data sources has the potential to further drive quality improvement.

Level Of Evidence: III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43390-020-00170-wDOI Listing
December 2020

Single-Staged Management of Pediatric Neuropathic Scoliosis with Intradural-Extramedullary Schwannoma and Improvement in Intraoperative Neuromonitoring: A Case Report.

JBJS Case Connect 2020 Apr-Jun;10(2):e0352

1Departments of Orthopaedic Surgery and Neurosurgery, Shriners Hospitals for Children-Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 2Division of Intraoperative Neuromonitoring, SpecialtyCare, Brentwood, Tennessee.

Case: A 16-year-old girl with lumbar prominence presented to our outpatient clinic complaining of sporadic back pain without paresthesia. Radiographic investigation revealed a 68° left thoracolumbar curve with the apex at L1. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging identified a mass at T10-11, subsequently confirmed by pathology as a schwannoma. She was treated surgically with resection and posterior spinal fusion in a single-staged procedure under neuromonitoring guidance. Intraoperative improvement in motor evoked potentials after resection informed the decision to perform simultaneous deformity correction.

Conclusion: We discuss the unusual coincidence of a schwannoma with scoliosis and our management algorithm based on operative changes in neuromonitoring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.CC.19.00352DOI Listing
February 2021

The Relationship Between 3-dimensional Spinal Alignment, Thoracic Volume, and Pulmonary Function in Surgical Correction of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: A 5-year Follow-up Study.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2020 Jul;45(14):983-992

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rady Children's Hospital, San Diego, CA.

Study Design: Retrospective review of a prospective multicenter database.

Objective: The aim of this study was to study the effects of thoracic kyphosis (TK) restoration in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) Type 1 and 2 curves on postoperative thoracic volume (TV) and pulmonary function.

Summary Of Background Data: Surgical correction of AIS is advocated to preserve or improve pulmonary function, prevent progressive deformity and pain, and improve self-appearance. Restoration of sagittal and 3D alignment, particularly TK, has become increasingly emphasized in efforts to improve pulmonary function, TVs, sagittal balance, and prevent adjacent-segment degeneration and deformity.

Methods: AIS patients 10 to 21years undergoing surgical correction of Lenke Type 1 and 2 curves with baseline, 1-erect-postoperative, and 5-year (5Y) postoperative visits including stereoradiographic assessment and pulmonary function tests (PFTs) were included. 3D-radiographic analysis was performed to assess spinal-alignment, chest-wall, and rib-cage dimensions at each time point. Outcome variables were analyzed between time points with one-way analysis of variance and between variables with linear regression analysis.

Results: Thirty-nine patients (37 females, 14.4 ± 2.2 years) were included. 3D-spinal-alignment analyses demonstrated significant reduction in preoperative to first-erect thoracic and lumbar Cobb-angles, an increase in TK:T2-12 (19.67°-39.69°) and TK:T5-12 (9.47°-28.05°), and reduction in apical vertebral rotation (AVR) (P < 0.001 for all). Spinal-alignment remained stable from 1-erect to 5Y. 3D rib-cage analysis demonstrated small reductions in baseline to first-erect depth (145-139 mm), width (235-232 mm), and increase in height (219-230 mm, P < 0.01), but no significant change in volume (5161-5222 cm,P = 0.184). From 1-erect to 5Y, significant increases in depth, width, height, and volume (all P < 0.001) occurred. PFTs showed preoperative to 5Y improvement in first second of Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV1) (2.74-2.98 L, P = 0.005) and forced vital capacity (FVC) (3.23-3.47 L, P = 0.008); however, total lung capacity (TLC) did not change (P = 0.517). Percent-predicted TLC decreased (Pre: 101.3% to 5Y: 89.3%, P < 0.001); however, percent-predicted forced expiratory volume and FVC did not (P = 0.112 and P = 0.068).

Conclusion: Although TK increases, coronal-Cobb and AVR decrease postoperatively; these do not directly influence TV, which increases from 1-erect to 5Y due to growth, corresponding with increases in FEV1 and FVC at 5Y; however, surgical restoration of kyphosis does not directly improve pulmonary function.

Level Of Evidence: 3.
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July 2020

The patient generated index and decision regret in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

Spine Deform 2020 12 25;8(6):1231-1238. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Alfred I. DuPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE, USA.

Hypothesis: AIS patients and their parents will have distinct perspectives regarding the impact of AIS on patients' lives.

Introduction: Current outcome assessment tools for AIS do not fully assess patient-specific disease impact and fail to distinguish between patient and parent perspectives. Patient Generated Index (PGI) has been used in other disease states to assess individual experiences. This study assesses PGI in operative AIS patients and their parents.

Design: Level 1, prospective multi-center study.

Methods: 44 AIS patient and parent pairs completed the PGI questionnaire comprised of three stages (S1, S2, S3) and decision regret (DR). S1 asks for five areas of the patient's life most affected by AIS and a 6th encompassing all other areas of their lives affected, S2 focuses on the magnitude of effect, S3 identifies desire to improve affected areas and DR if the surgery did not improve the specific area. S1 free responses were organized into 14 domains. Descriptive statistics were reported for stage scores; free-response format of PGI and DR limited ability for paired sample t test analysis.

Results: Mean age at surgery was 14.3 years, 84% female, and mean major curve magnitude was 61°. The three most common patient-reported concerns prior to surgery were (in descending order): sports, general function, and general fitness. However, the three most common parent-reported concerns were (in descending order): general function, sports, and appearance. Patients reported self-esteem and parents reported physical appearance as the most affected domain (S2). Patients reported pain and self-esteem and parents reported sleep and self-esteem as main operative aspirations (S3). Decision regret was the highest for uncertainty of future health in patients and sleep in parents.

Conclusion: AIS patients and their parents reported different concerns and DR regarding surgical treatment. PGI provides insight into patient and parent views toward the disease as well as treatment aspirations.
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December 2020

VEPTR Treatment of Early Onset Scoliosis in Children Without Rib Abnormalities: Long-term Results of a Prospective, Multicenter Study.

J Pediatr Orthop 2020 Jul;40(6):e406-e412

Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA.

Background: In 2007, this prospective study on vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib (VEPTR) treatment of early onset scoliosis in children without rib abnormalities was initiated. Two-year follow-up results have previously been reported. This study examines whether, at 5-year follow-up, VEPTR continues to control scoliosis and allow spinal growth.

Methods: A prospective, multicenter, observational cohort design was used. Patients underwent traditional VEPTR implantation ≥5 years before analysis. Preimplantation and last available images were compared, regardless of whether VEPTR remained in vivo. Additional analysis was performed if VEPTR was in vivo ≥5 years.

Results: This study included 59 patients (mean age at VEPTR implantation, 6.1±2.4 y; mean follow-up, 6.9±1.4 y). Currently, 24 patients still have VEPTR, whereas 24 have converted (13 fusions, 6 MCGR, 3 growing rods, 1 hybrid, and 1 Shilla). Three have had VEPTR explanted, 6 are unknown, and 2 have deceased. On last available imaging (n=59; mean follow-up, 4.8±1.9 y), scoliosis improved from 71.8±18.0 degrees preoperatively to 60.9±20.3 degrees (P<0.001) and T1- T12 height increased (15.8±3.2 to 19.3±3.8 cm, P<0.001). T1-S1 height also increased (24.8±4.4 to 31.2±5.3 cm, P<0.001), representing 119% age-matched growth. Composite improvement of scoliosis, T1-T12, and T1-S1 height was achieved in 79% of patients. A subset of 29 patients with VEPTR was analyzed at most recent follow-up ≥5 years while VEPTR remained in vivo (24 patients with VEPTR above, and 5 who later converted to other devices). Mean age at implantation was 5.0±2.2 years, with a mean VEPTR treatment duration of 6.2±1.1 years. Scoliosis improved from preoperatively (69.3±14.5 to 61.6±16.1 degrees, P=0.006), with mild recurrence from postoperative to 5 years. T1-T12 height increased (15.0±3.3 to 18.7±3.3 cm, P<0.001) and T1-S1 height increased (23.7±4.5 to 30.1±4.6 cm, P<0.001), representing 83% age-matched growth. Composite improvement was achieved in 83% of patients. Instrumented sagittal length also increased during this period (21.8±4.2 to 30.3±5.1 cm, P<0.001).

Conclusion: At a 5-year follow-up, VEPTR continues to control scoliosis and allow spinal growth.

Level Of Evidence: Level II-prospective cohort, therapeutic study.
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July 2020

Novel Use of Subcostal Polyethylene Bands to Manage Tumor-Related Scoliosis Requiring Serial Imaging: A Case Report.

JBJS Case Connect 2020 Jan-Mar;10(1):e0351

Departments of Orthopaedic Surgery and Neurosurgery, Shriners Hospitals for Children-Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Case: A 16-year-old male patient with severe kyphoscoliosis, paraplegia, and neurogenic bowel/bladder caused by a juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma was treated surgically using a hybrid fusion construct with polyethylene bands after neoplasm resection. Owing to the necessity of serial postoperative magnetic resonance imaging studies to evaluate the recurrence of pathology and known effect of metal artifact from spinal instrumentation, preservation of radiographic resolution was critical.

Conclusion: We describe the novel utility of polyethylene bands placed around the ribs as a safe and effective form of hybrid construct for reducing radiographic metal artifact in spinal deformity cases requiring serial imaging.
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January 2021

Bigger is better: larger thoracic height is associated with increased health related quality of life at skeletal maturity.

Spine Deform 2020 08 11;8(4):771-779. Epub 2020 Mar 11.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.

Study Design: Cross sectional OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association between thoracic height and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) at skeletal maturity in patients with EOS. Current literature suggests a minimum thoracic height of 18 cm to 22 cm to avoid poor pulmonary function and related health outcomes.

Methods: Patients with EOS who reached skeletal maturity from 2005 to 2018 were identified in two registries including 32 centers. Thoracic height from T1 to T12 at skeletal maturity and Early Onset Scoliosis 24 Item Questionnaire (EOSQ-24) scores were collected. The EOSQ-24 domains included HRQoL of patients, parental impact, financial impact and patient and parental satisfaction.

Results: 469 patients (mean age: 14.9, female: 77.4%) were identified. 29% patients were of congenital etiology, 20.3% neuromuscular, 13.6% syndromic, 34.8% idiopathic, and 2.3% other. When patients were grouped by thoracic height at skeletal maturity, all EOSQ-24 domains increased after a threshold of 18 cm. When stratified by etiology, the 18 cm cutoff held for patients with congenital, neuromuscular and syndromic EOS. The cutoff for idiopathic EOS was 20 cm. For all patients, after the threshold was met, HRQoL continued to improve with increases in thoracic height at skeletal maturity. A subset of 169 patients for which arm span measurements were available was also identified and their thoracic heights were normalized. When grouped by the percentage of expected thoracic height attained, EOSQ-24 domains increased after a threshold of 80%.

Conclusions: Once 18 cm of actual thoracic height or 80% of expected thoracic height is achieved, HRQoL continues to improve as thoracic height increases in skeletally mature patients with non-idiopathic EOS. Patients with idiopathic EOS had a higher threshold, possibly due to their larger average size and higher care giver expectations for HRQoL.

Level Of Evidence: Level III.
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August 2020

Of Major Complication Types, Only Deep Infections After Spinal Fusion Are Associated With Worse Health-related Outcomes in Children With Cerebral Palsy.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2020 Jul;45(14):993-999

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD.

Study Design: Retrospective review.

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether major postoperative complications ("complications") are associated with 2-year improvements in Caregiver Priorities and Child Health Index of Life with Disabilities (CPCHILD) scores after scoliosis surgery, and whether complications and preoperative characteristics predict 2-year improvements in CPCHILD Total score.

Summary Of Background Data: Spinal arthrodesis can halt the progression of spinal deformity in patients with cerebral palsy (CP)-related scoliosis. However, these patients are prone to postoperative complications.

Methods: Using a multicenter CP registry, we identified 222 patients aged ≤21 years who underwent spinal fusion from 2008 to 2015 and had ≥2-year follow-up. We compared CPCHILD score improvement between 71 patients who had 1 or more complications ("complications group") versus 151 who did not ("no-complications group"). Complications were deep infections, thromboembolic events, and cardiopulmonary, gastrointestinal, and neurologic complications. Multiple linear regression was used to identify predictors of 2-year postoperative CPCHILD score improvement (alpha = 0.05).

Results: At 2-year follow-up, the complications group had similar mean improvement in CPCHILD score across all domains compared with the no-complications group (P > 0.05). When stratifying by complication type, deep infection was associated with less improvement in CPCHILD Comfort and Emotions (P = 0.02), Quality of Life (P < 0.01), and Total (P = 0.04) scores. When controlling for Gross Motor Function Classification System subcategory, age, and body mass index, only preoperative CPCHILD Total score and postoperative deep infection (F[4, 176] = 14; P < 0.0001; R = 0.24) predicted 2-year improvement in CPCHILD Total score. Higher preoperative Total score and postoperative deep infection independently predicted less improvement in Total score.

Conclusion: Postoperative deep infection and higher preoperative CPCHILD Total score independently predicted less improvement in CPCHILD Total score. Other major postoperative complications were not associated with differences in 2-year postoperative improvements in CPCHILD scores across all domains.

Level Of Evidence: 3.
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July 2020

Early and late hospital readmissions after spine deformity surgery in children with cerebral palsy.

Spine Deform 2020 06 4;8(3):507-516. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Shriners Hospitals for Children-Philadelphia, 3551 N Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA, 19140, USA.

Study Design: Retrospective review of a prospectively collected multicenter registry of pediatric patients with cerebral palsy (CP) and neuromuscular scoliosis (NMS) undergoing spinal fusion.

Objective: To define risk factors for unplanned readmission after elective spinal deformity surgery. Patients with CP and NMS have high rates of hospital readmission; however, risk factors for readmission are not well established.

Methods: Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to compare the demographics, operative and postoperative course, radiographic characteristics, and preoperative Caregiver Priorities and Child Health Index of Life with Disabilities (CPCHILD) questionnaires of patients who did not require readmission to those who required either early readmission (within 90 days of the index surgery) or late readmission (readmission after 90 days).

Results: Of the 218 patients identified, 19 (8.7%) required early readmission, while 16 (7.3%) required late readmission. Baseline characteristics were similar between the three cohorts. On univariate analysis, early readmission was associated with longer duration of surgery (p < 0.001) and larger magnitude of residual deformity (p = 0.003 and p = 0.029 for postoperative major and minor angles, respectively). The health score of the CPCHILD Questionnaire was lower in patients who required early readmission than in those who did not require readmission (p = 0.032). On multivariate analysis, oral feeding status was inversely related to early readmission (less likely to require readmission), while decreasing lumbar lordosis and increasing length of surgery were related to an increased likelihood of early readmission.

Conclusions: In patients with CP and NMS, longer surgical time, larger residual major and minor Cobb angles, lumbar lordosis, feeding status, and overall health may be related to a greater likelihood for early hospital readmission after elective spinal fusion. No factors were identified that correlated with an increased need for late hospital readmission after elective spinal fusion in patients with CP.

Level Of Evidence: IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43390-019-00007-1DOI Listing
June 2020

The variability in the management of acute surgical site infections: an opportunity for the development of a best practice guideline.

Spine Deform 2020 06 19;8(3):463-468. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Division of Orthopedics & Scoliosis, Rady Children's Hospital, 3030 Children's Way, MC5062, San Diego, CA, 92123, USA.

Background: Multiple studies have reported on the risks and preventative measures associated with acute surgical site infection (SSI) in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Few studies have evaluated treatment and results. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the need for development of best practice guidelines based on the management of an acute SSI across 9 different centers.

Methods: A prospectively collected, multicenter database of patients undergoing surgical correction of AIS was reviewed for all acute SSI. Infection characteristics, treatment methods, and outcomes were summarized.

Results: Twenty-three (0.6%) from a total of 3926 AIS patients were treated for an acute SSI, all of which resolved. Twenty patients had documentation of the infection treatment (10 deep infections, 10 superficial). All ten patients with deep infections underwent operative incision and drainage. Six patients ultimately found to have a superficial infection underwent I&D and another 3 had dressing changes in the office. In the deep group, one patient had instrumentation exchanged and seven patients had bone graft removed. All 16 patients who underwent operative I&D had cultures obtained with 11 positive cultures. All deep infection patients were started on IV antibiotics for 2 days to 6 weeks prior to conversion to oral antibiotics. Five of six operative superficial infections were begun on IV antibiotics with conversion to oral antibiotics. Total antibiotic administration ranged from 5 days to 7 months in the deep infection group and 1 to 6 weeks in the superficial group.

Conclusions: While deep infections are consistently treated with I&D, there is significant variability in the surgical and medical management of acute SSI. Considering the universal resolution of the infection, there is opportunity for the development of BPG to minimize treatment morbidity and cost, while optimizing outcomes for this major complication.

Level Of Evidence: Therapeutic-IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43390-020-00079-4DOI Listing
June 2020