Publications by authors named "Amene Raouf Rahmati"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Local and systemic gene expression levels of IL-10, IL-17 and TGF-β in active ocular toxoplasmosis in humans.

Cytokine 2021 Jul 28;146:155643. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: To compare mRNA expression of interleukin 10 (IL-10), interleukin 17 (IL-17) and Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) in aqueous humor (AH) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in human ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) and controls.

Method: RNA isolation, cDNA synthesis and real-time polymerase chain reaction were performed on AH sediments and PBMCs of 16 patients with active OT and 21 controls at the Khatam-al-Anbia Eye Hospital, Iran. For comparison, Mann Whitney U test was used at a discrimination level of p < 0.05. Pearson and Spearman rank correlation test were applied for correlation with clinical parameters.

Results: The expression for IL-10 and IL-17 in the AH was 3.7- and 88.0-fold higher in OT than in controls (P = 0.04 and P = 0.03, respectively) whereas that of TGF-β was 7.7-fold lower (P < 0.001). The expression levels for these cytokines in PBMC followed a similar pattern (IL-10 13.8-fold down-regulated (P = 0.001), IL-17 with 1.9-fold insignificantly upregulated (p = 0.43), TGF-β 452.8-fold down-regulated (P = 0.002). Compared to PBMC, IL-10 coding mRNA was 1876-fold higher in the almost cell-free AH in OT (39.2-fold in controls), IL-17 coding mRNA was 9.4-fold higher (17.7-fold down-regulated in controls), and that coding for TGF-β 207-fold higher in OT (7x10-fold in controls). The expression for IL-10, IL-17 and TGF-β in AH thus followed an opposite pattern compared to that in PBMC.

Conclusion: OT induces a highly-specific local immunoregulatory process as evidenced by an intraocular up-regulation of IL-10 and down-regulation of TGF-β mRNA. This could indicate an attempt to prevent unnecessary tissue damage which is in line with a moderate local mRNA up-regulation for IL-17 which seems sufficient to control parasite proliferation. That this regulation is opposite to that in PBMC may be linked to intraocular immune deviation in the course of disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cyto.2021.155643DOI Listing
July 2021

Spatio-temporal epidemiology of the tuberculosis incidence rate in Iran 2008 to 2018.

BMC Public Health 2021 06 7;21(1):1093. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Geography and Urban Planning, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran.

Background: Effective reduction of tuberculosis (TB) requires information on the distribution of TB incidence rate across time and location. This study aims to identify the spatio-temporal pattern of TB incidence rate in Iran between 2008 and 2018.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on aggregated TB data (50,500 patients) at the provincial level provided by the Ministry of Health in Iran between 2008 and 2018. The Anselin Local Moran's I and Getis-Ord Gi* were performed to identify the spatial variations of the disease. Furthermore, spatial scan statistic was employed for purely temporal and spatio-temporal analyses. In all instances, the null hypothesis of no clusters was rejected at p ≤ 0.05.

Results: The overall incidence rate of TB decreased from 13.46 per 100,000 (95% CI: 13.19-13.73) in 2008 to 10.88 per 100,000 (95% CI: 10.65-11.11) in 2018. The highest incidence rate of TB was observed in southeast and northeast of Iran for the whole study period. Additionally, spatial cluster analysis discovered Khuzestan Province, in the West of the country, having significantly higher rates than neighbouring provinces in terms of both total TB and smear-positive pulmonary TB (SPPTB). Purely temporal analysis showed that high-rate and low-rate clusters were predominantly distributed in the time periods 2010-2014 and 2017-2018. Spatio-temporal results showed that the statistically significant clusters were mainly distributed from centre to the east during the study period. Some high-trend TB and SPPTB statistically significant clusters were found.

Conclusion: The results provided an overview of the latest TB spatio-temporal status In Iran and identified decreasing trends of TB in the 2008-2018 period. Despite the decreasing incidence rate, there is still need for screening, and targeting of preventive interventions, especially in high-risk areas. Knowledge of the spatio-temporal pattern of TB can be useful for policy development as the information regarding the high-risk areas would contribute to the selection of areas needed to be targeted for the expansion of health facilities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-11157-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8186231PMC
June 2021

Evaluation of zoonotic platyhelminthe infections identified in slaughtered livestock in Iran, 2015-2019.

BMC Vet Res 2021 May 5;17(1):185. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Background: Platyhelminth infections of livestock can result in considerable economic losses. This study aims to evaluate the spatial frequency of cystic echinococcosis (CE), dicrocoeliasis, and fascioliasis in livestock slaughtered in Iran during the years 2015-2019 and estimate direct costs associated with organ condemnation due to these parasites.

Methods: Abattoir data from 413 abattoirs representing all 31 Iranian provinces were collected from the Iran Veterinary Organization. Infection prevalence was calculated per year at the province level. The Local Moran's I statistic was performed to evaluate spatial autocorrelation of animals positive at slaughter for the years 2015-2019. Direct costs associated with condemned livers were calculated for each parasitic condition, with costs associated with condemned lungs also included for CE.

Results: Overall prevalence values for the study timeframe were as follows: sheep and goat fascioliasis 1.56% (95% CI: 1.56-1.56%), cattle fascioliasis 3.86% (95% CI: 3.85-3.88%), sheep and goat dicrocoeliasis 4.63% (95% CI: 4.62-4.63%), cattle dicrocoeliasis 3.08% (95% CI: 3.07-3.09%), sheep and goat CE 5.32% (95% CI: 5.32-5.33%), and cattle CE 7.26% (95% CI: 7.24-7.28%). Northwest Iran had the highest prevalence of CE and fascioliasis. High infection areas for Dicrocoelium spp. included the provinces of Zanjan, Gilan, Qazvin, and Tehran, which are located in northern Iran. Direct economic losses for sheep and goat fascioliasis, dicrocoeliasis, and CE for the study period were US$13,842,759, US$41,771,377, and US$22,801,054, respectively. Direct economic losses for cattle fascioliasis, dicrocoeliasis, and CE for the study period were US$1,989,200, US$1,668,986, and US$2,656,568, respectively.

Conclusion: Our findings provide valuable data for future monitoring of these important parasitic diseases in Iranian livestock. Disease control strategies are required to reduce the economic and public health impact of these platyhelminths.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-021-02888-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8097913PMC
May 2021

Anisakis allergy: unjustified social alarm versus healthy diet; commentary to the "Letter to the Editor" of Drs Daschner, Levsen, Cipriani, and del Hoyo, referencing to "World-wide prevalence of Anisakis larvae in fish and its relationship to human allergic anisakiasis: a systematic review".

Parasitol Res 2021 05 2;120(5):1921-1923. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovations, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, Australia.

Anisakiasis is an underrecognized condition globally, and accurate diagnosis remains problematic even in countries where the condition is well known. Our "systematic review" was conducted according to Prisma guidelines. The stated basis of our study was "syndromic surveillance." Both methods are recognized in published literature as valid to identify or predict disease and to make accessible large amounts of evidence from published literature. Our study identified Anisakis allergy "hot spots" and other geographical areas where fish are highly infected with Anisakis without commensurate studies of human allergy. Results of our study will open up new lines of enquiry. Norway, used as an example to discredit the scientific integrity of our article, has a cuisine thriving with raw fish dishes and many sushi restaurants. The peer reviewed data sets, confirmed A. simplex sensitization among the Norwegian population, although this has been overlooked by the authors of the "Letter to the Editor." The identification of hot spots in our study may be influential in many ways not the least in raising diagnostic suspicion to expedite accurate diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-021-07083-1DOI Listing
May 2021

Correction to: World-wide prevalence of Anisakis larvae in fish and its relationship to human allergic anisakiasis: a systematic review.

Parasitol Res 2021 May 1;120(5):1925-1926. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovations, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-021-07096-wDOI Listing
May 2021

World-wide prevalence of Anisakis larvae in fish and its relationship to human allergic anisakiasis: a systematic review.

Parasitol Res 2020 Nov 6;119(11):3585-3594. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovations, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, Australia.

The infective stage of Anisakidae nematodes responsible for allergic reactions in humans is found in a variety of edible fish and cephalopods. The identification of geographical regions that are high risk for infected seafood may help prevent allergic reactions in humans. Despite an abundance of published literature which has identified anisakid larvae in an array of edible seafood as well as scattered reports of human allergic anisakiasis, the relationship between the two has not been fully explored. Therefore, a systematic spatio-temporal study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Anisakis spp. in fish from January 2000 to August 2020 firstly to explore the relationship between fish infection and cases of allergic anisakiasis and secondly to use fish infection data to map potential allergic anisakiasis 'hot spots'. A systematic literature search for original English text articles was conducted through search engines, Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scholar. Out of 3228 articles which describe anisakid infection in fish, 264 were used for data extraction. Of 904 articles describing allergic anisakiasis, 37 were used for data extraction. A qualitative summary of the extracted data was performed using equal interval method (ArcMap software) in order to compare the global distribution of Anisakis-infected fish. Of the 152-identified fish hosts, five families were most commonly infected with Anisakis spp. These included Lophiidae (86.9%), Trichiuridae (77.05%), Zeidae (70.9%), Merlucciidae (67.8%) and Gadidae (56.8%). The hot spot areas for allergic anisakiasis were North and northeast of Atlantic Ocean, southwest of USA, west of Mexico, south of Chile, east of Argentina, Norway, UK and west of Iceland (confidence 99%). The highest rate of allergic anisakiasis was in Portugal and Norway with the prevalence rate of 18.45-22.50%. Allergologists should consider allergic anisakiasis as a public health issue particularly in high-risk countries where high prevalences in fish have been demonstrated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-020-06892-0DOI Listing
November 2020

Comparing spatio-temporal distribution of the most common human parasitic infections in Iran over two periods 2007 to 2012 and 2013 to 2018: A systematic quantitative literature review.

Int J Health Plann Manage 2020 Sep 22;35(5):1023-1040. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

This study analyses the spatio-temporal trend of the prevalence of the four most prevalent parasitic diseases in Iran over two periods, 2007 to 2012 and 2013 to 2018, indicating high-risk and low-risk areas. Out of 19 126 articles, we selected 220 articles for data extraction and calculated the pooled prevalence for cutaneous leishmaniasis, human toxoplasmosis, giardiasis and blastocystosis for all 31 provinces in the country. Anselin local Moran's I was used to identify clusters and outliers in the prevalence rates. The mean prevalence of cutaneous leishmaniasis patients was found 35.12 per 100 000 in 2007 to 2012 but fell to 19.12 per 100 000 in the 2013 to 2018 period. The mean prevalence of acute and chronic toxoplasmosis was 2.36% and 32.5%, respectively, in 2007 to 2012, which changed to 2.28% and 31.14% in 2013 to 2018. The total prevalence of giardiasis declined from 9.8% in 2007 to 2012 to 4.8% in 2013 to 2018, while the mean prevalence of blastocystosis declined from 8.9% in 2007 to 2012 to 6.76% in the 2013 to 2018 period. There was only one high-high cluster in 2007 to 2012 and that was due to giardiasis, while there were two in 2013 to 2018, one for blastocystosis and one for chronic toxoplasmosis. The total prevalence of blastocystosis, giardiasis and cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran has continually declined since 2007. In contrast, the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant Iranian women has not been changed. Iran's Midwest has more parasitic infections compared to the Mideast, which may be explained by the existence of vast deserts and consequently dry and hot climate in the latter part of the country.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hpm.3010DOI Listing
September 2020
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