Publications by authors named "Ambreen Iqrar"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Acute Neurological Manifestations of COVID-19 Patients From Three Tertiary Care Hospitals in Qatar.

Cureus 2022 Mar 14;14(3):e23150. Epub 2022 Mar 14.

Neurosciences, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, QAT.

Introduction Worldwide, there are more than 424 million confirmed cases of COVID-19. Most of the hospitalized critical COVID-19 patients manifested neurological signs and symptoms and higher mortality. The majority of COVID-19 fatalities occurred mostly in patients with advanced age and underlying medical comorbidities. This is the first local retrospective study in Qatar, which reported neurologic manifestations (48.5%) of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate acute neurological manifestations in COVID-19 hospitalized patients in the country. Methods This is a retrospective, observational study of 413 hospitalized COVID-19 patients. They were admitted to three different COVID-19 designated hospitals (Hazm Mebaireek, Ras Laffan, and Cuban tertiary care Hospitals) under the Hamad Medical Corporation, Qatar from 1st January 2020, to 31 January 2021. We evaluated electronic medical records of these patients and data were collected while their neurological manifestations were confirmed by two trained neurologists. These neurologic manifestations were categorized into three major groups: central nervous system (CNS), peripheral nervous system (PNS), and neuromuscular system. Results Of 413 patients, 94% (389) were male and 6% (24) were female; the mean age was 52 years. Among all different nationalities of COVID-19 patients, 20.3% (84) were Indian, 12.5% (52) were Bangladeshi, 10.1% (42) were Qatari and 9.2% (38) were Nepali. The most common symptoms at the onset of COVID-19 illness were as follows: 77.5% (321) had a fever, 67.4% (279) experienced cough, 58.7% (243) experienced shortness of breath and 26.1% (108) developed a sore throat. Overall 48.5% (201) patients developed different neurologic manifestations. The most common neurologic symptoms were myalgia (28%; 116), headache (10.4%; 43), dizziness (5.8%; 24) and hemiparesis due to strokes (5.3%; 22). In this study, the most common risk factors were hypertension (47.6%), diabetes (46.9%), obesity (21%), chronic kidney disease (10%), ischemic heart disease (9.7%), and smoking (6.8%). About 45.2% (187) patients were admitted to MICU and 8.5% (35) died due to COVID-19 complications. Significant other extrapulmonary multiorgan system involvement were skeletal muscle injury (39.4%), kidney injury (36.7%), liver injury (27.5%), myocardial injury (23.9%), rhabdomyolysis (15.7%) heart failure (11.4%) and acute pancreatitis (11.1%). Discussion The most common neurologic signs and symptoms were myalgia, headache, dizziness, and strokes, mainly due to large vessel thrombosis, lacunar, and posterior circulation strokes. Conclusions Patients with COVID-19 are at high risk of developing neurological manifestations. The most common COVID-19-related acute neurological manifestations were myalgia, headache, dizziness, and acute ischemic stroke. Prompt recognition, early diagnosis, and appropriate management of these manifestations could potentially lead to better patient outcomes in COVID-19 patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.23150DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9007182PMC
March 2022

Emerging Super-specialty of Neurology: Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring (IONM) and Experience in Various Neurosurgeries at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Doha, Qatar.

Cureus 2021 Dec 15;13(12):e20432. Epub 2021 Dec 15.

Department of Neurosurgery, Neuroscience Institute, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, QAT.

Introduction Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) helps in better patient outcomes by minimizing risks related to the functional status of the nervous system during surgical procedures. An IONM alert to the surgical team during the surgery can help them identify the cause and take immediate corrective action. IONM confers possible benefits, including improved surgical morbidity and mortality, better patient care, minimal neurological deficits, reduced hospital stay, medical costs, and litigation risk. In addition, a highly skilled IONM team will make a better patient outcome. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 62 consecutive patients who underwent intracranial and spinal neurosurgical procedures. Multimodality IONM was utilized, including somatosensory evoked potentials, transcranial electrical motor evoked potential, spontaneous and triggered electromyography, electroencephalography, electrocorticography, cortical sensory mapping, and direct electrical cortical stimulation. Of a total of 62 patients, two patients revealed neurotonic EMG discharges during IONM, and most patients woke up without any new neurological deficit. Results Sixty-two patients were included, ranging from age 5 to 77 years (mean 43.5 years), with 54.8% men and 45.2% female. Multimodality IONM was used in all patients. Two EMG alerts were recorded during IONM, during a brain tumor resection, and right acetabular hip surgery with postoperative right foot drop. Conclusion Multimodality IONM is the gold standard of care for any surgical services and is used as real-time monitoring of functional integrity of neural structures at risk. If utilized by trained and expert teams, numerous surgeries may benefit from multimodality intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.20432DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8759984PMC
December 2021

Acute Myocardial Injury and Rhabdomyolysis in COVID-19 Patients: Incidence and Mortality.

Cureus 2021 Oct 19;13(10):e18899. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Neurology, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, QAT.

Background Myocardial injury has been defined as an elevated troponin level. The frequency of acute myocardial injury of hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients ranges from 7% to 36%. COVID-19 patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) have a four-fold higher risk of mortality (odds ratio, 4.33; CI 95%, 3.16-5.94). In COVID-19 hospitalized patients' study showed mortality rate was 18.5%. Rhabdomyolysis is considered as muscle necrosis and the release of intracellular muscles elements and enzymes into blood. In one of retrospective cohort study of COVID-19 hospitalized patients, incidence of rhabdomyolysis was 16.7%. Materials and methods This retrospective observational study consisted of 413 COVID-19 hospitalized patients. Patients with rhabdomyolysis was defined as creatine kinase level greater than 1,000 U/L and acute myocardial injury was defined as serum high-sensitivity troponin-T for males greater than 30 ng/l and for female greater than 20 ng/l. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality of COVID-19 patients with acute myocardial injury and rhabdomyolysis.  Results The incidence of acute myocardial injury and rhabdomyolysis in hospitalized COVID-19 patients was 23.9% (99) and 15.7% (65), respectively. The mortality rate of in hospitalized COVID-19 patients who developed acute myocardial injury (28.3%) was significantly higher in comparison to patients who developed rhabdomyolysis (13.8%). Discussion The binding of SARS-CoV-2 virus to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a critical step in the pathophysiology in patients with COVID-19. There may be diverse direct and indirect mechanisms of acute myocardial injury in COVID-19 including ischemic injury, hypoxic injury (MI type 2), direct viral myocarditis, stress cardiomyopathy and systemic cytokine storm. Musculoskeletal injury may be caused by direct viral myositis or indirectly by host immune hyperinflammatory cytokine storm response that leads to skeletal muscle fiber proteolysis and fibrosis. Conclusions Acute myocardial injury and rhabdomyolysis were underreported in COVID-19 patients. The incidence and mortality of acute myocardial injury are higher than that of rhabdomyolysis in COVID-19 hospitalized patients. The outcome was worse in COVID-19 patients with severe acute myocardial injury. Patients with acute myocardial injury and rhabdomyolysis may get benefits from rehabilitation programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.18899DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8599434PMC
October 2021

COVID-19-Associated Acute Transverse Myelitis: A Case Series of a Rare Neurologic Condition.

Cureus 2021 Oct 6;13(10):e18551. Epub 2021 Oct 6.

Neurology, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, QAT.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral infection is not confined to the respiratory system, but has also shown extra-pulmonary invasion including the nervous system. About 36.4% of hospitalized patients in China with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection had neurological manifestations. SARS-CoV-2 virus enters the human body through angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) receptors on the surface of human cells and causes disease. ACE2 receptors are also expressed on the surface of spinal cord cells. More rare neurologic conditions have been reported in the literature to be associated with COVID-19 such as acute transverse myelitis (ATM), Guillain Barre syndrome, acute flaccid myelitis, etc. We report two cases of confirmed COVID-19 who presented four to five days of their COVID-19 symptoms and progressive bilateral lower limb weakness and urinary retention. ATM is an acquired spinal cord disorder. ATM is a relatively common neurological complication of COVID-19, accounting for 1.2% of all neurological complications associated with COVID-19. The mechanism by which COVID-19 causes ATM is not completely understood but has been assumed to be due to the structural resemblance of RNA viruses. Entrance of SARS-CoV-2 to the nervous system can take place through two pathways, either directly or indirectly. The direct pathway is through trans-synaptic transmission from the peripheral nervous system or by hematogenous spread into the blood-brain barrier through ACE-2, while the indirect pathway is through a systemic immune response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.18551DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8571429PMC
October 2021

Bilateral Acute Optic Perineuritis Associated With COVID-19 in a Patient With Seronegative Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein (MOG) Antibody.

Cureus 2021 Sep 24;13(9):e18234. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Neurology, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, QAT.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-Cov-2) may cause various neuro-ophthalmologic manifestations including optic perineuritis. Optic perineuritis is a rare form of orbital inflammatory disease in which optic nerve sheath is inflamed and nonspecific fibrotic thickening with classic radiological finding is a perineural enhancement of optic nerve sheath. A 45-year-old gentleman with known diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia was admitted with a critically ill COVID-19 infection. During the recovery period, the patient developed sudden onset of painless loss of vision. MRI head and orbit with gadolinium was suggestive of optic perineuritis. Other secondary causes of autoimmune or vasculitis myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody disease and other common central nervous system (CNS) infection were excluded. The patient had dramatic response with steroids. This is the first rare case report of COVID-19-related optic perineuritis in critically ill COVID-19 patients with seronegative MOG antibody. Optic perineuritis is a rare orbital inflammatory disease and underlying mechanisms may arise from systemic response to COVID-19 infection as well as direct effects of the virus via angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) receptors on ocular tissues. Optic perineuritis is a rare disease with inflammation restricted to the optic nerve sheath. Neuroimaging of the brain and orbit is the most important modality of choice for visualizing optic nerve sheath and optic nerve. Delay in the diagnosis of COVID-19-related optic perineuritis, may result in permanent optic nerve injury and irreversible vision loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.18234DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8542256PMC
September 2021
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