Publications by authors named "Amber L Beitelshees"

95 Publications

Multisite evaluation of institutional processes and implementation determinants for pharmacogenetic testing to guide antidepressant therapy.

Clin Transl Sci 2021 Sep 25. Epub 2021 Sep 25.

University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

There is growing interest in utilizing pharmacogenetic (PGx) testing to guide antidepressant use, but there is lack of clarity on how to implement testing into clinical practice. We administered two surveys at 17 sites that had implemented or were in the process of implementing PGx testing for antidepressants. Survey 1 collected data on the process and logistics of testing. Survey 2 asked sites to rank the importance of Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) constructs using best-worst scaling choice experiments. Of the 17 sites, 13 had implemented testing and four were in the planning stage. Thirteen offered testing in the outpatient setting, and nine in both outpatient/inpatient settings. PGx tests were mainly ordered by psychiatry (92%) and primary care (69%) providers. CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 were the most commonly tested genes. The justification for antidepressants selected for PGx guidance was based on Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium guidelines (94%) and US Food and Drug Administration (FDA; 75.6%) guidance. Both institutional (53%) and commercial laboratories (53%) were used for testing. Sites varied on the methods for returning results to providers and patients. Sites were consistent in ranking CFIR constructs and identified patient needs/resources, leadership engagement, intervention knowledge/beliefs, evidence strength and quality, and the identification of champions as most important for implementation. Sites deployed similar implementation strategies and measured similar outcomes. The process of implementing PGx testing to guide antidepressant therapy varied across sites, but key drivers for successful implementation were similar and may help guide other institutions interested in providing PGx-guided pharmacotherapy for antidepressant management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cts.13154DOI Listing
September 2021

Multisite investigation of strategies for the clinical implementation of pre-emptive pharmacogenetic testing.

Genet Med 2021 Dec 19;23(12):2335-2341. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research and Center for Pharmacogenomics and Precision Medicine, University of Florida College of Pharmacy, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Purpose: The increased availability of clinical pharmacogenetic (PGx) guidelines and decreasing costs for genetic testing have slowly led to increased utilization of PGx testing in clinical practice. Pre-emptive PGx testing, where testing is performed in advance of drug prescribing, is one means to ensure results are available at the time of prescribing decisions. However, the most efficient and effective methods to clinically implement this strategy remain unclear.

Methods: In this report, we compare and contrast implementation strategies for pre-emptive PGx testing by 15 early-adopter institutions. We surveyed these groups, collecting data on testing approaches, team composition, and workflow dynamics, in addition to estimated third-party reimbursement rates.

Results: We found that while pre-emptive PGx testing models varied across sites, institutions shared several commonalities, including methods to identify patients eligible for testing, involvement of a precision medicine clinical team in program leadership, and the implementation of pharmacogenes with Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium guidelines available. Finally, while reimbursement rate data were difficult to obtain, the data available suggested that reimbursement rates for pre-emptive PGx testing remain low.

Conclusion: These findings should inform the establishment of future implementation efforts at institutions considering a pre-emptive PGx testing program.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-021-01269-9DOI Listing
December 2021

Pharmacological treatment of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes.

J Clin Invest 2021 01;131(2)

Diabetes mellitus is a major public health problem, affecting about 10% of the population. Pharmacotherapy aims to protect against microvascular complications, including blindness, end-stage kidney disease, and amputations. Landmark clinical trials have demonstrated that intensive glycemic control slows progression of microvascular complications (retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy). Long-term follow-up has demonstrated that intensive glycemic control also decreases risk of macrovascular disease, albeit rigorous evidence of macrovascular benefit did not emerge for over a decade. The US FDA's recent requirement for dedicated cardiovascular outcome trials ushered in a golden age for understanding the clinical profiles of new type 2 diabetes drugs. Some clinical trials with sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) receptor agonists reported data demonstrating cardiovascular benefit (decreased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events and hospitalization for heart failure) and slower progression of diabetic kidney disease. This Review discusses current guidelines for use of the 12 classes of drugs approved to promote glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. The Review also anticipates future developments with potential to improve the standard of care: availability of generic dipeptidylpeptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitors and SGLT2 inhibitors; precision medicine to identify the best drugs for individual patients; and new therapies to protect against chronic complications of diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI142243DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7810496PMC
January 2021

Opportunity for Genotype-Guided Prescribing Among Adult Patients in 11 US Health Systems.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2021 07 16;110(1):179-188. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Biomedical Informatics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

The value of utilizing a multigene pharmacogenetic panel to tailor pharmacotherapy is contingent on the prevalence of prescribed medications with an actionable pharmacogenetic association. The Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) has categorized over 35 gene-drug pairs as "level A," for which there is sufficiently strong evidence to recommend that genetic information be used to guide drug prescribing. The opportunity to use genetic information to tailor pharmacotherapy among adult patients was determined by elucidating the exposure to CPIC level A drugs among 11 Implementing Genomics In Practice Network (IGNITE)-affiliated health systems across the US. Inpatient and/or outpatient electronic-prescribing data were collected between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2016 for patients ≥ 18 years of age who had at least one medical encounter that was eligible for drug prescribing in a calendar year. A median of ~ 7.2 million adult patients was available for assessment of drug prescribing per year. From 2011 to 2016, the annual estimated prevalence of exposure to at least one CPIC level A drug prescribed to unique patients ranged between 15,719 (95% confidence interval (CI): 15,658-15,781) in 2011 to 17,335 (CI: 17,283-17,386) in 2016 per 100,000 patients. The estimated annual exposure to at least 2 drugs was above 7,200 per 100,000 patients in most years of the study, reaching an apex of 7,660 (CI: 7,632-7,687) per 100,000 patients in 2014. An estimated 4,748 per 100,000 prescribing events were potentially eligible for a genotype-guided intervention. Results from this study show that a significant portion of adults treated at medical institutions across the United States is exposed to medications for which genetic information, if available, should be used to guide prescribing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpt.2161DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8217370PMC
July 2021

Prescribing Prevalence of Medications With Potential Genotype-Guided Dosing in Pediatric Patients.

JAMA Netw Open 2020 12 1;3(12):e2029411. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Personalized Medicine Initiative, Nicklaus Children's Health System, Miami, Florida.

Importance: Genotype-guided prescribing in pediatrics could prevent adverse drug reactions and improve therapeutic response. Clinical pharmacogenetic implementation guidelines are available for many medications commonly prescribed to children. Frequencies of medication prescription and actionable genotypes (genotypes where a prescribing change may be indicated) inform the potential value of pharmacogenetic implementation.

Objective: To assess potential opportunities for genotype-guided prescribing in pediatric populations among multiple health systems by examining the prevalence of prescriptions for each drug with the highest level of evidence (Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium level A) and estimating the prevalence of potential actionable prescribing decisions.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This serial cross-sectional study of prescribing prevalences in 16 health systems included electronic health records data from pediatric inpatient and outpatient encounters from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2017. The health systems included academic medical centers with free-standing children's hospitals and community hospitals that were part of an adult health care system. Participants included approximately 2.9 million patients younger than 21 years observed per year. Data were analyzed from June 5, 2018, to April 14, 2020.

Exposures: Prescription of 38 level A medications based on electronic health records.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Annual prevalence of level A medication prescribing and estimated actionable exposures, calculated by combining estimated site-year prevalences across sites with each site weighted equally.

Results: Data from approximately 2.9 million pediatric patients (median age, 8 [interquartile range, 2-16] years; 50.7% female, 62.3% White) were analyzed for a typical calendar year. The annual prescribing prevalence of at least 1 level A drug ranged from 7987 to 10 629 per 100 000 patients with increasing trends from 2011 to 2014. The most prescribed level A drug was the antiemetic ondansetron (annual prevalence of exposure, 8107 [95% CI, 8077-8137] per 100 000 children). Among commonly prescribed opioids, annual prevalence per 100 000 patients was 295 (95% CI, 273-317) for tramadol, 571 (95% CI, 557-586) for codeine, and 2116 (95% CI, 2097-2135) for oxycodone. The antidepressants citalopram, escitalopram, and amitriptyline were also commonly prescribed (annual prevalence, approximately 250 per 100 000 patients for each). Estimated prevalences of actionable exposures were highest for oxycodone and ondansetron (>300 per 100 000 patients annually). CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 substrates were more frequently prescribed than medications influenced by other genes.

Conclusions And Relevance: These findings suggest that opportunities for pharmacogenetic implementation among pediatric patients in the US are abundant. As expected, the greatest opportunity exists with implementing CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 pharmacogenetic guidance for commonly prescribed antiemetics, analgesics, and antidepressants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.29411DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7737091PMC
December 2020

Impact of the CYP2C19*17 Allele on Outcomes in Patients Receiving Genotype-Guided Antiplatelet Therapy After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2021 03 2;109(3):705-715. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

Department of Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research, Center for Pharmacogenomics and Precision Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.

Genotyping for CYP2C19 no function alleles to guide antiplatelet therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) improves clinical outcomes. Although results for the increased function CYP2C19*17 allele are also reported, its clinical relevance in this setting remains unclear. A collaboration across nine sites examined antiplatelet therapy prescribing and clinical outcomes in 3,342 patients after implementation of CYP2C19-guided antiplatelet therapy. Risk of major atherothrombotic and bleeding events over 12 months after PCI were compared across cytochrome P450 2C19 isozyme (CYP2C19) metabolizer phenotype and antiplatelet therapy groups by proportional hazards regression. Clopidogrel was prescribed to a similar proportion of CYP2C19 normal (84.5%), rapid (82.9%), and ultrarapid metabolizers (80.6%) (P = 0.360). Clopidogrel-treated normal metabolizers (20.4 events/100 patient-years; adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.75-1.33, P = 0.993) and clopidogrel-treated rapid or ultrarapid metabolizers (19.1 events/100 patient-years; adjusted HR 0.95, 95% CI, 0.69-1.30, P = 0.734) exhibited no difference in major atherothrombotic events compared with patients treated with prasugrel or ticagrelor (17.6 events/100 patient-years). In contrast, clopidogrel-treated intermediate and poor metabolizers exhibited significantly higher atherothrombotic event risk compared with prasugrel/ticagrelor-treated patients (adjusted HR 1.56, 95% CI, 1.12-2.16, P = 0.008). When comparing clopidogrel-treated rapid or ultrarapid metabolizers to normal metabolizers, no difference in atherothrombotic (adjusted HR 0.97, 95% CI, 0.73-1.29, P = 0.808) or bleeding events (adjusted HR 1.34, 95% CI, 0.83-2.17, P = 0.224) were observed. In a real-world setting of genotype-guided antiplatelet therapy, the CYP2C19*17 allele did not significantly impact post-PCI prescribing decisions or clinical outcomes. These results suggest the CYP2C19 *1/*17 and *17/*17 genotypes have limited clinical utility to guide antiplatelet therapy after PCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpt.2039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7902344PMC
March 2021

Development of Customizable Implementation Guides to Support Clinical Adoption of Pharmacogenomics: Experiences of the Implementing GeNomics In pracTicE (IGNITE) Network.

Pharmgenomics Pers Med 2020 17;13:217-226. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Department of Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research and Center for Pharmacogenomics & Precision Medicine, University of Florida College of Pharmacy, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Introduction: Clinical adoption of genomic medicine has lagged behind the pace of scientific discovery. Practice-based resources can help overcome implementation challenges.

Methods: In 2015, the IGNITE (Implementing GeNomics In pracTicE) Network created an online genomic medicine implementation resource toolbox that was expanded in 2017 to incorporate the ability for users to create targeted implementation guides. This expansion was led by a multidisciplinary team that developed an evidence-based, structured framework for the guides, oversaw the technical process/build, and pilot tested the first guide, -Clopidogrel Testing Implementation.

Results: Sixty-five resources were collected from 12 institutions and categorized according to a seven-step implementation framework for the pilot -Clopidogrel Testing Implementation Guide. Five months after its launch, 96 -Clopidogrel Testing Implementation Guides had been created. Eighty percent of the resources most frequently selected by users were created by IGNITE to fill an identified resource gap. Resources most often included in guides were from the test reimbursement (22%), Implementation support gathering (22%), EHR integration (17%), and genetic testing workflow steps (17%).

Conclusion: Lessons learned from this implementation guide development process provide insight for prioritizing development of future resources and support the value of collaborative efforts to create resources for genomic medicine implementation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PGPM.S241599DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7373415PMC
July 2020

Correction: Evaluating the extent of reusability of CYP2C19 genotype data among patients genotyped for antiplatelet therapy selection.

Genet Med 2020 Nov;22(11):1919

University of Florida College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research and Center for Pharmacogenomics and Precision Medicine, Gainesville, FL, USA.

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-020-0931-1DOI Listing
November 2020

Evaluating the extent of reusability of CYP2C19 genotype data among patients genotyped for antiplatelet therapy selection.

Genet Med 2020 11 17;22(11):1898-1902. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

University of Florida College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research and Center for Pharmacogenomics and Precision Medicine, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Purpose: Genotype-guided antiplatelet therapy is increasingly being incorporated into clinical care. The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which patients initially genotyped for CYP2C19 to guide antiplatelet therapy were prescribed additional medications affected by CYP2C19.

Methods: We assembled a cohort of patients from eight sites performingCYP2C19 genotyping to inform antiplatelet therapy. Medication orders were evaluated from time of genotyping through one year. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients prescribed two or more CYP2C19 substrates. Secondary endpoints were the proportion of patients with a drug-genotype interaction and time to receiving a CYP2C19 substrate.

Results: Nine thousand one hundred ninety-one genotyped patients (17% nonwhite) with a mean age of 68 ± 3 years were evaluated; 4701 (51%) of patients received two or more CYP2C19 substrates and 3835 (42%) of patients had a drug-genotype interaction. The average time between genotyping and CYP2C19 substrate other than antiplatelet therapy was 25 ± 10 days.

Conclusions: More than half of patients genotyped in the setting of CYP2C19-guided antiplatelet therapy received another medication impacted by CYP2C19 in the following year. Given that genotype is stable for a patient's lifetime, this finding has implications for cost effectiveness, patient care, and treatment outcomes beyond the indication for which it was originally performed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-020-0894-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7606808PMC
November 2020

Sorting nexin 1 loss results in increased oxidative stress and hypertension.

FASEB J 2020 06 15;34(6):7941-7957. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Acute renal depletion of sorting nexin 1 (SNX1) in mice results in blunted natriuretic response and hypertension due to impaired dopamine D receptor (D R) activity. We elucidated the molecular mechanisms for these phenotypes in Snx1 mice. These mice had increased renal expressions of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT R), NADPH oxidase (NOX) subunits, D R, and NaCl cotransporter. Basal reactive oxygen species (ROS), NOX activity, and blood pressure (BP) were also higher in Snx1 mice, which were normalized by apocynin, a drug that prevents NOX assembly. Renal proximal tubule (RPT) cells from hypertensive (HT) Euro-American males had deficient SNX1 activity, impaired D R endocytosis, and increased ROS compared with cells from normotensive (NT) Euro-American males. siRNA-mediated depletion of SNX1 in RPT cells from NT subjects led to a blunting of D R agonist-induced increase in cAMP production and decrease in Na transport, effects that were normalized by over-expression of SNX1. Among HT African-Americans, three of the 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms interrogated for the SNX1 gene were associated with a decrease in systolic BP in response to hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ). The results illustrate a new paradigm for the development of hypertension and imply that the trafficking protein SNX1 may be a crucial determinant for hypertension and response to antihypertensive therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.201902448RDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7643053PMC
June 2020

Cost-effectiveness of CYP2C19-guided antiplatelet therapy in patients with acute coronary syndrome and percutaneous coronary intervention informed by real-world data.

Pharmacogenomics J 2020 10 11;20(5):724-735. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Department of Biomedical Informatics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.

Current guidelines recommend dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) consisting of aspirin and a P2Y12 inhibitors following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). CYP2C19 genotype can guide DAPT selection, prescribing ticagrelor or prasugrel for loss-of-function (LOF) allele carriers (genotype-guided escalation). Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEA) are traditionally grounded in clinical trial data. We conduct a CEA using real-world data using a 1-year decision-analytic model comparing primary strategies: universal empiric clopidogrel (base case), universal ticagrelor, and genotype-guided escalation. We also explore secondary strategies commonly implemented in practice, wherein all patients are prescribed ticagrelor for 30 days post PCI. After 30 days, all patients are switched to clopidogrel irrespective of genotype (nonguided de-escalation) or to clopidogrel only if patients do not harbor an LOF allele (genotype-guided de-escalation). Compared with universal clopidogrel, both universal ticagrelor and genotype-guided escalation were superior with improvement in quality-adjusted life years (QALY's). Only genotype-guided escalation was cost-effective ($42,365/QALY) and demonstrated the highest probability of being cost-effective across conventional willingness-to-pay thresholds. In the secondary analysis, compared with the nonguided de-escalation strategy, although genotype-guided de-escalation and universal ticagrelor were more effective, with ICER of $188,680/QALY and $678,215/QALY, respectively, they were not cost-effective. CYP2C19 genotype-guided antiplatelet prescribing is cost-effective compared with either universal clopidogrel or universal ticagrelor using real-world implementation data. The secondary analysis suggests genotype-guided and nonguided de-escalation may be viable strategies, needing further evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41397-020-0162-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7417282PMC
October 2020

Response to: Heterogeneous Treatment Response by Race Cannot Be Claimed in the Absence of Evidence.

Am J Hypertens 2020 02;33(2):e2

Department of Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research and Center for Pharmacogenomics, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajh/hpz168DOI Listing
February 2020

SGLT2 inhibitors as adjunctive therapy for type 1 diabetes: balancing benefits and risks.

Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2019 12 1;7(12):949-958. Epub 2019 Oct 1.

Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have several beneficial effects in patients with type 2 diabetes, including glucose lowering, weight loss, blood pressure lowering, and a reduced risk of major adverse cardiovascular events. To address high unmet medical need via improved glycaemic control, several clinical trials have been done to assess the efficacy and safety of SGLT2 inhibitors in combination with insulin therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes. In this Personal View, we summarise data from eight clinical trials of canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, empagliflozin, and sotagliflozin in patients with type 1 diabetes. HbA-lowering efficacy was greatest at 8-12 weeks of therapy, but the magnitude of HbA lowering waned with longer duration of treatment (up to 52 weeks). Data are not yet available to establish for how long glycaemic efficacy could be sustained during long-term therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes. Moreover, SGLT2 inhibitor therapy induces serious adverse events, including a roughly six-times increased risk of diabetic ketoacidosis. The US Food and Drug Administration estimated that one additional case of ketoacidosis will occur for every 26 patient-years of exposure of patients with type 1 diabetes to sotagliflozin therapy. Assuming a case mortality of 0·4%, this estimate translates into 16 additional deaths per year per 100 000 patients with type 1 diabetes undergoing treatment. These considerations raise important questions about the risk-to-benefit profile of SGLT2 inhibitors when used as adjunctive therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-8587(19)30154-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6872914PMC
December 2019

Hypertensive APOL1 risk allele carriers demonstrate greater blood pressure reduction with angiotensin receptor blockade compared to low risk carriers.

PLoS One 2019 18;14(9):e0221957. Epub 2019 Sep 18.

Section of Nephrology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America.

Background: Hypertension (HTN) disproportionately affects African Americans (AAs), who respond better to thiazide diuretics than other antihypertensives. Variants of the APOL1 gene found in AAs are associated with a higher rate of kidney disease and play a complex role in cardiovascular disease.

Methods: AA subjects from four HTN trials (n = 961) (GERA1, GERA2, PEAR1, and PEAR2) were evaluated for blood pressure (BP) response based on APOL1 genotype after 4-9 weeks of monotherapy with thiazides, beta blockers, or candesartan. APOL1 G1 and G2 variants were determined by direct sequencing or imputation.

Results: Baseline systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) levels did not differ based on APOL1 genotype. Subjects with 1-2 APOL1 risk alleles had a greater SBP response to candesartan (-12.2 +/- 1.2 vs -7.5 +/- 1.8 mmHg, p = 0.03; GERA2), and a greater decline in albuminuria with candesartan (-8.3 +/- 3.1 vs +3.7 +/- 4.3 mg/day, p = 0.02). APOL1 genotype did not associate with BP response to thiazides or beta blockers. GWAS was performed to determine associations with BP response to candesartan depending on APOL1 genotype. While no SNPs reached genome wide significance, SNP rs10113352, intronic in CSMD1, predicted greater office SBP response to candesartan (p = 3.7 x 10-7) in those with 1-2 risk alleles, while SNP rs286856, intronic in DPP6, predicted greater office SBP response (p = 3.2 x 10-7) in those with 0 risk alleles.

Conclusions: Hypertensive AAs without overt kidney disease who carry 1 or more APOL1 risk variants have a greater BP and albuminuria reduction in response to candesartan therapy. BP response to thiazides or beta blockers did not differ by APOL1 genotype. Future studies confirming this initial finding in an independent cohort are required.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0221957PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6750571PMC
March 2020

Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors: A Case Study in Translational Research.

Diabetes 2019 06;68(6):1109-1120

Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD

Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are the most recently approved class of diabetes drugs. Unlike other agents, SGLT2 inhibitors act on the kidney to promote urinary glucose excretion. SGLT2 inhibitors provide multiple benefits, including decreased HbA, body weight, and blood pressure. These drugs have received special attention because they decrease the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events and slow progression of diabetic kidney disease (1-3). Balanced against these impressive benefits, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved prescribing information describes a long list of side effects: genitourinary infections, ketoacidosis, bone fractures, amputations, acute kidney injury, perineal necrotizing fasciitis, and hyperkalemia. This review provides a physiological perspective to understanding the multiple actions of these drugs complemented by a clinical perspective toward balancing benefits and risks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dbi18-0006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6610013PMC
June 2019

β -Adrenergic Receptor Gene Affects the Heart Rate Response of β-Blockers: Evidence From 3 Clinical Studies.

J Clin Pharmacol 2019 11 14;59(11):1462-1470. Epub 2019 May 14.

Department of Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research and Center for Pharmacogenomics, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

β-Blockers' heart rate (HR)-lowering effect is an important determinant of the effectiveness for this class of drugs, yet it is variable among β-blocker-treated patients. To date, genetic studies have revealed several genetic signals associated with HR response to β-blockers. However, these genetic signals have not been consistently replicated across multiple independent cohorts. Here we sought to use data from 3 hypertension clinical trials to validate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with the HR response to β-blockers. Using linear regression analysis, we investigated the effects of 6 SNPs in 3 genes, including ADRB1, ADRB2, and GNB3, relative to the HR response following β-blocker used in the PEAR (n = 757), PEAR-2 (n = 368), and INVEST (n = 1401) trials, adjusting for baseline HR, age, sex, and ancestry. Atenolol was used in PEAR and INVEST, and metoprolol was used in PEAR-2. We found that rs1042714 and rs1042713 in ADRB2 were significantly associated with HR response to both β-blockers in whites (rs1042714 C-allele carriers, meta-analysis β = -0.95 beats per minute [bpm], meta-analysis P = 3×10 ; rs1042713 A-allele carriers, meta-analysis β = -1.15 bpm, meta-analysis P = 2×10 ). In conclusion, the results of our analyses provide strong evidence to support the hypothesis that rs1042714 and rs1042713 in the ADRB2 gene are important predictors of HR response to cardioselective β-blockade in hypertensive patient cohorts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcph.1443DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6773496PMC
November 2019

Multi-site investigation of strategies for the clinical implementation of CYP2D6 genotyping to guide drug prescribing.

Genet Med 2019 10 21;21(10):2255-2263. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Purpose: A number of institutions have clinically implemented CYP2D6 genotyping to guide drug prescribing. We compared implementation strategies of early adopters of CYP2D6 testing, barriers faced by both early adopters and institutions in the process of implementing CYP2D6 testing, and approaches taken to overcome these barriers.

Methods: We surveyed eight early adopters of CYP2D6 genotyping and eight institutions in the process of adoption. Data were collected on testing approaches, return of results procedures, applications of genotype results, challenges faced, and lessons learned.

Results: Among early adopters, CYP2D6 testing was most commonly ordered to assist with opioid and antidepressant prescribing. Key differences among programs included test ordering and genotyping approaches, result reporting, and clinical decision support. However, all sites tested for copy-number variation and nine common variants, and reported results in the medical record. Most sites provided automatic consultation and had designated personnel to assist with genotype-informed therapy recommendations. Primary challenges were related to stakeholder support, CYP2D6 gene complexity, phenotype assignment, and sustainability.

Conclusion: There are specific challenges unique to CYP2D6 testing given the complexity of the gene and its relevance to multiple medications. Consensus lessons learned may guide those interested in pursuing similar clinical pharmacogenetic programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-019-0484-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6754805PMC
October 2019

Effect of plasma MicroRNA on antihypertensive response to beta blockers in the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses (PEAR) studies.

Eur J Pharm Sci 2019 Apr 10;131:93-98. Epub 2019 Feb 10.

Department of Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research, Center for Pharmacogenomics, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA. Electronic address:

β-blockers show variable efficacy as antihypertensives. Herein, we evaluated plasma miRNAs as biomarkers for defining antihypertensive response to β-blockers. Expression of 22 β-blocker pharmacodynamics-related miRNAs was assessed in baseline plasma samples from 30 responders and 30 non-responders to metoprolol from the PEAR-2 study (Discovery). Logistic regression was performed to identify miRNAs significantly associated with metoprolol response. Those miRNAs were profiled in baseline plasma samples from 25 responders and 25 non-responders to atenolol from the PEAR study (validation). In discovery, miR-101, miR-27a, miR-22, miR-19a, and let-7e were significantly associated with metoprolol response (P = 0.01, 0.017, 0.025, 0.025, and 0.04, respectively). In validation, miR-19a was significantly associated with atenolol response (P = 0.038). Meta-analysis between PEAR-2 and PEAR revealed significant association between miR-19a (P = 0.004), miR-101 (P = 0.006), and let-7e (P = 0.012) and β-blocker response. Hence, miR-19a, miR-101, and let-7e, which regulate β1-adrenergic receptor and other β-blocker pharmacodynamics-related genes, may be biomarkers for antihypertensive response to β-blockers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejps.2019.02.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6467266PMC
April 2019

Plasma Renin Activity Is a Predictive Biomarker of Blood Pressure Response in European but not in African Americans With Uncomplicated Hypertension.

Am J Hypertens 2019 06;32(7):668-675

Department of Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research and Center for Pharmacogenomics, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.

Background: Interindividual variability in blood pressure (BP) response to antihypertensives has been reported. Although plasma renin activity (PRA) is a potential biomarker for personalizing antihypertensive therapy in European American (EA) and African American (AA) hypertensives, clinical utility of PRA-guided prescribing is incompletely understood.

Methods: Using systematic-phased approach, PRA's clinical utility was assessed. After categorizing by baseline PRA, clinic systolic BP (SBP) responses to metoprolol and chlorthalidone were compared in 134 EAs and 102 AAs enrolled in the Pharmacogenomics Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses-2 (PEAR-2) trial. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was conducted in EAs. Data from PEAR-2 AAs were used to estimate an optimal PRA cut point using multivariable linear regression models. The derived cut point in AAs was tested in a meta-analysis of 2 independent AA cohorts, and its sensitivity and specificity were assessed.

Results: EAs with PRA < 0.65 ng/ml/hour had a greater decrease in SBP to chlorthalidone than metoprolol (by -15.9 mm Hg, adjusted P < 0.0001), whereas those with PRA ≥ 0.65 ng/ml/hour had a greater decrease in SBP to metoprolol than chlorthalidone (by 3.3 mm Hg, adjusted P = 0.04). Area under ROC curve (0.69, P = 0.0001) showed that PRA can predict SBP response among EAs. However, we observed no association between PRA and SBP response in PEAR-2 AAs. Among independent AA cohorts, those with PRA ≥ 1.3 ng/ml/hour (PEAR-2-derived cut point) responded better to atenolol/candesartan than hydrochlorothiazide (meta-analysis P = 0.01). However, sensitivity of the derived cut point was 10%.

Conclusions: PRA at the previously established 0.60-0.65 ng/ml/hour cut point is an effective predictive biomarker of BP response in EAs. However, we were unable to identify PRA cut point that could be used to guide antihypertensive selection in AAs.

Trial Registration: NCT01203852, NCT00246519, NCT00005520.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajh/hpz022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6558666PMC
June 2019

Leveraging linkage evidence to identify low-frequency and rare variants on 16p13 associated with blood pressure using TOPMed whole genome sequencing data.

Hum Genet 2019 Feb 22;138(2):199-210. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Division of General Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, 10032, USA.

In this study, we investigated low-frequency and rare variants associated with blood pressure (BP) by focusing on a linkage region on chromosome 16p13. We used whole genome sequencing (WGS) data obtained through the NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program on 395 Cleveland Family Study (CFS) European Americans (CFS-EA). By analyzing functional coding variants and non-coding rare variants with CADD score > 10 residing within the chromosomal region in families with linkage evidence, we observed 25 genes with nominal statistical evidence (burden or SKAT p < 0.05). One of the genes is RBFOX1, an evolutionarily conserved RNA-binding protein that regulates tissue-specific alternative splicing that we previously reported to be associated with BP using exome array data in CFS. After follow-up analysis of the 25 genes in ten independent TOPMed studies with individuals of European, African, and East Asian ancestry, and Hispanics (N = 29,988), we identified variants in SLX4 (p = 2.19 × 10) to be significantly associated with BP traits when accounting for multiple testing. We also replicated the associations previously reported for RBFOX1 (p = 0.007). Follow-up analysis with GTEx eQTL data shows SLX4 variants are associated with gene expression in coronary artery, multiple brain tissues, and right atrial appendage of the heart. Our study demonstrates that linkage analysis of family data can provide an efficient approach for detecting rare variants associated with complex traits in WGS data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00439-019-01975-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6404531PMC
February 2019

Targeted sequencing identifies a missense variant in the BEST3 gene associated with antihypertensive response to hydrochlorothiazide.

Pharmacogenet Genomics 2018 11;28(11):251-255

Departments of Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research and Center for Pharmacogenomics.

Chromosome 12q15 was identified in Genetic Epidemiology of Response Assessment (GERA) and replicated in Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses (PEAR) for its association with blood pressure (BP) response to hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ). However, the functional variant is unknown and we aimed to identify the likely functional variants through targeted sequencing. The chromosome 12q15 region was sequenced in 397 best and worst responders to HCTZ in PEAR (N=199) and GERA (N=198) hypertensive study participants. Logistic regression was used for the association analysis adjusting for age, sex, race, and principal components 1 and 2. For validation, the significant single nucleotide polymorphism was tested for association with the change in systolic (ΔSBP) and diastolic BP (ΔDBP) post-treatment in the entire PEAR (N=370) and GERA (N=570) cohorts. A novel missense polymorphism (G>A, Pro383Leu) in BEST3, rs61747221, was significantly associated with better HCTZ response (P=0.0021, odds ratio=2.05). It was validated in the entire cohort of PEAR (ΔSBP: P=0.021, β=-1.60, ΔDBP: P=0.023, β=-1.08) and GERA (ΔSBP: P=0.028, β=-1.95, ΔDBP: P=0.032, β=-1.28). BEST3 encodes the calcium sensitive chloride channel in the vascular smooth muscle implicated in the regulation of BP, especially in response to vasoconstrictors like angiotensin II. These results suggest that BEST3 is involved in the chronic BP lowering mechanism of thiazides and highlight its importance as a genetic predictor of the BP response to thiazide diuretics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/FPC.0000000000000353DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6262886PMC
November 2018

Blood pressure signature genes and blood pressure response to thiazide diuretics: results from the PEAR and PEAR-2 studies.

BMC Med Genomics 2018 Jun 20;11(1):55. Epub 2018 Jun 20.

Center for Pharmacogenomics, Department of Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, P.O.Box 100484, Gainesville, FL, 32610-0486, USA.

Background: Recently, 34 genes had been associated with differential expression relative to blood pressure (BP)/ hypertension (HTN). We hypothesize that some of the genes associated with BP/HTN are also associated with BP response to antihypertensive treatment with thiazide diuretics.

Methods: We assessed these 34 genes for association with differential expression to BP response to thiazide diuretics with RNA sequencing in whole blood samples from 150 hypertensive participants from the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses (PEAR) and PEAR-2 studies. PEAR white and PEAR-2 white and black participants (n = 50 for each group) were selected based on the upper and lower quartile of BP response to hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) and to chlorthalidone.

Results: FOS, DUSP1 and PPP1R15A were differentially expressed across all cohorts (meta-analysis p-value < 2.0 × 10), and responders to HCTZ or chlorthalidone presented up-regulated transcripts. Rs11065987 in chromosome 12, a trans-eQTL for expression of FOS, PPP1R15A and other genes, is also associated with BP response to HCTZ in PEAR whites (SBP: β = - 2.1; p = 1.7 × 10; DBP: β = - 1.4; p = 2.9 × 10).

Conclusions: These findings suggest FOS, DUSP1 and PPP1R15A as potential molecular determinants of antihypertensive response to thiazide diuretics.

Trial Registration: NCT00246519 , NCT01203852 www.clinicaltrials.gov.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12920-018-0370-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6011347PMC
June 2018

Genome Wide Association Study Identifies the Locus to be Associated With Chlorthalidone Induced Glucose Increase in Hypertensive Patients.

J Am Heart Assoc 2018 03 9;7(6). Epub 2018 Mar 9.

Department of Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research and Center for Pharmacogenomics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

Background: Thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics are first-line medications for treating uncomplicated hypertension. However, their use has been associated with adverse metabolic events, including hyperglycemia and incident diabetes mellitus, with incompletely understood mechanisms. Our goal was to identify genomic variants associated with thiazide-like diuretic/chlorthalidone-induced glucose change.

Methods And Results: Genome-wide analysis of glucose change after treatment with chlorthalidone was performed by race among the white (n=175) and black (n=135) participants from the PEAR-2 (Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses-2). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms with <5×10 were further prioritized using in silico analysis based on their expression quantitative trait loci function. Among blacks, an intronic single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs9943291) in the was associated with increase in glucose levels following chlorthalidone treatment (ß=12.5; =4.17×10). G-allele carriers of had higher glucose levels (glucose change=+16.29 mg/dL) post chlorthalidone treatment compared with noncarriers of G allele (glucose change=+2.80 mg/dL). This association was successfully replicated in an independent replication cohort of hydrochlorothiazide-treated participants from the PEAR study (ß=5.54; =0.023). A meta-analysis of the 2 studies was performed by race in Meta-Analysis Helper, where this single-nucleotide polymorphism, rs9943291, was genome-wide significant with a meta-analysis value of 3.71×10. , a part of the HMG-CoA synthase family, is important for ketogenesis and cholesterol synthesis pathways that are essential in glucose homeostasis.

Conclusions: These results suggest that is a promising candidate gene involved in chlorthalidone and Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ)-induced glucose change. This may provide insights into the mechanisms involved in thiazide-induced hyperglycemia that may ultimately facilitate personalized approaches to antihypertensive selection for hypertension treatment.

Clinical Trial Registration: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifiers: NCT00246519 and NCT01203852.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.117.007339DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5907544PMC
March 2018

Genome-Wide Association Approach Identified Novel Genetic Predictors of Heart Rate Response to β-Blockers.

J Am Heart Assoc 2018 02 24;7(5). Epub 2018 Feb 24.

Department of Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research and Center for Pharmacogenomics, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL

Background: For many indications, the negative chronotropic effect of β-blockers is important to their efficacy, yet the heart rate (HR) response to β-blockers varies. Herein, we sought to use a genome-wide association approach to identify novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with HR response to β-blockers.

Methods And Results: We first performed 4 genome-wide association analyses for HR response to atenolol (a β1-adrenergic receptor blocker) as: (1) monotherapy or (2) add-on therapy, in 426 whites and 273 blacks separately from the PEAR (Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses) study. A meta-analysis was then performed between the genome-wide association analysis performed in PEAR atenolol monotherapy and add-on therapy, in each race separately, using the inverse variance method assuming fixed effects. From this analysis, SNPs associated with HR response to atenolol at a <1E-05 were tested for replication in whites (n=200) and blacks (n=168) treated with metoprolol (a β1-adrenergic receptor blocker). From the genome-wide association meta-analyses, SNP rs17117817 near olfactory receptor family10 subfamily-p-member1 (), and SNP rs2364349 in sorting nexin-9 () replicated in blacks. The combined studies meta-analysis values for the rs17117817 and rs2364349 reached genome-wide significance (rs17117817G-allele; Meta-β=5.53 beats per minute, Meta-=2E-09 and rs2364349 A-allele; Meta-β=3.5 beats per minute, Meta-=1E-08). Additionally, SNPs in the and gene regions were also associated with HR response in whites.

Conclusions: This study highlights and as novel genes associated with changes in HR in response to β-blockers.

Clinical Trial Registration: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00246519.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.117.006463DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5866313PMC
February 2018

Sphingolipid Metabolic Pathway Impacts Thiazide Diuretics Blood Pressure Response: Insights From Genomics, Metabolomics, and Lipidomics.

J Am Heart Assoc 2017 12 29;7(1). Epub 2017 Dec 29.

Department of Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research and Center for Pharmacogenomics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL

Background: Although hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) is a well-established first-line antihypertensive in the United States, <50% of HCTZ treated patients achieve blood pressure (BP) control. Thus, identifying biomarkers that could predict the BP response to HCTZ is critically important. In this study, we utilized metabolomics, genomics, and lipidomics to identify novel pathways and biomarkers associated with HCTZ BP response.

Methods And Results: First, we conducted a pathway analysis for 13 metabolites we recently identified to be significantly associated with HCTZ BP response. From this analysis, we found the sphingolipid metabolic pathway as the most significant pathway (=5.8E-05). Testing 78 variants, within 14 genes involved in the sphingolipid metabolic canonical pathway, with the BP response to HCTZ identified variant rs6078905, within the gene, as a novel biomarker significantly associated with the BP response to HCTZ in whites (n=228). We found that rs6078905 C-allele carriers had a better BP response to HCTZ versus noncarriers (∆SBP/∆DBP: -11.4/-6.9 versus -6.8/-3.5 mm Hg; ∆SBP =6.7E-04; ∆DBP =4.8E-04). Additionally, in blacks (n=148), we found genetic signals in the genomic region significantly associated with the BP response to HCTZ (<0.05). Last, we observed that rs6078905 significantly affects the baseline level of 4 sphingomyelins (N24:2, N24:3, N16:1, and N22:1; false discovery rate <0.05), from which N24:2 sphingomyelin has a significant correlation with both HCTZ DBP-response (=-0.42; =7E-03) and SBP-response (=-0.36; =2E-02).

Conclusions: This study provides insight into potential pharmacometabolomic and genetic mechanisms underlying HCTZ BP response and suggests that is a potential determinant of the BP response to HCTZ.

Clinical Trial Registration: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00246519.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.117.006656DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5778957PMC
December 2017

Multisite Investigation of Strategies for the Implementation of CYP2C19 Genotype-Guided Antiplatelet Therapy.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2018 10 30;104(4):664-674. Epub 2018 Jan 30.

Division of Pharmacotherapy and Experimental Therapeutics, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

CYP2C19 genotype-guided antiplatelet therapy following percutaneous coronary intervention is increasingly implemented in clinical practice. However, challenges such as selecting a testing platform, communicating test results, building clinical decision support processes, providing patient and provider education, and integrating methods to support the translation of emerging evidence to clinical practice are barriers to broad adoption. In this report, we compare and contrast implementation strategies of 12 early adopters, describing solutions to common problems and initial performance metrics for each program. Key differences between programs included the test result turnaround time and timing of therapy changes, which are both related to the CYP2C19 testing model and platform used. Sites reported the need for new informatics infrastructure, expert clinicians such as pharmacists to interpret results, physician champions, and ongoing education. Consensus lessons learned are presented to provide a path forward for those seeking to implement similar clinical pharmacogenomics programs within their institutions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpt.1006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6019555PMC
October 2018

Whole Transcriptome Sequencing Analyses Reveal Molecular Markers of Blood Pressure Response to Thiazide Diuretics.

Sci Rep 2017 11 22;7(1):16068. Epub 2017 Nov 22.

Center for Pharmacogenomics and Department of Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Thiazide diuretics (TD) are commonly prescribed anti-hypertensives worldwide. However, <40% of patients treated with thiazide monotherapy achieve BP control. This study uses whole transcriptome sequencing to identify novel molecular markers associated with BP response to TD. We assessed global RNA expression levels in whole blood samples from 150 participants, representing patients in the upper and lower quartile of BP response to TD from the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses (PEAR) (50 whites) and from PEAR-2 (50 whites and 50 blacks). In each study cohort, we performed poly-A RNA-sequencing in baseline samples from 25 responders and 25 non-responders to hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) or chlorthalidone. At FDR adjusted p-value < 0.05, 29 genes were differentially expressed in relation to HCTZ or chlorthalidone BP response in whites. For each differentially expressed gene, replication was attempted in the alternate white group and PEAR-2 blacks. CEBPD (meta-analysis p = 1.8 × 10) and TSC22D3 (p = 1.9 × 10) were differentially expressed in all 3 cohorts, and explain, in aggregate, 21.9% of response variability to TD. This is the first report of the use of transcriptome-wide sequencing data to identify molecular markers of antihypertensive drug response. These findings support CEBPD and TSC22D3 as potential biomarkers of BP response to TD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-16343-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5700078PMC
November 2017

Multisite Investigation of Outcomes With Implementation of CYP2C19 Genotype-Guided Antiplatelet Therapy After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2018 01 1;11(2):181-191. Epub 2017 Nov 1.

Department of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland.

Objectives: This multicenter pragmatic investigation assessed outcomes following clinical implementation of CYP2C19 genotype-guided antiplatelet therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Background: CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles impair clopidogrel effectiveness after PCI.

Methods: After clinical genotyping, each institution recommended alternative antiplatelet therapy (prasugrel, ticagrelor) in PCI patients with a loss-of-function allele. Major adverse cardiovascular events (defined as myocardial infarction, stroke, or death) within 12 months of PCI were compared between patients with a loss-of-function allele prescribed clopidogrel versus alternative therapy. Risk was also compared between patients without a loss-of-function allele and loss-of-function allele carriers prescribed alternative therapy. Cox regression was performed, adjusting for group differences with inverse probability of treatment weights.

Results: Among 1,815 patients, 572 (31.5%) had a loss-of-function allele. The risk for major adverse cardiovascular events was significantly higher in patients with a loss-of-function allele prescribed clopidogrel versus alternative therapy (23.4 vs. 8.7 per 100 patient-years; adjusted hazard ratio: 2.26; 95% confidence interval: 1.18 to 4.32; p = 0.013). Similar results were observed among 1,210 patients with acute coronary syndromes at the time of PCI (adjusted hazard ratio: 2.87; 95% confidence interval: 1.35 to 6.09; p = 0.013). There was no difference in major adverse cardiovascular events between patients without a loss-of-function allele and loss-of-function allele carriers prescribed alternative therapy (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.14; 95% confidence interval: 0.69 to 1.88; p = 0.60).

Conclusions: These data from real-world observations demonstrate a higher risk for cardiovascular events in patients with a CYP2C19 loss-of-function allele if clopidogrel versus alternative therapy is prescribed. A future randomized study of genotype-guided antiplatelet therapy may be of value.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2017.07.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5775044PMC
January 2018

Genetic Variants Associated With Uncontrolled Blood Pressure on Thiazide Diuretic/β-Blocker Combination Therapy in the PEAR (Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses) and INVEST (International Verapamil-SR Trandolapril Study) Trials.

J Am Heart Assoc 2017 Nov 2;6(11). Epub 2017 Nov 2.

Department of Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research and Center for Pharmacogenomics, University of Florida College of Pharmacy, Gainesville, FL

Background: The majority of hypertensive individuals require combination antihypertensive therapy to achieve adequate blood pressure (BP) control. This study aimed to identify genetic variants associated with uncontrolled BP on combination therapy with a thiazide diuretic and a β-blocker.

Methods And Results: A genome-wide association study of uncontrolled BP on combination therapy was conducted among 314 white participants of the PEAR (Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses) trial. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used. Genetic variants meeting a suggestive level of significance (<1.0E-05) were tested for replication in an external cohort, INVEST (International Verapamil-SR Trandolapril study). We also examined genome-wide variant associations with systolic and diastolic BP response on combination therapy and tested for replication. We discovered a single nucleotide polymorphism, the rs261316 major allele, at chromosome 15 in the gene associated with an increased odds of having uncontrolled BP on combination therapy (odds ratio: 2.56, 95% confidence interval, 1.69-3.88, =8.64E-06). This single nucleotide polymorphism replicated (odds ratio: 1.86, 95% confidence interval, 1.35-2.57, =0.001) and approached genome-wide significance in the meta-analysis between discovery and replication cohorts (odds ratio: 2.16, 95% confidence interval, 1.63-2.86, =8.60E-08). Other genes in the region surrounding rs261316 ( include and .

Conclusions: A single nucleotide polymorphism in the gene may be associated with uncontrolled BP following treatment with a thiazide diuretic/β-blocker combination.

Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00246519.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.117.006522DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5721751PMC
November 2017

Blood pressure response to metoprolol and chlorthalidone in European and African Americans with hypertension.

J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2017 Dec 21;19(12):1301-1308. Epub 2017 Sep 21.

Department of Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research and Center for Pharmacogenomics, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Despite the availability of many antihypertensive drug classes, half of patients with hypertension have uncontrolled blood pressure (BP). The authors sought to assess the effect of age on BP response in European American and African American patients with hypertension. Clinic BP from the PEAR2 (Pharmacogenomics Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses 2) study was used to estimate BP responses from baseline following sequential treatment with metoprolol 100 mg twice daily and chlorthalidone 25 mg daily for 8 to 9 weeks each, with a minimum 4-week washout between treatments. BP responses to both drugs were compared in 159 European Americans and 119 African Americans by age with adjustment for baseline BP and sex. European Americans younger than 50 years responded better to metoprolol than chlorthalidone (diastolic BP: -9.6 ± 8.0 vs -5.9 ± 6.8 mm Hg, adjusted P = .003), whereas patients 50 years and older responded better to chlorthalidone than metoprolol (systolic BP: -18.7 ± 13.8 vs -13.6 ± 14.8 mm Hg, adjusted P = .008). African Americans younger than 50 years responded similarly to both drugs, whereas those 50 years and older responded better to chlorthalidone than metoprolol (-17.0 ± 13.2/-9.6 ± 7.5 vs -7.0 ± 18.6/-6.7 ± 9.3 mm Hg, adjusted P<.0001/.008). Therefore, age should be considered when selecting antihypertensive therapy in European and African American populations with hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jch.13094DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5722670PMC
December 2017
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