Publications by authors named "Amauri Alcindo Alfieri"

84 Publications

Seneca Valley virus induces immunodepressionin suckling piglets by selective apoptosis of B lymphocytes.

Microb Pathog 2021 Jun 12;158:105022. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Laboratory of Animal Pathology, Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Paraná, Brazil; Multi-User Animal Health Laboratory, Tissue Processing Unit, Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. Electronic address:

Seneca Valley virus (SVV) is the causative agent of an emerging infectious vesicular disease in swine that is clinically indistinguishable from other vesicular diseases of swine. This study utilized healthy suckling piglets (control) and SVV-naturally infected suckling piglets to determine the effects of SVV on lymphoid tissues and determined the SVV RNA load by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Furthermore, immunohistochemistry (IHC) analyses were performed to quantify the expression of T and B cell lymphocytes, natural killer cells, cleaved caspase 3, and ki-67. The main histopathologic finding in the infected group was severe lymphoid depletion. The highest average of SVV RNA load by qRT-PCR (Log genomic copies/g of tissue) occurred at the spleen (8.54 ± 0.8), followed by the tonsils (8.04 ± 1.42), and mesenteric lymph nodes (6.90 ± 1.42). The IHC analyses revealed that there was an increased in cellular apoptosis with concomitant reduction in the proliferation of B cells. The results from this study have demonstrated that SVV-infected piglets exhibited decreased lymphocyte density probably due to lymphoid apoptosis, affecting particularly B-cells lymphocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2021.105022DOI Listing
June 2021

Porcine Circovirus 3a Field Strains in Free-Living Wild Boars in Paraná State, Brazil.

Animals (Basel) 2021 May 31;11(6). Epub 2021 May 31.

Laboratory of Animal Virology, Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, State University of Londrina, Rodovia Celso Garcia Cid-Campos Universitário, Londrina 86057-970, PR, Brazil.

Porcine circovirus 3 (PCV-3) was identified in domestic pigs worldwide. Although PCV-3 has also been detected in wild boars, information regarding its circulation in this free-living animal species is scarce. To investigate PCV-3 occurrence in free-living wild boars in Brazil, 70 serum samples collected between January 2017 and June 2019 in Paraná state, Brazil were analyzed by PCR assay. Amplicons measuring 330 bp in length were amplified in seven (10.0%) of the serum samples and confirmed to be PCV3-specific by nucleotide (nt) sequencing. As the amplified products from the serum samples yielded only intermediate levels of viral DNA, lung samples from the seven PCR-positive wild boars were also evaluated by PCR. Of these samples, five lung samples were positive and provided high levels of viral DNA. The three lung samples that presented the highest levels of viral DNA were selected for amplification and sequencing of the whole PCV-3 genome. The three full-length sequences obtained were grouped in PCV-3 clade "a", and the sequences exhibited 100% nucleotide similarity among them. The PCV-3 field strains of this study showed nucleotide and amino acid similarities of 98.5-99.8% and 98.8-100%, respectively, with whole-genome PCV-3 sequences from around the world.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11061634DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8227967PMC
May 2021

Detection and Quantification of the E6 Oncogene in Bovine Papillomavirus Types 2 and 13 From Urinary Bladder Lesions of Cattle.

Front Vet Sci 2021 14;8:673189. Epub 2021 May 14.

Laboratory of Animal Virology, Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Londrina, Brazil.

Bovine papillomavirus types 2 and 13 can induce tumors in both the cutaneous and mucosal epithelia of cattle. These viral types are associated with the development of benign cutaneous papillomas and malignant lesions in the urinary bladders of cattle, with the latter being known as bovine enzootic hematuria. Among the viral oncoproteins encoded by DNA, the E6 oncoprotein has an important role in cell proliferation and might be related to cancer initiation and promotion. The aim of this study was to present a standardized SYBR Green-based quantitative PCR for detection and quantification of the bovine papillomavirus 2 and 13 E6 oncogenes in urinary bladder samples from cattle. Twenty-four urinary bladders from cattle displaying tumors ( = 12) and normal bladder mucosa ( = 12) were tested by quantitative PCR. Of the 12 urinary bladders with tumors, six presented bovine papillomavirus 2 DNA concentrations ranging from 1.05 × 10 to 9.53 × 10 copies/μL, while two had bovine papillomavirus 13 DNA amplified at concentrations of 1.30 × 10 to 1.23 × 10 copies/μL. The healthy bladder mucosa samples were negative for both bovine papillomaviruses. Once the results were confirmed by conventional PCR and direct sequencing, the quantitative PCR assay developed in this study was shown to be a sensitive and specific tool for detecting and quantifying the E6 ORF of bovine papillomavirus 2 and 13 in a variety of clinical samples. Our findings of identification of bovine papillomavirus 2 and 13 DNA in urothelial tumors from cattle suffering from bovine enzootic hematuria agree with data from previous studies, representing the first detection of bovine papillomavirus 13 DNA in malignant bladder lesions of cattle from Brazil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.673189DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8160092PMC
May 2021

Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in free-living wild boars in Paraná, Brazil.

Braz J Microbiol 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Laboratory of Animal Virology, Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil.

This is the first study conducted in Paraná, Brazil, to investigate Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhyo) infection in free-living wild boars. Eighty-eight wild boars were managed by authorized controllers between 2017 and 2019 in the state of Paraná in southern Brazil. Management georeferencing, sex, and weight were recorded for each animal. The presence of Mhyo antibodies in wild boar serum samples was evaluated using a commercial indirect ELISA kit. The presence of enzootic pneumonia-like gross lesions was evaluated, and the observed macroscopic lesions were subjected to immunohistochemistry (IHC). The Chi-square test and the intensity of the association with the odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were used to evaluate the differences in the qualitative variables between groups (sex and municipality). Juvenile wild boars exhibited a higher seroprevalence than older ones (p = 0.005). The Teixeira Soares municipality differed in Mhyo seroprevalence in comparison with Castro (p < 0.001), Ponta Grossa (p = 0.004), and Carambeí (p < 0.001). Females were 6.79 times more likely to present consolidation lesions than males (p = 0.004). Among the evaluated lung samples with injuries, 57.1% (8/14) and 53.8% (7/13) were Mhyo positive by IHC in Castro and Ponta Grossa, respectively, confirming that the identified macroscopic lesions were caused by Mhyo. This study demonstrates the circulation of Mhyo in free-living wild boars, which raises concerns regarding the epidemiological role of this animal species for the spread of the pathogen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s42770-021-00516-0DOI Listing
May 2021

First detection of Feline morbillivirus infection in white-eared opossums (Didelphis albiventris, Lund, 1840), a non-feline host.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Laboratory of Animal Virology, Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil.

Feline Morbillivirus (FeMV) was first detected in 2012 in domestic cats from Hong Kong and was found to be associated with tubulointerstitial nephritis and chronic kidney disease. In subsequent studies in other countries, FeMV was detected in asymptomatic cats. However, it is not clear whether FeMV plays a role as a pathogen in the kidney diseases of cats, and other epidemiological data are still unknown. To date, studies have reported the presence of FeMV exclusively in domestic cats. This study is the first molecular detection of the FeMV RNA associated with pathological and immunohistochemical findings in a synanthropic marsupial, the white-eared opossum (Didelphis albiventris), inhabiting peri-urban areas of north-central Parana, Southern Brazil. Molecular techniques identified the viral RNA in the lungs and kidneys. Histopathologic evaluation of these tissues revealed interstitial pneumonia in the lungs with lymphocytic nephritis and tubular necrosis in the kidneys. Immunohistochemistry assays detected positive intralesional immunoreactivity to N protein of FeMV within the lungs and kidneys. A FeMV opossum strain was isolated in Crandell Rees feline kidney lineage cells, resulting in syncytia formation and cell death. Therefore, these results support the ability of FeMV to infect other mammal species and reinforce the possibility of the opossum to be a disseminator of this virus among domestic and wild animals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.14109DOI Listing
April 2021

Porcine rotavirus B as primary causative agent of diarrhea outbreaks in newborn piglets.

Sci Rep 2020 12 15;10(1):22002. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Laboratory of Animal Virology, Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PO Box 10011, Londrina, Paraná, 86057-970, Brazil.

Rotavirus (RV) is considered a major cause of acute viral gastroenteritis in young animals. RV is classified into nine species, five of which have been identified in pigs. Most studies worldwide have highlighted diarrhoea outbreaks caused by RVA, which is considered the most important RV species. In the present study, we described the detection and characterization of porcine RVB as a primary causative agent of diarrhoea outbreaks in pig herds in Brazil. The study showed a high frequency (64/90; 71.1%) of RVB diagnosis in newborn piglets associated with marked histopathological lesions in the small intestines. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP7 gene of wild-type RVB strains revealed a high diversity of G genotypes circulating in one geographic region of Brazil. Our findings suggest that RVB may be considered an important primary enteric pathogen in piglets and should be included in the routine differential diagnosis of enteric diseases in piglets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-78797-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7738533PMC
December 2020

High genetic diversity of paramyxoviruses infecting domestic cats in Western Brazil.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2020 Dec 9. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Laboratory of Veterinary Microbiology, Universidade de Cuiabá (UNIC), Cuiabá, Brazil.

Feline morbillivirus was discovered in 2012 in cats from Hong Kong, and it was initially found to be associated with chronic kidney disease. Although subsequent molecular surveys showed a common occurrence in cat populations from distinct countries, there were controversial results regarding the relationship between viral shedding through urine and reduced kidney function. In this study, 276 domestic cats of diverse origins from Western Brazil had their urine evaluated for the presence of paramyxoviral RNA by reverse transcription seminested PCR and direct sequencing. Additionally, a selected Brazilian feline morbillivirus strain was isolated in Crandell Rees feline kidney cells, and a nearly complete genome sequence was obtained. To assess the kidney function of all cats, serum biochemistry screening and standard urinalysis were performed. Our results revealed a relatively high paramyxovirus-positive rate (34.7%) in the evaluated cats although there was not a statistical association between the shedding of viral RNA through urine and kidney disease. Direct sequencing of partial fragments of the L gene demonstrated high genetic diversity among strains detected in cats in this study, since both feline morbillivirus RNA and feline paramyxovirus RNA were frequently shed in urine. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on partial amino acid sequences of the L gene showed that Brazilian feline paramyxovirus strains were genetically diverse since they grouped into two distinct subclusters; one subcluster contained three strains identified in Germany, while the second contained Japanese strain 163, which was recently classified in the Jeilongvirus genus of the Paramyxoviridae family. In contrast, the Brazilian feline morbillivirus strain FeMV/BR_Boni, herein characterized by nearly complete genome sequencing, was classified in the Morbillivirus genus with other strains previously identified as genotype 1. In conclusion, urinary excretion of diverse paramyxoviral RNA is frequent in cats of different origins from Western Brazil, but viral infection is not related to altered kidney function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13950DOI Listing
December 2020

Gender effects on pork quality and calpain-1 and calpastatin gene expression in male pig muscle.

Meat Sci 2021 Feb 4;172:108366. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Veterinary Medicine Department, Londrina State University, Highway Celso Garcia Cid (PR 445), Km 380, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. Electronic address:

Studies that investigate the expression of genes related to the tenderness of meat from entire and immunocastrated male pigs have not yet been performed. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between gender (entire male and immunocastrated) and the meat quality of pigs, as well as to quantify the expression of calpain-1 and the calpastatin gene. Regarding carcass measurements and meat quality, boars presented lower values of muscle depth (P = 0.028), subcutaneous fat thickness (P = 0.046), L* value (P = 0.004) and cook loss (P = 0.008) than the immunocastrated pigs. The boars presented greater calpain-1 gene expression (P = 0.006) and lower calpastatin gene expression (P = 0.003) than immunocastrated pigs. This study shows that combined with other factors the gene expression can contribute to a tender meat from boars due to their higher calpain-1 expression and lower calpastatin expression than those of immunocastrated male pigs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2020.108366DOI Listing
February 2021

First detection of canine parvovirus 2b DNA in a crab-eating fox pup (Cerdocyon thous, Linnaeus, 1766).

Braz J Microbiol 2021 Mar 23;52(1):449-453. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Laboratory of Animal Virology, Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Celso Garcia Cid Road, PR455 Km 380, P.O. Box 10011, Londrina, Paraná, 86057-970, Brazil.

The crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) is a small wild mammal present in all Brazilian biomes and in some countries of South America. This study aimed to verify the involvement of viral infectious agents in the death of a wild crab-eating fox pup (Cerdocyon thous) in Brazil. The Center for Medicine and Research of Wild Animals of the Universidade Estadual Paulista received a free-living crab-eating fox aged approximately 21 days and apparently healthy. After 13 days, the animal presented anorexia, diarrhea, fever, prostration, and neurological signs progressing to death with an inconclusive diagnosis. In a retrospective study, tissue fragments stored at - 80 °C were used to identify nucleic acids from major canine viruses, such as canine parvovirus-2 (CPV-2), canine adenovirus A types 1 and 2, canid alphaherpesvirus 1, and canine distemper virus. The amplified product with the expected length for CPV-2 was obtained from the heart fragment. After performing nucleotide (nt) sequencing of the amplicon, it was possible to demonstrate that the crab-eating fox strain exhibited high (99.8%) nt identity with the CPV-2b prototype (CPV-39 strain). Additionally, deduced amino acid (aa) sequence analysis showed the GAT codon for the aa Asp (D) at position 426 of the CPV-2 viral protein VP2, which characterizes the subtype 2b. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this report describes the first detection of CPV-2b DNA in tissue fragments from a crab-eating fox.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s42770-020-00389-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7966652PMC
March 2021

Porcine lymphotropic herpesvirus DNA detection in multiple organs of pigs in Brazil.

Braz J Microbiol 2020 Dec 8;51(4):2145-2152. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Laboratory of Animal Virology, Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Rodovia Celso Garcia Cid - Campus Universitário. CEP 86057-970, PO Box 10011, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil.

We investigated the porcine lymphotropic herpesvirus (PLHV) DNA presence in multiple organs of pigs. Biological samples (n = 136) included tissue fragments of the central nervous system, heart, kidney, liver, lungs, spleen, urinary bladder, and urine. Sixty-eight (50%) organs were PLHV DNA-positive. None of the urine samples were detected with the virus genome. Although the presence of the PLHV DNA in the urinary bladder and kidney has been detected, it was not possible to show whether urine can be considered an effective route of virus shedding. This study warns to the risk of PLHV zoonotic transmission by xenotransplantation of tissues of porcine origin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s42770-020-00335-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7688735PMC
December 2020

Sanitary program to reduce embryonic mortality associated with infectious diseases in cattle.

Anim Reprod 2019 Oct 22;16(3):386-393. Epub 2019 Oct 22.

National Institute of Science and Technology of Dairy Production Chain (INCT-Leite), Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Paraná, Brazil.

Among reproductive disorders in dairy and beef cattle worldwide, embryonic mortalities stand out as one of the most frequent. Because of the multifactorial etiology, the clinical and laboratory diagnoses of embryonic mortality causes in cattle are quite complex. Often, infectious causes may account for up to 50% of bovine embryonic mortality rates after 30 days of conception. This review will address the main causes of early and late embryonic mortality, with emphasis on infectious causes and, particularly, those more frequent in the Brazilian cattle herds. In addition, we will discuss ways of controlling and prophylaxis including those related to reproductive and sanitary management, with emphasis on immunoprophylaxis of the three most frequent reproductive infectious diseases in Brazilian dairy and beef cattle herds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21451/1984-3143-AR2019-0073DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7234040PMC
October 2019

Canine parvovirus 2b in fecal samples of asymptomatic free-living South American coatis (Nasua nasua, Linnaeus, 1766).

Braz J Microbiol 2020 Sep 14;51(3):1399-1403. Epub 2020 May 14.

Laboratory of Animal Virology, Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Celso Garcia Cid Road, PR455 Km 380, P.O. Box 10011, Londrina, Paraná, 86057-970, Brazil.

Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) is classified into three subtypes (CPV-2a, CPV-2b, and CPV-2c) and is the main cause of enteritis and myocarditis in young domestic and wild animals. This study aimed to evaluate the presence of CPV-2 in the feces of asymptomatic free-living coatis from Garden Forest Reserve, Palmital city, SP, Brazil. Fecal samples from 21 coatis (both sexes, different ages, and different aspects of feces) were collected in August 2014 and March 2015. The nucleic acid extracted was submitted to a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to amplify a fragment of the VP2 gene of CPV-2. Eight (38%) fecal samples were positive in the PCR assay and were confirmed by sequencing. The 7 nucleotide (nt) sequences analyzed showed 100% nt identity with the prototype strain of CPV-2b (CPV-39 strain). The analysis of the deduced amino acid (aa) sequence revealed the presence of the GAT codon (aa D-Asp) at position 426 of the VP2 viral protein (subtype 2b). This study describes for the first time the identification of CPV-2b in asymptomatic free-living coatis (Nasua nasua) and suggests that coatis are susceptible to Carnivore protoparvovirus 1 infection and are important as a reservoir and an asymptomatic carrier to other wild and domestic animal species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s42770-020-00293-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7223230PMC
September 2020

Molecular characterization of Brazilian wild-type strains of bovine respiratory syncytial virus reveals genetic diversity and a putative new subgroup of the virus.

Vet Q 2020 Dec;40(1):83-96

National Institute of Science and Technology of Dairy Production Chain (INCT-Leite), Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Paraná, Brazil.

Bovine orthopneumovirus, formerly known as bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), is frequently associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). To perform the molecular characterization of the G and F proteins of Brazilian wild-type BRSV strains derived from bovine respiratory infections in both beef and dairy cattle. Ten BRSV strains derived from a dairy heifer rearing unit ( = 3) in 2011 and steers of three other feedlots ( = 7) in 2014 and 2015 were analyzed. For the BRSV G and F partial gene amplifications, RT-nested-PCR assays were performed with sequencing in both directions with forward and reverse primers used. The G gene-based analysis revealed that two strains were highly similar to the BRSV sequences representative of subgroup III, including the Bayovac vaccine strain. However, the remaining seven Brazilian BRSV strains were diverse when compared with strains representative of the BRSV I to VIII subgroups. The central hydrophobic region of the Brazilian BRSV G gene showed the replacement of conserved cysteines and other residues of importance to antibody reactivity. The deduced F gene amino acid sequences from the Brazilian BRSV strains showed changes that were absent in the representative sequences of the known subgroups. Viral isolation on the nasopharyngeal swab suspensions failed to isolate BRSV. Results suggest that these strains represent a putative new subgroup of BRSV with mutations observed in the immunodominant region of the G protein. However, further studies on these Brazilian BRSV strains should be performed to establish their pathogenic potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01652176.2020.1733704DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7067174PMC
December 2020

Longitudinal study of rotavirus C VP6 genotype I6 in diarrheic piglets up to 1 week old.

Braz J Microbiol 2020 Sep 30;51(3):1345-1351. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Laboratory of Animal Virology, Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PO Box 10011, Rodovia Celso Garcia Cid - Campus Universitário, 86057-970, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil.

The reports of rotavirus C (RVC) involvement in diarrhea outbreaks in newborn piglets have been increasing in recent years. This longitudinal study, conducted over a 37-day period, aimed to evaluate the frequency of RVC infection in piglets aged up to 7 days obtained from a pig herd with a previous diagnosis of RVC infection in this age group. Piglets from 50 different litters were monitored daily for the occurrence of diarrhea, and all litters were classified into the following categories: sow parity order (PO) 1 to 5; litter size (LS) ≤ 10 piglets and > 10 piglets; and piglet birth weight (BW) 1.2 to 1.3 kg and > 1.3 to 1.4 kg. Two hundred six diarrheic fecal samples were collected and classified according to the fecal consistency score (pasty, semiliquid, liquid). Ten fecal samples were collected from asymptomatic piglets (control group). Fecal samples were screened for rotavirus (RV) by silver stained-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (ss-PAGE), and samples with inconclusive and negative-ss-PAGE results were submitted to RVC VP6 gene amplification by RT-PCR. RVC was identified in 71 (34.5%) samples, in 1 (10%) sample of the control group, and in piglets from 33 (66%) litters. The electrophoretic profile of RV species A was identified in only two samples. Of the 72 RVC-positive samples, 51 (70.8%) presented semiliquid or liquid consistency. There was no significant difference in either group regarding the production parameters (PO, LS, BW) evaluated. An analysis of the whole VP6 gene of three RVC field strains collected on the first, fifteenth, and last day of the experiment enabled us to identify genotype I6. This report describes the first longitudinal study examining epidemiological aspects of RVC infection in newborn piglets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s42770-020-00234-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7455621PMC
September 2020

Detection of canine parvovirus types 2b and 2c in canine faecal samples contaminating urban thoroughfares in Brazil.

Can J Microbiol 2020 Feb 12;66(2):138-143. Epub 2019 Nov 12.

Department of Veterinary Sciences, Federal University of Paraná, 85950-000, Palotina, PR, Brazil.

Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) is a highly contagious virus that causes acute gastroenteritis in dogs all over the world. Because of its stability in the environment, CPV-2 can remain infective for a long time, especially if protected in organic matter. To demonstrate CPV-2's potential as an environmental hazard for nonimmunized susceptible hosts, we investigated 50 faecal samples collected from public areas in a municipality of Paraná state, Brazil. Seven samples tested positive for CPV by a PCR assay targeting the partial VP2 gene, with three strains being confirmed as CPV-2b variant and one as CPV-2c variant by sequence analysis. These findings were supported by phylogenetic analysis, and the species identity of faecal samples source was confirmed by canine mitochondrial DNA amplification and sequencing. Our results demonstrate the presence of CPV in canine faeces contaminating urban thoroughfares and reinforce the importance of environmental control to reduce the potential exposure risks to susceptible hosts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjm-2019-0137DOI Listing
February 2020

Prevalence and risk factors for agents causing diarrhea (Coronavirus, Rotavirus, Cryptosporidium spp., Eimeria spp., and nematodes helminthes) according to age in dairy calves from Brazil.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2020 Mar 7;52(2):777-791. Epub 2019 Oct 7.

Centro de Parasitologia Veterinária - CPV, Escola de Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade Federal de Goiás (UFG), Goiânia, GO, Brazil.

The present study attempted to verify the prevalence of and risk factors for diarrhea-causing agents in dairy calves from Brazil. Additionally, ages with a higher risk of occurrence for each agent were verified by means of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The collections were performed on 39 farms, belonging to 29 municipalities located in eight states of Brazil. It was possible to conclude that the prevalence of Coronavirus, Rotavirus, Cryptosporidium spp., Eimeria spp., and nematodes was 7.20% (95% CI 4.54-9.78), 6.37% (95% CI 3.85-8.89), 51.52% (95% CI 45.26-55.57), 3.46% (95% CI 2.24-4.67), and 3.46% (95% CI 2.24-4.67), respectively. Ages with higher probabilities of occurrence of these diseases in calves were < 10, > 8, > 6, > 37, and > 36 days, respectively. Diarrhea occurred more significantly (P < 0.0001) in animals less than 21 days old and mainly on those receiving milk through automatic feeders (P < 0.001). Cryptosporidium spp. were a risk factor for the occurrence of Rotavirus, and vice versa (P = 0.0039) and presented a positive correlation with Coronavirus (P = 0.0089). Calves that drink water from rivers, streams, and ponds had a higher chance of being infected by Eimeria spp. (P < 0.0001), as well as developing infection by nematodes (P < 0.0001). The results found in this study highlight the importance of studying the agents of diarrhea together, once they act as coinfection where the losses triggered for the owners will involve some of these agents simultaneously.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-019-02069-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7089087PMC
March 2020

Influence of cAMP modulator supplementation of in vitro culture medium on Bos taurus indicus embryos.

Theriogenology 2020 Jan 11;141:134-141. Epub 2019 Sep 11.

University of Londrina (UEL), Laboratory of Animal Reproduction, Londrina, PR, Brazil. Electronic address:

The effectiveness of the use of natriuretic peptide C (NPPC) in the blocking of meiosis has already been proven in several species. However, there are no reports on the use of NPPC in the activation of metabolic processes in embryos. Whereas modulations of cAMP concentrations alter the lipid metabolism of bovine oocytes, the present study aims to evaluate the effect of NPPC on the development, lipid content and transcript levels of genes related to lipid metabolism of IVP bovine embryos. For this purpose, ovaries were obtained from a slaughterhouse, and oocytes were fertilized in vitro (D0). From D5 of in vitro culture, embryos were treated with 100 nM NPPC (NPPC group) or with no NPPC (Control group) and evaluated in terms of Blastocyst (D7) and hatching rates (D10). For the assessment of the cytoplasmatic lipid amounts, blastocysts were stained with Sudan Black B dye. The embryonic lipid profile was investigated by electrospray ionization desorption-mass spectrometry (DESI-MS). The abundance of nine transcripts related to lipid metabolism were assessed using the Biomark HD system. For statistical analysis, blastocyst and hatching rates, lipid content by the Sudan Black B and variation of gene expression between groups were compared by Student t-test. For lipid profile analysis, principal component analysis (PCA) and fold-change were performed. The embryo lipid content was similar between NPPC (881 ± 3.7) and Control (883 ± 5.2) groups (p > 0.05). However, cholesteryl esters and TAGs were downregulated by NPPC at multiple levels according to the DESI-MS profiles. Of the analyzed genes, ELOVL6 and SREBF1 showed an up-regulation in the control group (p < 0.05), while CPT2 was observed to be up-regulated in the NPPC-treated embryos. There was no significant difference in the blastocyst production rate between NPPC (44.4%) and Control (42.4%), however the hatching rate at D10 was higher (p < 0.05) in the NPPC group (69.77%) when compared to the Control group (48.33%). These findings demonstrate that NPPC alters the mRNA expression of genes related to lipid metabolism and that it exerts a positive effect on the hatching rates of IVP Bos taurus indicus embryos.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2019.09.007DOI Listing
January 2020

Genetic characterization of a putative new type of bovine papillomavirus in the Xipapillomavirus 1 species in a Brazilian dairy herd.

Virus Genes 2019 Oct 3;55(5):682-687. Epub 2019 Aug 3.

Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Laboratory of Animal Virology, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Celso Garcia Cid Road, PR 445 km 380, Londrina, Paraná, 86051-990, Brazil.

Currently, bovine papillomavirus types are divided into five genera, namely, Deltapapillomavirus, Epsilonpapillomavirus, Xipapillomavirus, Dyoxipapillomavirus, and Dyokappapapillomavirus. In the recent decades, the characterization of numerous putative and novel bovine papillomavirus types from cattle in several geographic regions, has revealed the occurrence of a high viral diversity. In this study, we describe the identification and characterization of a putative new bovine papillomavirus type within species Xipapillomavirus 1 of Xipapillomavirus genus. The detection of the viral types identified in the skin warts was obtained by polymerase chain reaction assays targeting the L1 gene, followed by direct sequencing of the generated amplicons. The partial L1 sequences revealed that bovine papillomavirus types 6, 10, and 11, the putative new bovine papillomavirus type designated BPV/CHI-SW2, and an unreported putative new bovine papillomavirus type (named BPV/BR-UEL08) were associated with cutaneous papillomatosis in the cows from the dairy herd investigated. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on the L1 gene revealed that the BPV/BR-UEL08 isolate clustered with other bovine papillomaviruses classified in the Xipapillomavirus genus, being closely related to representatives of the species Xipapillomavirus 1. Investigations focusing on the molecular epidemiology of bovine papillomaviruses related to clinical outcomes in cattle are of fundamental importance to determine the actual genetic diversity and prevalent viral types to be included in vaccines for cattle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11262-019-01694-8DOI Listing
October 2019

Mycoplasma bovis and viral agents associated with the development of bovine respiratory disease in adult dairy cows.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2020 Jul 24;67 Suppl 2:82-93. Epub 2019 Jun 24.

Laboratory of Animal Pathology, Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Paraná, Brazil.

The etiology and pathologic findings of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in adult dairy cows (n = 35) from a commercial dairy herd in Southern Brazil were investigated. Pulmonary samples were examined for histopathologic patterns and specific features within these patterns, while immunohistochemical (IHC) assays were designed to detect the intralesional antigens of viral infectious disease agents and Mycoplasma bovis. Pneumonia was diagnosed in 91.4% (32/35) of these cases; neither pneumonia nor any of the infectious disease pathogens evaluated occurred in three cows. The presence of multiple respiratory pathogens in 75% (24/32) of these cases indicated the complex origin of pneumonia in cattle. Interstitial pneumonia, necrosuppurative bronchopneumonia and suppurative bronchopneumonia were the principal patterns of pulmonary disease identified by histopathology. The most frequent pathogens identified by IHC were bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV; n = 18), M. bovis (n = 16) and bovine alphaherpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1; n = 14), followed by bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV; n = 11) and bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV-3; n = 5). Obliterative bronchiolitis and peribronchial lymphocytic cuffings were the characteristic histopathologic features associated with M. bovis. Necrohemorrhagic bronchitis with bronchial angiogenesis was associated with BoHV-1. Necrotizing bronchitis and bronchiolitis were associated with BVDV, BoHV-1 and BRSV. Ballooning degeneration of the bronchial and bronchiolar epithelia was associated with BRSV and BoHV-1. This is the first report from Brazil that correlated the histopathologic findings of BRD with the associated infectious disease agents by immunohistochemistry. M. bovis was frequently detected in the tissues of cows with fatal pulmonary disease during this study and may be a possible primary disease pathogen associated with the development of BRD in dairy cows. Additionally, the histopathologic features identified within patterns of pulmonary disease during this investigation may be an efficient diagnostic tool to associate histopathologic findings with specific agents of BRD in dairy cows.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13223DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7228412PMC
July 2020

Detection of Equid gammaherpesvirus 2 and 5 DNA in the upper respiratory tract of asymptomatic horses from Southern Brazil.

Braz J Microbiol 2019 Jul 11;50(3):875-878. Epub 2019 Jun 11.

Laboratory of Animal Virology, Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Rodovia Celso Garcia Cid - Campus Universitário, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PO Box 10011, Londrina, PR, CEP 86057-970, Brazil.

Equid gammaherpesvirus 2 (EHV-2) and 5 (EHV-5) are members of the Herpesviridae family and have been reported in horse populations worldwide. This study aimed to evaluate the presence of herpesvirus DNA in the upper respiratory tract of horses. Twenty-six nasal swabs were collected from asymptomatic adult horses of two different horse farms (A, n = 18; B, n = 8), both located in Southern Brazil. The EHV-1, EHV-2, EHV-4, and EHV-5 DNA analyses were performed using nested PCR assays targeting the glycoprotein B gene. Four (15.3%) and 12 (46.1%) of the 26 nasal swab samples were positive for the EHV-2 and EHV-5, respectively. Four (15.3%) horses were detected with both viruses simultaneously. DNA of EHV-2 and EHV-5 in both single and mixed infections was identified in horses from both herds. All swab samples were negative for EHV-1 and EHV-4. This study reports the first detection of EHV-2 and EHV-5 in the upper respiratory tracts of horses in Brazil. The high detection rate of EHV-2 and EHV-5 in asymptomatic adult horses demonstrates that these gammaherpesviruses are circulating in Brazil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s42770-019-00100-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6863341PMC
July 2019

G and P genotype profiles of rotavirus A field strains circulating in beef and dairy cattle herds in Brazil, 2006-2015.

Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2019 Jun 8;64:90-98. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Laboratory of Animal Virology, Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), Celso Garcia Cid Road, PR455 Km 380, P.O. Box 10011, CEP 86057-970, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil; Multi-User Animal Health Laboratory, Molecular Biology Unit, Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), Celso Garcia Cid Road, PR455 Km 380, P.O. Box 10011, CEP 86057-970, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil; National Institute of Science and Technology for the Dairy Production Chain (INCT - Leite), Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), Celso Garcia Cid Road, PR455 Km 380, P.O. Box 10011, CEP 86057-970, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. Electronic address:

The aim of this retrospective study was to use RT-PCR and nucleotide sequencing analysis to determine the G (VP7 gene) and P (VP4 gene) genotypes of 155 Brazilian bovine rotavirus A (RVA) wild-type strains detected in diarrheic calves from all Brazilian geographical regions from 2006 to 2015. The RVA strains evaluated belonged to the G6, G10, P[5], and P[11] genotypes. The G6P[5] genotype was prevalent (65.5%; P < 0.05) in beef, and the G10P[11] (38.4%) and G6P[11] (30.8%) genotypes were more prevalent in dairy cattle herds. The Midwest was the region with the highest number of genotyped RVA strains, where the genotypes G6, P[5], and P[11] were identified. Genotype combination G6-IV/P[5]-IX, prevalent in beef herds, and G6-III/P[11]-III or G10-IV/P[11]-III, prevalent in dairy herds, were detected. In addition, for the first time in Brazil, we detected the P[5] and P[11] genotype RVA strains that belong to lineage II and VII, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cimid.2019.03.002DOI Listing
June 2019

Detection of canine kobuvirus RNA in diarrheic fecal samples of dogs with parvoviruses.

Braz J Microbiol 2019 Jul 28;50(3):871-874. Epub 2019 May 28.

Laboratory of Animal Virology, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Rodovia Celso Garcia Cid - Campus Universitário, PO Box 10011, Londrina, PR, 86057-970, Brazil.

Canine kobuvirus (CaKV) is a member of the Picornaviridae family and the Kobuvirus genus. CaKV was first described in fecal samples from diarrheic dogs in the USA in 2011, with subsequent reports in the UK, Italy, South Korea, China, Tanzania, and Japan. CaKV is frequently identified in feces of animals with or without clinical signs of gastroenteritis. The present study investigated the presence of CaKV in fecal samples from 53 diarrheic dogs from Londrina, southern Brazil. Using a RT-PCR assay, CaKV RNA was identified in three dogs, resulting in an overall occurrence rate of 5.7%. In addition, coinfection with canine parvovirus subtype 2b was detected in all CaKV-positive diarrheic fecal samples. Using a phylogenetic analysis based on the VP1 gene sequence, the Brazilian CaKV field strains were found to be very similar to a previously identified CaKV strain from Brazil that was found in the tissue of a puppy and were also found to be clustered with other CaKV strains detected worldwide and other kobuvirus strains identified in mouse, feline, and human hosts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s42770-019-00095-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6863268PMC
July 2019

Seneca Valley virus RNA detection in pig feed and feed ingredients in Brazil.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2019 Jul 14;66(4):1449-1453. Epub 2019 May 14.

Laboratory of Animal Virology, Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Paraná, Brazil.

We investigated Seneca Valley virus (SVV) contamination in pig feed and feed ingredients. Twenty-seven samples were collected from two Brazilian feed mills and subjected to conventional RT-nested-PCR and qRT-PCR assays. Seven samples were SVV-positive with viral loads of 3.94-4.33 log genomic copies/g of feed. The study reveals SVV feed and feed ingredient contamination under natural conditions in Brazil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13215DOI Listing
July 2019

Disseminated melanized fungal infection due to Cladosporium halotolerans in a dog coinfected with canine adenovirus-1 and canine parvovirus-2.

Braz J Microbiol 2019 Jul 17;50(3):859-870. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Small Animal Internal Medicine, Department of Veterinary Clinics, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil.

This report presents the pathologic findings associated with disseminated infection due to Cladosporium halotolerans in a dog that was simultaneously infected with canine adenovirus-1 (CAdV-1) and canine parvovirus-2 (CPV-2). A 12-year-old, mixed breed dog, with a clinical history of neurological manifestations was submitted for routine autopsy due to poor prognosis. The principal pathologic findings were mycotic necrotizing nephritis, hepatitis, and splenitis with embolic dissemination to the brain resulting in mycotic necrotizing meningoencephalitis, ventriculitis, choroid plexitis, and obstructive hydrocephalus associated with intralesional and intravascular septate pigmented fungi. PCR and sequencing of the ITS region of fungi revealed that the intralesional fungal organisms had 82% nucleotide identity with members of the Cladosporium sphaerospermum complex of organisms. However, a PCR assay and sequencing of the beta tubulin gene confirmed that the organism identified in this dog had 100% nucleotide sequence identity with C. halotolerans. Using immunohistochemistry, intralesional antigens of CAdV-1 were identified within the epithelial cells of the liver and lungs; there was positive immunolabeling for CPV-2 antigens in degenerated cardiomyocytes. These findings confirmed the active participation of C. halotolerans in the development of disseminated cladosporiosis in this dog and represent a rare occurrence of concomitant infection with CAdV-1 and CPV-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s42770-019-00082-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6863253PMC
July 2019

Molecular analysis of the full-length F gene of Brazilian strains of canine distemper virus shows lineage co-circulation and variability between field and vaccine strains.

Virus Res 2019 04 20;264:8-15. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Laboratory of Animal Virology, Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Universidade Estadual de Londrina. Rodovia Celso Garcia Cid - Campus Universitário, CEP 86057-970 - Londrina, PO Box 10011, Paraná, Brazil; Multi-User Animal Health Laboratory, Molecular Biology Unit, Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Universidade Estadual de Londrina. Rodovia Celso Garcia Cid - Campus Universitário, CEP 86057-970 - Londrina, PO Box 10011, Paraná, Brazil.

Canine distemper is a highly contagious systemic viral disease, with worldwide distribution that affects a wide variety of terrestrial carnivores. This study characterized full-length fusion (F) genes from 15 Brazilian wild-type canine distemper virus (CDV) strains collected between 2003-2004 (n = 6) and 2013-2016 (n = 9). Using deduced amino acid (aa) sequence analysis, 14 strains were classified into Europe 1/South America 1 (EU1/SA1) lineage, with a temporal clustering into past (2003-2004) and contemporary (2013-2016) strains. One strain clustered to Rockborn-like lineage, showing high similarity (98.5%) with the Rockborn vaccine strain. In analyzed strains, the fusion protein signal-peptide (Fsp) coding region was highly variable at the aa level (67.4%-96.2%). The Brazilian strains were more Fsp-divergent from the North America 1 (NA1) strains (24.5%-36.3%) than from the Rockborn (11.2%-14.9%) vaccine strain. Seventeen cysteine residues in the full-length F gene and four non-conserved glycosylation sites in the Fsp region were detected. The results reveal that past and contemporary CDV strains are currently co-circulating. This first analysis of full-length F genes from Brazilian wild-type CDV strains contributes to knowledge of molecular epidemiology of CDV viral infection and evolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2019.02.009DOI Listing
April 2019

Response to the letter.

Res Vet Sci 2019 06 26;124:18-19. Epub 2019 Jan 26.

Department of Veterinary Clinics, Centro de Ciências Agrárias (CCA), Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), Campus Universitário, Cx. Postal 6001, Londrina, PR 86051-990, Brazil.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2019.01.021DOI Listing
June 2019

Cross-sectional study of the G and P genotypes of rotavirus A field strains circulating in regularly vaccinated dairy cattle herds.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2019 May 8;51(4):887-892. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Laboratory of Animal Virology, Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Rodovia Celso Garcia Cid - Campus Universitário, PO Box 10011, Londrina, Paraná, 86057-970, Brazil.

Neonatal diarrhea is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in calves up to 30 days old, and rotavirus A (RVA) is the main viral etiology. RVA vaccines are one of the main tools for diarrhea control in neonates. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to monitor by RT-PCR the G and P genotypes of RVA strains identified in dairy cattle herds regularly vaccinated with the RVA UK strain (G6P[5]). Of the 14 randomly selected herds, two were excluded because no calf was diagnosed with diarrhea on the day of fecal collection. Another six herds were also excluded from the study because all 20 diarrheic fecal samples evaluated were RT-PCR-negative. In the remaining six herds, 17 (25.4%) of the 67 diarrheic samples were RVA-positive. One G and P amplicon from each herd were selected for nucleotide sequencing. In the phylogenetic analysis, five RVA strains presented the G6P[11] genotype, and one presented the G10P[11] genotype. The G6 genotype present in all RVA field strains clustered into a distinct phylogenetic arrangement (lineage III) of the UK vaccine strain (lineage IV), characterizing the emergence of a phylogenetically distant G6 strain. In addition, we observed the emergence of strains with G10 and P[11] genotypes characterizing failure in heterologous immune protection. These results show the epidemiological importance of constant monitoring of RVA strains in vaccinated cattle herds and the low frequencies of diarrhea and diagnosis of RVA suggest that a regular vaccination program reduces the frequency and severity of RVA diarrhea in suckling calves.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-018-1769-2DOI Listing
May 2019

Pathologic and molecular findings associated with atypical porcine pestivirus infection in newborn piglets.

Vet Microbiol 2018 Dec 27;227:41-44. Epub 2018 Oct 27.

Laboratory of Animal Virology, Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Paraná, Brazil; Multi-User Animal Health Laboratory, Molecular Biology Unit, Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. Electronic address:

Atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) has been associated with congenital tremor (CT) type A-II in newborn piglets. Although the number of APPV-based studies is increasing, the associated pathologic findings in infected piglets are underreported. This study describes the histopathologic features of spontaneous APPV infection in CT-affected piglets and complements a previous report by our group. Four two-day-old piglets with CT were evaluated by histopathology, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and molecular assay. The main histopathologic findings at the brain and spinal cord included neuronal necrosis, gliosis, neuronophagia, satellitosis, demyelination, Wallerian degeneration, and Purkinje cell necrosis. An IHC assay designed to detect the proliferation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in affected areas of the brain and spinal cord revealed that the proliferation of GFAP + cells and fibers was predominant in APPV-infected piglets relative to asymptomatic piglets of the same age group. The RT-nested-PCR assays identified APPV RNA in the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem of all piglets; other viruses known to produce similar manifestations were not detected. These results suggest that the APPV-induced histopathologic findings are predominantly degenerative and necrotic and correlate with our previous findings. Consequently, it is proposed that neuronal necrosis, gliosis, neuronophagia, and satellitosis should be considered as important histologic features of APPV-induced infection in symptomatic CT piglets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.10.026DOI Listing
December 2018

IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL AND MOLECULAR EVIDENCE OF PUTATIVE NEORICKETTSIA INFECTION IN COATIS ( NASUA NASUA) FROM SOUTHERN BRAZIL.

J Zoo Wildl Med 2018 Sep;49(3):535-541

The pathologic, molecular, and immunohistochemical findings associated with Neorickettsia helminthoeca are described in coatis ( Nasua nasua). Tissue sections (small intestine, lungs, kidney, liver, and spleen) of coatis ( n = 3) that died at the Bela Vista Biological Refuge, Foz do Iguaçu, Paraná, southern Brazil were routinely processed from histopathology. Selected formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections of the small intestine, lungs, and spleen were used in an immunohistochemical (IHC) assay designed to identify the antigens of N. helminthoeca. Additionally, FFPE tissue sections of the small intestine were used to demonstrate antigens of canine parvovirus-2 (CPV-2) by IHC. Histopathology revealed chronic enteritis in all coatis. Parasitic enteritis was diagnosed in two coatis; one of these contained examples of a trematode within the lumen of the small intestine and the ovum of a trematode encysted in the intestinal mucosa. Other significant pathologic findings included interstitial pneumonia ( n = 2) and pyogranulomatous splenitis ( n = 1). Positive immunolabeling for N. helminthoeca was identified within macrophages of the small intestine and reticuloendothelial cells within the germinal centers of the spleen of all coatis; the intestinal trematode was N. helminthoeca IHC-positive. All pulmonary sections revealed negative immunolabeling for N. helminthoeca. Furthermore, the antigens of CPV-2 were not identified in the intestine of any coati. These findings indicate that these coatis were infected by N. helminthoeca, but since clinical and gross pathological findings were not recorded, it is uncertain if this pathogen produced clinical disease in this canid host; therefore, coatis may be asymptomatic or dead-end hosts for this organism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1638/2017-0151.1DOI Listing
September 2018

Molecular Characterization of a New G (VP7) Genotype in Group B Porcine Rotavirus.

Intervirology 2018 16;61(1):42-48. Epub 2018 Jul 16.

Laboratory of Animal Virology, Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Londrina, Brazil.

Rotaviruses (RVs), a common cause of viral gastroenteritis in humans and animals, are classified into 9 established groups/species (RVA-RVI). Although RVB has been found in several countries, genetic variation among RVB field strains remains poorly characterized. RVB strains can be classified into G genotypes based on a nucleotide (nt) homology that exceeds a cutoff value of 80% for the gene that encodes the structural protein VP7. In this study, we determined the VP7 nt and deduced amino acid sequences of one RVB strain (RB62) identified in a diarrheic fecal sample obtained from a piglet in Brazil in 2012. Comparative analysis of this strain and the strains of the other 21 previously identified VP7 ge-notypes showed that the highest nt identity (71.2%) was found with the porcine PB-70-H5 strain within the G4 genotype. However, when compared with the nonclassified Vietnamese RVB G genotype 14177_18 strain, the nt sequence identity was of 82.9%. These results led us to conclude that the Brazilian strain BR62 and the Vietnamese strain 14177_18 belong to a novel G genotype (G22).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000490388DOI Listing
December 2018
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