Publications by authors named "Amarbir Bhullar"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

New Precordial T wave Inversions in Hospitalized Patients.

Am J Med 2021 Nov 20. Epub 2021 Nov 20.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of California San Francisco, Fresno, California.

Background: The incidence of precordial T changes has been described in athletes and in specific populations, while the etiology in a large patient population admitted to the hospital has not previously been reported.

Methods: All ECGs read by the same physician with new (compared to prior ECGs) or presumed new (no prior ECGs) precordial T wave inversions of >1 mm (0.1 mV) in multiple precordial leads were retrospectively reviewed and various ECG, patient-related and imaging parameters assessed. 226 patients and their ECGs were initially selected for analysis. Of these, 35 were eliminated leaving 191 for the final analysis.

Results: Patients and their ECGs were divided into 5 groups based on diagnosis and incidence including Wellens' syndrome, takotsubo, type 2 myocardial infarction, other (including multiple diagnoses) and unknown. While subtle differences including number of T inversion leads, depth of T waves, QTc intervals and other variables were present between some groups, diagnosis in individual cases required appropriate clinical, laboratory and/or imaging studies. For example, although Wellens' syndrome was identified in <20% of cases, a presenting history of chest discomfort with precordial T changes either on the admission or next day ECG was highly sensitive and specific for this diagnosis. In some cases, Type 2 myocardial infarction can also have a Wellens' like ECG phenotype without significant left anterior descending disease.

Conclusions: Precordial T wave changes in hospitalized patients have various etiologies and, in individual cases, the changes on the ECG alone cannot easily distinguish the presumptive diagnosis and additional data are required.
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November 2021

Where Is the Bubble? A Case of Systemic-to-Pulmonary Venous Shunt in Superior Vena Cava Occlusion.

CASE (Phila) 2020 Dec 8;4(6):482-484. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco Fresno, Fresno, California.

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December 2020

Surface unipolar electrogram characteristics to predict site of origin of outflow tract arrhythmias using noninvasive mapping.

J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2021 02 6;32(2):391-399. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Cardiac Electrophysiology, Northwell Health-Lenox Hill Heart and Lung, New York, New York, USA.

Background: Noninvasive electroanatomic mapping (NIEAM) demonstrate patterns of depolarization that are useful in identifying the chamber of origin (COO) in outflow tract ventricular arrhythmias (OTVA). However, its use in predicting exact site of origin (SOO) has not yet been validated.

Methods: NIEAMs (CardioInsight, Medtronic) from 40 patients (age 62.5 ± 2.6) undergoing ablation for OTVA were reviewed for diagnostic accuracy in predicting the SOO. Earliest arrhythmia breakout and directionality of earliest instantaneous unipolar electrograms (uEGMs) on NIEAMs were evaluated subjectively by two observers for quality and amplitude. Sites with most negative earliest uEGMs on right and left ventricular outflow tracts, as well as epicardial surface were manually identified. Using NIEAM-based activation timing of the lateral mitral annulus and basal septum COO was identified for each OTVA. Predictions of SOO using NIEAMs was compared with true SOO from invasive study. NIEAMs SOO predictions were compared with subjective 12 lead electrocardiogram (ECG) review by two observers.

Results: Review of arrhythmia breakout and signal directionality had poor diagnostic value in predicting SOO in OTVA (50.6% and 49.4%, 56.6% and 43.4%, respectively) and underperformed compared with ECG interpretation (59.1% and 80.5%). After excluding uEGMs with poor characteristics, the uEGM with most negative amplitude at the COO was predictive of the true SOO with 96.4% sensitivity and specificity.

Conclusion: We propose a stepwise approach when interpreting NIEAMs for OTVA where patterns of activation are evaluated first to determine the COO, followed by identification of the site with most negative amplitude instantaneous uEGM to determine SOO.
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February 2021

Unusual presentation of left ventricular rupture.

BMJ Case Rep 2020 Feb 2;13(1). Epub 2020 Feb 2.

Cardiology, University of California San Francisco, Fresno, California, USA.

We describe a case of 49-year-old man who presented with chest pain and was diagnosed with non-ST elevation myocardial infarction. Transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) showed severe global hypokinesis of left ventricle with ejection fraction of 25%-30%. Left heart catheterisation showed severe right coronary stenosis and focal 60%-70% distal left anterior descending artery stenosis. Cardiac MRI (CMR) was done for evaluation of viability which showed a large pseudoaneurysm which was missed on TTE and left ventriculogram. Our case demonstrates the increasing importance of cardiac MRI in the diagnosis of left ventricular pseudoaneurysm. In our case left ventricular pseudoaneurysm was missed on TTE and left ventriculogram. It was diagnosed on CMR which was ordered for evaluation of myocardium viability.
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February 2020

In-Hospital Outcomes of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in America's Safety Net: Insights From the NCDR Cath-PCI Registry.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2017 08;10(15):1475-1485

University of California, San Francisco, Fresno, California. Electronic address:

Objectives: This study compared risk-adjusted percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) outcomes of safety-net hospitals (SNHs) and non-SNHs.

Background: Although risk adjustment is used to compare hospitals, SNHs treat a disproportionate share of uninsured and underinsured patients, who may have unmeasured risk factors, limited health care access, and poorer outcomes than patients treated at non-SNHs.

Methods: Using the National Cardiovascular Data Registry CathPCI Registry from 2009 to 2015, we analyzed 3,746,961 patients who underwent PCI at 282 SNHs (hospitals where ≥10% of PCI patients were uninsured) and 1,134 non-SNHs. The relationship between SNH status and risk-adjusted outcomes was assessed.

Results: SNHs were more likely to be lower volume, rural hospitals located in the southern states. Patients treated at SNHs were younger (63 vs. 65 years), more often nonwhite (17% vs. 12%), smokers (33% vs. 26%), and more likely to be admitted through the emergency department (48% vs. 38%) and to have an ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (20% vs. 14%) than non-SNHs (all p < 0.001). Patients undergoing PCI at SNHs had higher risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality (odds ratio: 1.23; 95% confidence interval: 1.17 to 1.32; p < 0.001), although the absolute risk difference between groups was small (0.4%). Risk-adjusted bleeding (odds ratio: 1.05; 95% confidence interval: 1.00 to 1.12; p = 0.062) and acute kidney injury rates (odds ratio: 1.01; 95% confidence interval: 0.96 to 1.07; p = 0.51) were similar.

Conclusions: Despite treating a higher proportion of uninsured patients with more acute presentations, risk-adjusted PCI-related in-hospital mortality of SNHs is only marginally higher (4 additional deaths per 1,000 PCI cases) than non-SNHs, whereas risk-adjusted bleeding and acute kidney injury rates are comparable.
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August 2017