Publications by authors named "Amanda Wright"

100 Publications

Apple consumption reduces markers of postprandial inflammation following a high fat meal in overweight and obese adults: A randomized, crossover trial.

Food Funct 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Human Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2 W1, Canada.

High fat meal-induced postprandial inflammation is exacerbated in overweight and obesity and may contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. This study aimed to determine the effects of apples, rich in anti-inflammatory polyphenols, on biomarkers of postprandial inflammation in individuals with overweight and obesity. A randomized, crossover trial was conducted with n = 26 participants (17 female/9 male; mean age 45.5 ± 3.12 years; mean BMI 34.1 ± 1.18 kg m-2) to assess the effects of 3 whole Gala apples (∼200 g) on the 2, 4 and 6 h postprandial response to a high fat meal providing 1 g fat per kg body weight. Changes in plasma biomarkers of inflammation (as the primary outcome) and endotoxin exposure, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured. Fasting (0 h) and 4 h peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were also isolated from whole blood and stimulated with or without a physiological dose (10 ng mL-1) of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to measure secreted cytokines. Apples modulated postprandial plasma IFN-γ and reduced its peak concentration (-12.8%), and increased both 4 h (14.4%) and peak (10.5%) TAC (P < 0.05). In unstimulated and LPS-stimulated PBMC, apples reduced secreted IL-6 (-49.3% and -17.1%) and TNF-α (-43.3% and -14.7%) and increased IL-4 (93.1% and 15.8%) in both the unstimulated and LPS-stimulated conditions, as well as decreased GM-CSF (-26.0%) and IL-17 (-47.9%) in unstimulated PBMC and G-CSF (-19.8%) in LPS-stimulated PBMC (P < 0.05). These data suggest acute whole Gala apple consumption may be an effective dietary strategy to mitigate high fat meal-induced postprandial inflammation that exacerbates CVD risk in overweight and obesity. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov, NCT03523403, The Apple Study: Investigating the Effects of Whole Apple Consumption on Risk Factors for Chronic Metabolic Diseases in Overweight and Obese Adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1fo00392eDOI Listing
June 2021

Daily apple consumption reduces plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cell-secreted inflammatory biomarkers in adults with overweight and obesity: a 6-week randomized, controlled, parallel-arm trial.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Human Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Obesity-associated low-grade inflammation contributes to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Apples are rich in anti-inflammatory bioactives including polyphenols and fiber.

Objectives: We aimed to determine the effects of regular apple consumption on fasting plasma biomarkers of inflammation (primary outcome), endotoxemia, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism (glucose, insulin, triacylglycerol; secondary outcomes), and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-secreted cytokines (secondary outcome) in individuals with overweight and obesity.

Methods: A randomized, controlled, parallel-arm trial was conducted with n = 46 participants. After avoiding foods and beverages rich in polyphenols and fiber for 2 wk, participants consumed 3 whole Gala apples (∼200 g edible parts)/d as part of their habitual diet (n = 23) or avoided apples (control, n = 23) for 6 wk. All participants limited consumption of polyphenols and fiber during the 6-wk trial. Fasting blood samples were collected before and after 6 wk for analysis of plasma biomarkers and isolation of PBMCs, which were cultured for 24 h unstimulated or stimulated with LPS (10 ng/mL).

Results: Forty-four participants completed the trial (30 female, 14 male; mean ± SEM age: 45.4 ± 2.2 y; BMI: 33.4 ± 0.9 kg/m2). After ANCOVA and correcting for multiple comparisons, apples decreased fasting plasma C-reactive protein by 17.0% (range: 14.3%-19.6%, P = 0.005), IL-6 by 12.4% (range: 6.7%-17.5%, P < 0.001), and LPS-binding protein by 20.7% (range: 14.1%-26.4%, P < 0.001) compared with control. Apples also decreased PBMC-secreted IL-6 by 28.3% (range: 22.4%-33.5%, P < 0.001) and IL-17 by 11.0% (range 5.8-15.6%, P = 0.003) in the unstimulated condition compared with control. Exploratory analysis showed apples also increased plasma total antioxidant capacity by 9.6% (range: 1.7-18.9%, P = 0.002) compared with control. However, apples had no effect on anthropometric or other CVD risk markers.

Conclusions: Six-week daily whole Gala apple consumption may be an effective dietary strategy to mitigate the obesity-associated inflammation that exacerbates CVD risk, without weight loss. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03523403.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqab094DOI Listing
May 2021

Emulsion acid colloidal stability and droplet crystallinity modulate postprandial gastric emptying and short-term satiety: a randomized, double-blinded, crossover, controlled trial in healthy adult males.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Human Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Emulsion droplet triacylglycerol (TAG) crystallinity and colloidal stability can alter the postprandial metabolism, although evidence of their interactive effects is limited.

Objectives: This acute meal crossover study investigated the influences of droplet TAG crystallinity at 37°C and colloidal gastric stability on gastric emptying (GE), acute lipemia, and satiety.

Methods: We gave 15 healthy adult males (mean ± SD age, 24.9 y ± 4.5 y; BMI, 26.0 kg/m2 ± 2.0 kg/m2; fasting TAG, 0.9 mmol/L  ± 0.3 mmol/L) 250 mL of four 20% palm stearin or palm olein emulsions with similar particle size distributions and containing partially crystalline droplets that remained stable (SS) or destabilized (SU) or containing liquid droplets that remained stable (LS) or destabilized (LU) when exposed to simulated gastric conditions. Baseline and 6-h postprandial ultrasound gastric antrum measurements, satiety visual analogue scales (VAS), and blood samples for analyses of plasma TAG, peptide YY (PYY), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), ghrelin, leptin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, insulin, and glucose were collected. Changes from baseline and incremental area under the curve (iAUC) values were analyzed by repeated-measures ANOVA.

Results: TAG responses did not differ significantly. The gastric antrum area decreased faster (P ≤ 0.01) after treatment with the acid-unstable emulsions (SU and LU), and satiety VAS ratings and plasma endpoints differed between treatments. After LS treatment, participants had 65% and 59% lower 3-h iAUC values for hunger (P = 0.021) and desire to eat (P = 0.031), respectively, compared to after SU treatment. LS treatment resulted in higher 6-h iAUC values for ghrelin (141%; P = 0.023) and PYY (150%; P = 0.043) compared to SU treatment, and LS treatment also resulted in higher GLP-1 values compared to SU (38%; P = 0.016) and LU (76%; P = 0.001) treatment.

Conclusion: Emulsion acid colloidal stability, independent of TAG physical state, delayed GE, and satiety was enhanced after consuming acid stable emulsions containing TAG in the liquid state. The study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03990246.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqab116DOI Listing
May 2021

Perioperative Modifications to the Open TLIF Provide Comparable Short-term Outcomes to the MIS-TLIF.

Clin Spine Surg 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Neurological Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN.

Study Design: This study is a retrospective review of patients' charts and data from longitudinally collected clinical outcomes and opioid use.

Objective: In the current study, we aim to compare short-term outcomes data for 139 Open transforaminal interbody fusion (TLIF) patients to recently published data for tubular and endoscopic MIS-TLIF.

Background Context: In response to the downsides associated with Open TLIF, such as large incision, blood loss, delayed ambulation, prolonged hospitalization, and opioid-reliance, spine surgeons developed tubular retractor based "minimally-invasive" TLIF. However, the traditional Open TLIF retains its significance in terms of providing successful fusion and improved patient-reported outcomes (PROs).

Methods: We adapted several techniques with an aim to improve short-term outcomes for our Open TLIF patients that combined extensive perioperative counselling, an emphasis on early mobilization, avoidance of overuse of opioid analgesics, early discharge with home care arrangements, use of a posthospitalization drainage tube with intraoperative surgical modifications using small incisions (4-5 cm), a narrow 20 mm retractor, minimal muscle injury, and use of a cell saver to minimize net blood loss. The demographics and perioperative results were compared with data from recent MIS-TLIF studies using Student t test for continuous and χ2/exact test for categorical variables.

Results: Among the total 139 patients, 115 underwent a single-level procedure, 90% of whom were discharged on the first postoperative day (length of stay=1.13±0.47 d) with an average net estimated blood loss of 176.17±87.88 mL. There were 24 two-level procedures with an average length of stay of 1.57±0.84 days, average net estimated blood loss was 216.96±85.70 mL. The patients had statistically significant improvements in PROs at 3 and 12 months.

Conclusions: The results of this study identify that patients who underwent modified Open TLIF demonstrated favorable short-term outcomes, as compared with the tubular MIS-TLIF, by virtue of avoidance of blood transfusions, shorter hospital stays, and significantly less opioid usage while experiencing satisfactory PROs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BSD.0000000000001181DOI Listing
April 2021

Effect of pH and heat treatment conditions on physicochemical and acid gelation properties of liquid milk protein concentrate.

J Dairy Sci 2021 Jun 25;104(6):6609-6619. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Human Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1.

Milk protein concentrates (MPC) are typically dried high-protein powders with functional and nutritional properties that can be tailored through modification of processing conditions, including temperature, pH, filtration, and drying. However, the effects of processing conditions on the structure-function properties of liquid MPC (fluid ultrafiltered milk), specifically, are understudied. In this report, the pH of liquid MPC [13% protein (70% protein DM basis), pH 6.7] was adjusted to 6.5 or 6.9, and samples at pH 6.5, 6.7, and 6.9 were subjected to heat treatment at either 85°C for 5 min or 125°C for 15 s. Sodium dodecyl sulfate PAGE was used to determine the distribution of caseins and denatured whey proteins in the soluble and micellar phases, and HPLC was used to quantify native whey proteins as a measure of denaturation, based on the processing conditions. Both heat treatments resulted in substantial whey protein denaturation at each pH, with β-lactoglobulin denatured more extensively than α-lactalbumin. Changes in liquid MPC physicochemical properties were monitored at d 1, 5, and 8 during storage at 4°C. Viscosity increased after heat treatment and also over time, regardless of pH and heating conditions, suggesting the role of whey protein denaturation and aggregation, and their interactions with casein micelles. The MPC samples processed at pH 6.9 had a significantly higher viscosity than those heated at pH 6.5 or 6.7, for both temperature and time conditions; and samples processed at 85°C for 5 min had higher viscosity than those heated at 125°C for 15 s. Particle size analysis indicated the presence of larger particles after 5 and 8 d of MPC storage after heating at pH 6.9. Acid-induced gelation of the liquid MPC led to significantly higher gel firmness after processing at 85°C for 5 min, compared with 125°C for 15 s. Also, gels made from MPC adjusted to pH 6.5 had higher storage moduli, with both time and temperature combinations, demonstrating the role of pH-dependent association of denatured whey proteins with casein micelles in gel network formation. These findings enable a better understanding of the processing factors contributing to structural and functional properties of liquid MPC and can be helpful in tailoring milk protein ingredient functionality for a variety of food products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2020-19355DOI Listing
June 2021

Optical Tweezers with Integrated Multiplane Microscopy (OpTIMuM): a new tool for 3D microrheology.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 10;11(1):5614. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Institute of Biological Chemistry, Biophysics and Bioengineering, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot Watt University, Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK.

We introduce a novel 3D microrheology system that combines for the first time Optical Tweezers with Integrated Multiplane Microscopy (OpTIMuM). The system allows the 3D tracking of an optically trapped bead, with ~ 20 nm accuracy along the optical axis. This is achieved without the need for a high precision z-stage, separate calibration sample, nor a priori knowledge of either the bead size or the optical properties of the suspending medium. Instead, we have developed a simple yet effective in situ spatial calibration method using image sharpness and exploiting the fact we image at multiple planes simultaneously. These features make OpTIMuM an ideal system for microrheology measurements, and we corroborate the effectiveness of this novel microrheology tool by measuring the viscosity of water in three dimensions, simultaneously.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-85013-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7946888PMC
March 2021

Microrheology reveals microscale viscosity gradients in planktonic systems.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 01;118(1)

Joseph Banks Laboratories, School of Life Sciences, University of Lincoln, LN6 7DL Lincoln, United Kingdom.

Microbial activity in planktonic systems creates a dynamic and heterogeneous microscale seascape that harbors a diverse community of microorganisms and ecological interactions of global significance. In recent decades great effort has been put into understanding this complex system, particularly focusing on the role of chemical patchiness, while overlooking a physical parameter that governs microbial life and is affected by biological activity: viscosity. Here we reveal spatial heterogeneity of viscosity in planktonic systems by using microrheological techniques that allow measurement of viscosity at length scales relevant to microorganisms. We show the viscous nature and the spatial extent of the phycosphere, the region surrounding phytoplankton. In ∼45% of the phytoplankton cells analyzed we detected increases in viscosity that extended up to 30 µm away from the cell with up to 40 times the viscosity of seawater. We also show how these gradients of viscosity can be amplified around a lysing phytoplankton cell as its viscous contents leak away. Finally, we report conservative estimates of viscosity inside marine aggregates, hotspots of microbial activity, more than an order of magnitude higher than in seawater. Since the diffusivities of dissolved molecules, particles, and microorganisms are inversely related to viscosity, microheterogeneity in viscosity alters the microscale distribution of microorganisms and their resources, with pervasive implications for the functioning of the planktonic ecosystem. Increasing viscosities impacts ecological interactions and processes, such as nutrient uptake, chemotaxis, and particle encounter, that occur at the microscale but influence carbon and nutrient cycles at a global scale.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2011389118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7817219PMC
January 2021

Impact of health system protocol on patient qualification for influenza point-of-care testing.

J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) 2020 Oct 11. Epub 2020 Oct 11.

Background: Point-of-care testing (POCT) is a service that community pharmacies are implementing to increase patient access to care. Many pharmacies develop protocols with physicians to maximize patient qualification for POCT, while maintaining patient safety.

Objective: To determine the number of patients seen for influenza in the emergency department (ED) during the 2018-2019 season who would qualify for protocol-driven influenza testing.

Methods: This was a retrospective review of medical records. Patients seen in this 92 bed ED, level III trauma center between October 1, 2018 and -May 1, 2019 were included if their age was older than 11 years or younger than 71 years with an influenza-related diagnosis. Patients were excluded if they were pregnant or breastfeeding, were allergic to oseltamivir, were recently diagnosed with pneumonia, or recently received a live influenza vaccine. Patient information collected included: sex, age, height, weight, pulse, blood pressure, respiratory rate, temperature, oxygen saturation, mental status, symptoms, time since onset of symptoms, immune system status, and history of respiratory illness or respiratory disease. These data points were used to determine eligibility for POCT based on a prespecified protocol that included criteria such as vital signs, symptom presentation, and other health conditions. The primary end point was the number of patients eligible for institutional protocol-driven POCT.

Results: There were 1955 ED visits with a primary diagnosis of influenza; 451 were eligible for study inclusion, and 49 (11%) qualified for POCT. The most common reason that patients did not qualify was temperature. If required temperature had been removed from the protocol, 155 patients (34%) would have qualified for POCT.

Conclusion: On the basis of the institutional protocol, a small proportion of patients qualified for POCT. Without the protocol temperature requirement, the number of patients who qualified for POCT would have greatly increased. This study identified opportunities for improvement in the institutional protocol. Future research is needed to reassess the number of patients who qualify once revisions are made.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.japh.2020.09.011DOI Listing
October 2020

Role of Amino Acids in Blood Glucose Changes in Young Adults Consuming Cereal with Milks Varying in Casein and Whey Concentrations and Their Ratio.

J Nutr 2020 12;150(12):3103-3113

Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Increasing the total protein content and reducing the casein to whey ratio in milks consumed with breakfast cereal reduce postprandial blood glucose (BG).

Objectives: We aimed to explore associations between plasma amino acids (AAs), BG, and glucoregulatory hormones.

Methods: In this repeated-measures design, 12 healthy adults consumed cereal (58 g) and milks (250 mL) with 3.1 wt% or high 9.3 wt% protein concentrations and with casein to whey ratios of either 80:20 or 40:60. Blood was collected at 0, 30, 60, 120, 140, 170, and 200 min for measurement of the primary outcome, BG, and for the exploratory outcomes such as plasma AA, gastric emptying, insulin (INS), and glucoregulatory hormones. Measures were made prior to and after an ad libitum lunch at 120 min. Exploratory correlations were conducted to determine associations between outcomes.

Results: Pre-lunch plasma AA groups [total (TAA), essential (EAA), BCAA, and nonessential (NEAA)] were higher after 9.3 wt% than 3.1 wt% milks by 12.7%, 21.4%, 20.9%, and 7.6%, respectively (P ≤ 0.05), while post-lunch AA groups were higher by 10.9%, 19.8%, 18.8%, and 6.0%, respectively (P ≤ 0.05). Except for NEAA, pre-lunch AAs were higher after 40:60 than 80:20 ratio milks by 4.5%, 8.3%, and 9.3% (P ≤ 0.05). When pooled by all treatments, pre-lunch AA groups associated negatively with BG (r/ρ ≥ -0.45, P ≤ 0.05), but post-lunch only TAA and NEAA correlated (r ≥ -0.37, P < 0.05). Pre-lunch BG was inversely associated with Leu, Ile, Lys, Met, Thr, Cys-Cys, Asn, and Gln (r/ρ ≥ -0.46, P ≤ 0.05), but post-lunch, only with Thr, Ala, and Gly (r ≥ -0.50, P ≤ 0.05). Pre-lunch associations between AA groups and INS were not found.

Conclusions: Protein concentration and the ratio of casein to whey in milks consumed at breakfast with cereal affect plasma AA concentrations and their associations with decreased BG. The decrease in BG could be explained by INS-independent mechanisms. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02471092.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxaa275DOI Listing
December 2020

Consumption of whole purple and regular wheat modestly improves metabolic markers in adults with elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein: a randomised, single-blind parallel-arm study.

Br J Nutr 2020 12 29;124(11):1179-1189. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Human Health & Nutritional Sciences, College of Biological Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, OntarioN1G 2W1, Canada.

Whole-grain wheat, in particular coloured varieties, may have health benefits in adults with chronic metabolic disease risk factors. Twenty-nine overweight and obese adults with chronic inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein) > 1·0 mg/l) replaced four daily servings of refined grain food products with bran-enriched purple or regular whole-wheat convenience bars (approximately 41-45 g fibre, daily) for 8 weeks in a randomised, single-blind parallel-arm study where body weight was maintained. Anthropometrics, blood markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and lipaemia and metabolites of anthocyanins and phenolic acids were compared at days 1, 29 and 57 using repeated-measures ANOVA within groups and ANCOVA between groups at day 57, with day 1 as a covariate. A significant reduction in IL-6 and increase in adiponectin were observed within the purple wheat (PW) group. TNF-α was lowered in both groups and ferulic acid concentration increased in the regular wheat (RW) group. Comparing between wheats, only plasma TNF-α and glucose differed significantly (P < 0·05), that is, TNF-α and glucose decreased with RW and PW, respectively. Consumption of PW or RW products showed potential to improve plasma markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in participants with evidence of chronic inflammation, with modest differences observed based on type of wheat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114520002275DOI Listing
December 2020

Emulsion Droplet Crystallinity Attenuates Short-Term Satiety in Healthy Adult Males: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Crossover, Acute Meal Study.

J Nutr 2020 09;150(9):2295-2304

Department of Human Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.

Background: The influence of triacylglycerol (TAG) physical properties on satiety remains poorly understood.

Objectives: The objective was to investigate if and how TAG digestion and absorption, modulated only by differences in TAG crystallinity, would differentially affect short-term satiety in healthy men.

Methods: We tempered 500 mL 10% palm stearin oil-in-water emulsions such that the lipid droplets were either undercooled liquid (LE) or partially crystalline solid (SE). Fifteen healthy men (mean ± SD age: 27.5 ± 5.7 y; BMI: 24.1 ± 2.5 kg/m2; fasting TAG: 0.9 ± 0.3 mmol/L) consumed each beverage at two 6-h study visits separated by ≥6 d after an overnight fast, along with 1500 mg acetaminophen suspended in water. The participants characterized the emulsion sensory properties, completed satiety visual analog scale ratings, and had serial blood samples collected for 6-h analysis of plasma peptide YY (PYY), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), ghrelin, leptin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), insulin, and acetaminophen (for assessing gastric emptying). Repeated-measures ANOVAs and 2-tailed paired t tests were used to analyze the changes from baseline and incremental area under the curve (iAUC) values, respectively.

Results: With consumption of LE compared with SE, there was a 358% higher fullness (P = 0.015) and a 103% lower average appetite (P = 0.041) score, along with higher iAUC values for PYY (P = 0.011) and GLP-1 (P = 0.028) (103% and 66% higher, respectively), but not for ghrelin (P = 0.39), based on change from baseline values. Acetaminophen response trended toward significance (P = 0.08) and was 15% higher with LE. SE was rated as 44% thicker (P = 0.034) and 24% creamier (P = 0.05) than LE.

Conclusions: The suppression of TAG digestion by the presence of partially crystalline lipid droplets blunted the appetite-suppressing effects of an oil-in-water emulsion.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03990246.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxaa164DOI Listing
September 2020

Apple Flavonols Mitigate Adipocyte Inflammation and Promote Angiogenic Factors in LPS- and Cobalt Chloride-Stimulated Adipocytes, in Part by a Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ-Dependent Mechanism.

Nutrients 2020 May 12;12(5). Epub 2020 May 12.

Department of Human Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.

Adipose tissue (AT) expansion induces local hypoxia, a key contributor to the chronic low-grade inflammation that drives obesity-associated disease. Apple flavonols phloretin (PT) and phlorizin (PZ) are suggested anti-inflammatory molecules but their effectiveness in obese AT is inadequately understood. Using models designed to reproduce the obese AT microenvironment, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were cultured for 24 h with PT or PZ (100 μM) concurrent with the inflammatory stimulus lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 10 ng/mL) and/or the hypoxia mimetic cobalt chloride (CoCl; 100 μM). Within each condition, PT was more potent than PZ and its effects were partially mediated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ ( < 0.05), as tested using the PPAR-γ antagonist bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE). In LPS-, CoCl-, or LPS + CoCl-stimulated adipocytes, PT reduced mRNA expression and/or secreted protein levels of inflammatory and macrophage chemotactic adipokines, and increased that of anti-inflammatory and angiogenic adipokines, which was consistent with reduced mRNA expression of M1 polarization markers and increased M2 markers in RAW 264.7 macrophages cultured in media collected from LPS + CoCl-simulated adipocytes ( < 0.05). Further, within LPS + CoCl-stimulated adipocytes, PT reduced reactive oxygen species accumulation, nuclear factor-κB activation, and apoptotic protein expression ( < 0.05). Overall, apple flavonols attenuate critical aspects of the obese AT phenotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12051386DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7284758PMC
May 2020

Transitions in Undergraduate Medical Education.

J Am Osteopath Assoc 2020 05;120(5):292

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7556/jaoa.2020.047DOI Listing
May 2020

Opioid-free spine surgery: a prospective study of 244 consecutive cases by a single surgeon.

Spine J 2020 08 19;20(8):1176-1183. Epub 2020 Apr 19.

Department of Neurological Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 1161 21st Ave. South, T4224 Medical Center North, Nashville, TN 37232-2380, USA.

Background Context: There have been no reported efforts to eliminate opioid use for elective spine surgery, despite its well-known drawbacks.

Purpose: We sought to test the hypothesis that opioid-free elective spine surgery, including lumbar fusions, can be performed with satisfactory pain control.

Study Design/ Setting: This study analyzes prospectively collected data from a single surgeon's patients who were enrolled into an institutional spine registry.

Patient Sample: We enrolled every consecutive surgical patient of author RAB between January 1, 2018 and July 13, 2019.

Outcome Measures: The postsurgical opioid use, pain scores, emergency room visits, and readmissions were tracked.

Methods: We developed a comprehensive program for opioid-free pain control after elective spine surgery. In the initial stage, opioids were given "PRN" only, while in the second stage, they were avoided altogether. Student's t tests were performed to compare pain scores, and regression analyses were performed to understand drivers of opioid use and pain.

Results: Two hundred forty-four patients were studied, a third of whom underwent lumbar fusions. In the initial stage, 47% of patients took no opioids from recovery room departure until 1-month follow-up. During the second stage, 88% of patients took no opioids during that period. Pain scores were satisfactory, and there was no association between postoperative opioid use and either procedural invasiveness or pain scores. However, preoperative opioid use was associated with a nearly fivefold increased risk of postoperative use. Ninety-three percent of lumbar fusion patients who were opioid-free before surgery did not take a single opioid in the postoperative period.

Conclusion: Opioid-free elective spine surgery, including lumbar fusions, is feasible and effective. We suggest that opioid-free spine surgery be offered to patients who are opioid-naïve or who can be weaned off before the operation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.spinee.2020.04.009DOI Listing
August 2020

A new mouse line with reduced GluA2 Q/R site RNA editing exhibits loss of dendritic spines, hippocampal CA1-neuron loss, learning and memory impairments and NMDA receptor-independent seizure vulnerability.

Mol Brain 2020 02 27;13(1):27. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Centre for Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine (CNRM), Faculty of Science, University of Technology Sydney, PO Box 123 Broadway, Sydney, NSW, 2007, Australia.

Calcium (Ca)-permeable AMPA receptors may, in certain circumstances, contribute to normal synaptic plasticity or to neurodegeneration. AMPA receptors are Ca-permeable if they lack the GluA2 subunit or if GluA2 is unedited at a single nucleic acid, known as the Q/R site. In this study, we examined mice engineered with a point mutation in the intronic editing complementary sequence (ECS) of the GluA2 gene, Gria2. Mice heterozygous for the ECS mutation (named GluA2) had a ~ 20% reduction in GluA2 RNA editing at the Q/R site. We conducted an initial phenotypic analysis of these mice, finding altered current-voltage relations (confirming expression of Ca-permeable AMPA receptors at the synapse). Anatomically, we observed a loss of hippocampal CA1 neurons, altered dendritic morphology and reductions in CA1 pyramidal cell spine density. Behaviourally, GluA2 mice exhibited reduced motor coordination, and learning and memory impairments. Notably, the mice also exhibited both NMDA receptor-independent long-term potentiation (LTP) and vulnerability to NMDA receptor-independent seizures. These NMDA receptor-independent seizures were rescued by the Ca-permeable AMPA receptor antagonist IEM-1460. In summary, unedited GluA2(Q) may have the potential to drive NMDA receptor-independent processes in brain function and disease. Our study provides an initial characterisation of a new mouse model for studying the role of unedited GluA2(Q) in synaptic and dendritic spine plasticity in disorders where unedited GluA2(Q), synapse loss, neurodegeneration, behavioural impairments and/or seizures are observed, such as ischemia, seizures and epilepsy, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, astrocytoma, cocaine seeking behaviour and Alzheimer's disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13041-020-0545-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7045468PMC
February 2020

Expansion of pharmacist practice in oral oncolytic therapy with a collaborative practice agreement.

J Oncol Pharm Pract 2020 Dec 19;26(8):1886-1893. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

St. Luke's Cancer Institute, Boise, ID, USA.

Introduction: Collaborative practice agreements have been utilized to expand pharmacist roles and improve patient care outcomes. A need to reduce the time providers spend reviewing oral oncolytic prescriptions for therapy continuation or dose adjustments was identified in the oncology clinics of a community health system. A collaborative practice agreement was created to decrease turnaround time for processing oral oncolytic prescriptions, improve provider satisfaction, and decrease patient prescription costs.

Methods: A three-month pilot was initiated to evaluate feasibility and provider satisfaction by comparing two provider groups. An additional three months of data were collected post-collaborative practice agreement implementation to evaluate impact. Primary endpoints included: interventions, turnaround time, and patient cost savings. A survey was conducted to determine provider satisfaction.

Results: The mean turnaround time for pharmacist interventions in the pilot group (n = 54) was 7 min, compared to 3311 min in the control group (n = 87), which was statistically significant ( < 0.0001). Two interventions in the pilot group resulted in patient cost savings due to dose rounding by a pharmacist. The mean turnaround time of the post-collaborative practice agreement group (n = 197) was 6 min, which was statistically significant when compared to the control group ( < 0.0001).

Conclusion: Turnaround time was significantly shorter for prescriptions in the pilot and post-collaborative practice agreement groups compared to the control group. Provider satisfaction increased as the collaborative practice agreement resulted in less time reviewing oral oncolytic prescriptions. Patient costs were also reduced during the pilot phase due to dose rounding by pharmacists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1078155220905004DOI Listing
December 2020

Acute whole apple consumption did not influence postprandial lipaemia: a randomised crossover trial.

Br J Nutr 2020 04 6;123(7):807-817. Epub 2020 Jan 6.

Department of Human Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, CanadaN1G 2W1.

Whole apples are a source of pectin and polyphenols, both of which show potential to modulate postprandial lipaemia (PPL). The present study aimed to explore the effects of whole apple consumption on PPL, as a risk factor for CVD, in generally healthy but overweight and obese adults. A randomised, crossover acute meal trial was conducted with seventeen women and nine men (mean BMI of 34·1 (sem 0·2) kg/m2). Blood samples were collected for 6 h after participants consumed an oral fat tolerance test meal that provided 1 g fat/kg body weight and 1500 mg acetaminophen per meal for estimating gastric emptying, with and without three whole raw Gala apples (approximately 200 g). Plasma TAG (with peak postprandial concentration as the primary outcome), apoB48, chylomicron-rich fraction particle size and fatty acid composition, glucose, insulin and acetaminophen were analysed. Differences between with and without apples were identified by ANCOVA. Apple consumption did not alter postprandial TAG response, chylomicron properties, glucose or acetaminophen (P > 0·05), but did lead to a higher apoB48 peak concentration and exaggerated insulin between 20 and 180 min (P < 0·05). Overall, as a complex food matrix, apples did not modulate postprandial TAG when consumed with a high-fat meal in overweight and obese adults, but did stimulate insulin secretion, potentially contributing to an increased TAG-rich lipoprotein production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114519003441DOI Listing
April 2020

Correlating in vitro digestion viscosities and bioaccessible nutrients of milks containing enhanced protein concentration and normal or modified protein ratio to human trials.

Food Funct 2019 Dec;10(12):7687-7696

Department of Food Science, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1.

This work compared in vitro and in vivo digestion of breakfast cereal with milks containing high protein concentration (9.3 wt%) and the normal protein ratio (80 casein : 20 whey) or a modified ratio (40 casein : 60 whey) and with a water-permeate control. The in vivo study indicated that high protein concentration and modified ratio in milks delays the postprandial appearance of blood glucose (BG) and amino acids due to delayed gastric emptying and hormonal responses. However, the role of viscosity and/or protein structure during digestion was not examined. Therefore, milks and the control were digested in vitro (oral (O, 2 min), gastric (G, 62 min) and duodenal (D, 92 min)) to determine viscosity, particle disintegration, protein solubility and hydrolysis, and the bioaccessibilities of sugars and total amino acids (TAA). The normal ratio (80 : 20) treatment demonstrated higher structural viscosity during digestion (P < 0.05) due to the formation of casein aggregates and interaction with cereal and greater TAA (mg per g protein of undigested breakfast) caused by gastric hydrolysis (DH%; P = 0.01). Overall, there were no treatment differences for disintegration, solubility and d-glucose. Protein-containing treatments inhibited amylolysis and lowered reducing sugars (mg g-1 available carbohydrates of undigested breakfast) compared to the control. Similar trends were observed between higher viscosity (Pa s) during gastric stage and slower in vivo gastric emptying (paracetamol, mmol L-1). Also, protein treatments inhibited amylolysis and lowered reducing sugar (mg g-1 of carbohydrates) and may have contributed to lowered BG (mmol L-1 g-1 of carbohydrates) after the duodenal phase. However, increased viscosity, elicited by higher proportions of casein, did not inhibit starch hydrolysis and appearance of BG. In vitro systems provide similar trends in biomarkers to in vivo studies and can be used to answer specific physiological questions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9fo01994dDOI Listing
December 2019

Lipid digestion of oil-in-water emulsions stabilized with low molecular weight surfactants.

Food Funct 2019 Dec;10(12):8195-8207

Department of Food Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, CanadaN1G 2 W1.

Altering sn-fatty acid position of glycerol mono-oleate (GMO) from sn-1 to sn-2 decreases fatty acid bioaccessibility by 25.9% providing possible strategies to tailor lipemic responses of food emulsions. Lipid digestion kinetics and fatty acid bioaccessibility of monomodal O/W emulsions stabilized at their minimum surfactant concentration (0.5 < MSC > 0.7 (w/w)) were studied in the TNO Intestinal Model (TIM-1) gastrointestinal (GI) tract. No significant differences were observed between induction times nor rate constants when using 1-GMO and 1-GMS, Span 60, Tween 60 and Tween 80 as surfactants in O/W emulsions, as determined by fitting a three-parameter shifted logistic model to the cumulative bioaccessibility. Comparable trends were observed between area under the curve (AUC) of the absolute bioaccessibility and total overall bioaccessibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9fo02210dDOI Listing
December 2019

Emulsion Droplet Crystallinity Attenuates Postprandial Plasma Triacylglycerol Responses in Healthy Men: A Randomized Double-Blind Crossover Acute Meal Study.

J Nutr 2020 01;150(1):64-72

Department of Human Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.

Background: The presence of triacylglycerol (TAG) cystallinity is assumed to influence digestibility and postprandial lipemia (PPL), although studies to date are limited.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate whether the presence of solid fat compared with undercooled liquid oil, specifically, plays a role in determining PPL by comparing emulsion droplets differing only in terms of physical state.

Methods: Ten percent palm stearin and 0.4% sorbitan monostearate emulsions were tempered to contain identically sized, charged, and shaped (spherical) undercooled liquid (LE) compared with partially crystalline solid (SE; mean ± SEM: 33.2% ± 0.03% solid fat at 37°C) droplets. Fifteen healthy fasting adult men (mean ± SD age: 27.5 ± 5.7 y; BMI: 24.1 ± 2.5 kg/m2) consumed 500 mL of each emulsion on separate occasions and plasma TAG concentrations, particle size of the plasma chylomicron-rich fraction (CMRF), and fatty acid (FA) composition of the CMRF-TAG were serially determined in a 6-h postprandial randomized double-blind crossover acute meal study. Changes from baseline values were analyzed by repeated-measures ANOVA.

Results: An earlier (2 compared with 3 h, P < 0.05) significant rise, a 39.9% higher mean postprandial TAG change from baseline (P = 0.08), and higher peak concentration (mean ± SEM: 1.47 ± 0.19 compared with 1.20 ± 0.15 mmol/L, P = 0.04) and iAUC (1.95 ± 0.39 compared with 1.45 ± 0.31 mmol/L × h, P = 0.03) values were observed for LE compared with SE. The compositions of the CMRF-TAG FAs shifted toward those of the ingested palm stearin by 4 h but did not differ between SE and LE (P = 0.90). Nor were there differences in postprandial changes in CMRF particle size (P = 0.79) or nonesterified FAs (P = 0.72) based on lipid physical state.

Conclusions: Despite their identical compositions and colloidal properties, differences in lipid absorption were observed between SE and LE in healthy adult men. This is direct evidence that TAG physical state contributes to PPL, with the presence of solid fat having an attenuating influence.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03515590.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxz207DOI Listing
January 2020

Increased milk protein content and whey-to-casein ratio in milk served with breakfast cereal reduce postprandial glycemia in healthy adults: An examination of mechanisms of action.

J Dairy Sci 2019 Aug 20;102(8):6766-6780. Epub 2019 Jun 20.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada M5S 1A8. Electronic address:

This study describes the effects on glycemic response and the underlying mechanisms of action of increasing the protein concentration and decreasing the casein-to-whey ratio in milk when consumed with a high glycemic breakfast cereal. Twelve healthy men and women, aged 18 to 30 yr and with a body mass index of 20 to 24.9 kg/m, consumed (in random order) milk beverages (250 mL) containing either 3.1 or 9.3% protein and casein-to-whey ratios of either 80:20 or 40:60. We measured postprandial appetite, glucose, regulatory hormones, and stomach emptying rate over 200 min, as well as food intake at an ad libitum meal at 120 min. Although pre-meal appetite was suppressed to a greater extent with milk beverages that had high (9.3%) compared with regular (3.1%) protein content, food intake was similar among all 4 treatments. Pre-meal mean blood glucose was lower with beverages that had high rather than regular milk protein content, with the lowest glucose peaks after the high milk protein treatment with the 40:60 casein-to-whey ratio. Pre-meal insulin and C-peptide levels were not affected by milk protein content or casein-to-whey ratio, but pre-meal glucagon-like peptide 1 was higher after the treatment containing high milk protein and the 40:60 casein-to-whey ratio, and pre-meal cholecystokinin was higher after the treatments containing high milk protein content. Plasma paracetamol response was also lower after the treatments containing high compared with regular milk protein content. When consumed with carbohydrate, milk beverages with high protein content and (to a lesser extent) a decreased casein-to-whey ratio lowered postprandial glycemia through insulin-independent mechanisms, primarily associated with delayed stomach emptying.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2019-16358DOI Listing
August 2019

Attenuation of Palm Stearin Emulsion Droplet in Vitro Lipolysis with Crystallinity and Gastric Aggregation.

J Agric Food Chem 2018 Oct 24;66(39):10292-10299. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Department of Human Health and Nutritional Sciences , University of Guelph , Guelph , Ontario N1G 2W1 , Canada.

Emulsions with partially crystalline solid (SE) and undercooled-liquid (LE) droplets with equivalent droplet sizes (centering ∼416 nm), surface charges (∼-56 mV), and spherical morphologies were prepared by hot microfluidization based on 10% palm stearin and 0.4% Span 60. Lipid crystallinity attenuated early gastroduodenal lipolysis in vitro ( p < 0.05), both with and without inclusion of a gastric phase ( p < 0.05). Gastric exposure, in particular acidic pH, led to partial coalescence of SE and flocculation and partial crystallization of LE, and it attenuated the rate and extent of lipolysis in both samples. In vitro shear conditions further impacted colloidal stability, particularly for SE, with implications for digestibility. Although lipid crystallinity consistently attenuated early lipolysis, gastric-phase SE partial coalescence had a relatively greater impact on digestibility than did droplet physical state. These findings show that a complex interplay exists among a droplet's physical state, colloidal properties, and digestion conditions, which combine to impact emulsion in vitro lipolysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.8b02636DOI Listing
October 2018

A biomechanical cadaver comparison of suture button fixation to plate fixation for pubic symphysis diastasis.

Injury 2018 Nov 15;49(11):1993-1998. Epub 2018 Sep 15.

Orthopaedic Surgery, Wright State University Department of Orthopaedic and Plastic Surgery, Dayton, OH, United States.

Objectives: To determine whether suture button fixation of the pubic symphysis is biomechanically similar to plate fixation in the treatment of partially stable pelvic ring injuries.

Methods: Twelve pelvis specimens were harvested from fresh frozen cadavers. Dual-x-ray-absorptiometry (DXA) scans were obtained for all specimens. The pubic symphysis of each specimen was sectioned to simulate a partially stable pelvic ring injury. Six of the pelvises were instrumented using a 6 hole, 3.5 mm low profile pelvis plate and six of the pelvises were instrumented with two suture button devices. Biomechanical testing was performed on a pneumatic testing apparatus in a manner that simulates vertical stance. Displacement measurements of the superior, middle, and inferior pubic symphysis were obtained prior to loading, after an initial 440 N load, and after 30,000 and 60,000 rounds of cyclic loading. Statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests, Fisher's exact test, and Cohen's d to calculate effect size. Significance was set at p < 0.05.

Results: There was no difference between groups for DXA T scores (p = 0.749). Between group differences in clinical load to failure (p = 0.65) and ultimate load to failure (p = 0.52) were not statistically significant. For symphysis displacement, the change in fixation strength and displacement with progressive cyclic loading was not significant when comparing fixation types (superior: p = 0.174; middle: p = 0.382; inferior: p = 0.120).

Conclusion: Suture button fixation of the pubic symphysis is biomechanically similar to plate fixation in the management of partially stable pelvic ring injuries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.injury.2018.09.032DOI Listing
November 2018

Microcystic Adnexal Carcinoma of the Nipple.

Wounds 2018 Jun;30(6):E65-E67

Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

Background: Microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC) is a rare infiltrative cutaneous tumor, but with its locally aggressive nature, high rate of recurrence, and rare metastatic potential, it is an important clinical entity to consider when faced with a nipple lesion. These tumors are frequently misdiagnosed based on superficial biopsy alone.

Case Report: This case of a 15-year-old girl with MAC of the nipple demonstrates the importance of having a high index of suspicion in order to obtain a diagnosis, to determine the extent of disease, and to achieve adequate resection before reconstruction. Close clinical observation is recommended due to the possibility of future recurrences.

Conclusions: Between the confusing nomenclature, indolent course, and inadequacy of superficial biopsy to achieve an accurate diagnosis, MAC is a clinical entity that the plastic surgeon must be aware of in order to facilitate proper diagnosis and treatment.
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June 2018

Retaining a Sample of Homeless Youth.

J Can Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2018 Aug 1;27(3):167-174. Epub 2018 Jul 1.

Lawson Health Research Institute - Parkwood Institute, London, Ontario.

Objective: Hard to reach populations need to be included in research studies to ensure proper representation of the general population. This paper explores tracking strategies used in the Youth Matters in London project to retain a sample of homeless youth.

Method: A total of 187 youth, aged between 16 and 24 years, homeless or precariously housed, and experiencing a serious mental health issue were recruited at a community drop-in center, by word of mouth and by snowball sampling. After the initial interview, three repeat interviews were conducted six months apart.

Results: The most successful strategy for contacting participants was through a local agency and e-mail. An analysis of the contact data identified participant retention rates as 88%, 86%, and 82% for each successive interview. This longitudinal retention rate is very high compared with research in other vulnerable populations, suggesting a strong willingness to participate in the Youth Matters in London project.

Conclusions: Retaining a sample of homeless youth is difficult, however, with time, patience and effort it has proven possible. This research underscores the importance of relationships with community agencies to retain vulnerable youth samples in longitudinal research designs.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6054288PMC
August 2018

Emulsion droplet crystallinity attenuates early in vitro digestive lipolysis and beta-carotene bioaccessibility.

Food Chem 2018 Sep 31;260:145-151. Epub 2018 Mar 31.

Department of Human Health & Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G2W1, Canada. Electronic address:

The impacts of lipid crystallinity on in vitro digestive lipolysis and bioaccessibility of encapsulated (0.1 wt%) beta-carotene (BC) were investigated for a 15 wt% cocoa butter emulsion prepared as crystalline (i.e. solid emulsions, SE & SE-BC) or undercooled (liquid emulsions, LE & LE-BC) droplets at 25 °C. Particle size distributions (D ∼0.7 μm), morphology (spherical), polymorphism (beta-V), thermal behavior (peak melting ∼30 °C), zeta potential (∼-44 mV) and BC degradation under accelerated lighting conditions were similarly extensive. Following exposure to simulated gastric conditions, duodenal hydrolysis and BC bioaccessibility were lower for SE-BC up to 2 h (P < 0.05). Ultimately, samples with both solid and liquid droplets were hydrolyzed extensively and BC bioaccessibility did not differ (P > 0.05). Therefore, for compositionally equivalent emulsions, lipid droplet solid state delayed digestive lipolysis and bioactive solubilization. These results help to clarify the role of lipid physical state on dietary lipid digestion and bioactive release.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.03.142DOI Listing
September 2018

High dietary fat and sucrose results in an extensive and time-dependent deterioration in health of multiple physiological systems in mice.

J Biol Chem 2018 04 13;293(15):5731-5745. Epub 2018 Feb 13.

From the Charles Perkins Centre, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Sydney, Camperdown, New South Wales 2006, Australia.

Obesity is associated with metabolic dysfunction, including insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, and with disorders such as cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and neurodegeneration. Typically, these pathologies are examined in discrete model systems and with limited temporal resolution, and whether these disorders co-occur is therefore unclear. To address this question, here we examined multiple physiological systems in male C57BL/6J mice following prolonged exposure to a high-fat/high-sucrose diet (HFHSD). HFHSD-fed mice rapidly exhibited metabolic alterations, including obesity, hyperleptinemia, physical inactivity, glucose intolerance, peripheral insulin resistance, fasting hyperglycemia, ectopic lipid deposition, and bone deterioration. Prolonged exposure to HFHSD resulted in morbid obesity, ectopic triglyceride deposition in liver and muscle, extensive bone loss, sarcopenia, hyperinsulinemia, and impaired short-term memory. Although many of these defects are typically associated with aging, HFHSD did not alter telomere length in white blood cells, indicating that this diet did not generally promote all aspects of aging. Strikingly, glucose homeostasis was highly dynamic. Glucose intolerance was evident in HFHSD-fed mice after 1 week and was maintained for 24 weeks. Beyond 24 weeks, however, glucose tolerance improved in HFHSD-fed mice, and by 60 weeks, it was indistinguishable from that of chow-fed mice. This improvement coincided with adaptive β-cell hyperplasia and hyperinsulinemia, without changes in insulin sensitivity in muscle or adipose tissue. Assessment of insulin secretion in isolated islets revealed that leptin, which inhibited insulin secretion in the chow-fed mice, potentiated glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in the HFHSD-fed mice after 60 weeks. Overall, the excessive calorie intake was accompanied by deteriorating function of numerous physiological systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA117.000808DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5900752PMC
April 2018

In vitro digestion behavior of water-in-oil-in-water emulsions with gelled oil-water inner phases.

Food Res Int 2018 03 9;105:41-51. Epub 2017 Nov 9.

Department of Food Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, Canada.

Double emulsions may be able to protect and release in a controlled manner bioactive compounds during digestion of food matrices. It was hypothesized that the physical state and solid content in the inner phases of water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsions may affect the overall stability and the release behavior of bioactives during in vitro digestion. Therefore, hydrophobic (phytosterols or Vitamin D) and hydrophilic (Vitamin B) molecules were incorporated in double emulsions prepared either with a liquid (soybean oil - SO) or oil-fat gel (soybean oil+trimyristin - STO) lipid phase and liquid internal aqueous phase. In addition, the impact of a gelled inner aqueous phase was studied, using high methoxyl pectin. W/O/W emulsions were prepared with polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) and sodium caseinate as emulsifiers. After the 30min in vitro gastric stage, all double emulsions showed no significant change in size. Lipid crystals were visible in the STO emulsions. Fat crystallization, and the formation of an oil fat gel, led to coalescence of the inner aqueous droplets. The inner aqueous droplets were no longer visible by confocal microscopy after the initial stages of 2h in vitro duodenal digestion. Fat crystals and droplets of non-spherical shape were also noted in the STO double emulsions up to 25min of in vitro duodenal stage. Overall, the STO emulsions had a higher extent of free fatty acid release and consequent bioactive transfer compared to the SO emulsions. The presence of the medium chain fatty acids (from trimyristin), in addition to the surface-to-core distribution of the hydrophobic bioactives within the oil droplet were key factors in lipid digestibility and bioactive release. The STO and SO samples did not differ in terms of the release of the hydrophilic molecule, vitamin B, over time. On the other hand, there was a significant increase in the stability of the inner water phase, after gastric digestion, when this phase was gelled with high methoxyl pectin. This work demonstrated that the physical properties of the different internal phases of W/O/W influenced lipid digestion and bioactive transfer kinetics during in vitro digestion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2017.10.070DOI Listing
March 2018