Publications by authors named "Amanda N Stephens"

27 Publications

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Bicycle Rider Behavior and Crash Involvement in Australia.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 03 1;18(5). Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Faculty of Psychology-INTRAS Research Centre, University of Valencia, 46022 Valencia, Spain.

This research investigated how behaviours and attitudes of bicycle riders influence crash frequency and severity. The study recruited 1102 Australian bicycle riders for an online survey. The survey comprised questions on demographics, frequency of riding and the number and severity of traffic crashes during the last five years. The survey included the Cycling Behaviour Questionnaire and the Cyclist Risk Perception and Regulation Scale. Overall, there were low levels of errors and violations reported by participants indicating that these behaviours were on average never or rarely exhibited while riding a bicycle. Conversely, participants reported high levels of engagement in positive behaviours and reported high levels of traffic rule knowledge and risk perception. Higher rates of violations and errors were associated with increased crash likelihood, while higher rates of positive behaviours were associated with reduced rates of crash involvement in a period of 5 years. The findings highlight the relationship between errors, total crashes and crash severity Further promotion of positive behaviours amongst riders may also help to reduce the risk of crashes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052378DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7967758PMC
March 2021

Investigating the interaction between pedestrian behaviors and crashes through validation of a pedestrian behavior questionnaire (PBQ).

Accid Anal Prev 2021 Apr 25;153:106050. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Monash University Accident Research Centre, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.

Developing countries have a high frequency of traffic incidents involving pedestrians. Given the vulnerability of pedestrians, many of these incidents result in serious or fatal injuries. The present study aimed to validate a pedestrian behavior questionnaire in Iran to investigate Persian pedestrian behaviors and to understand the relationship of these behaviors with demographic and mobility variables. A total of 520 participants (292 males and 228 females) completed a survey containing behavioral items and demographic questions. A principal component analysis showed that the data best fit in four factors of transgressions (including violations and errors), lapses, aggressive behaviors, and positive behaviors. In this study, the association of behavioral dimensions with crash history as a driver, crash history as a pedestrian, the severity of an experienced pedestrian-related crash, and the participant's relative's crash history as a pedestrian were also investigated. The present study confirms that PBQ is a useful tool with adequate reliability for investigating Persian pedestrians' safety-related behaviors. These findings revealed the need for intervention programs and improving infrastructures through the evaluation of pedestrian behaviors, which may lead to decreasing pedestrian-related crash frequency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2021.106050DOI Listing
April 2021

Mobile phone applications use while driving in Ukraine: Self-reported frequencies and psychosocial factors underpinning this risky behaviour.

PLoS One 2021 17;16(2):e0247006. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Social Sciences, School of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Nicosia, Nicosia, Cyprus.

Despite the fact that mobile phones have been transformed over the last decade into information and communication hubs that are fundamental to modern life, there is little information on how this has impacted on mobile phone use while driving. The present study was conducted in Ukraine, where this risky behaviour remains a common driving practice, despite legislative bans. A total of 220 (male = 82%; mean age = 35.53; SD = 10.54) drivers completed an online survey assessing frequency of engaging in a range of mobile phone applications while driving. Four variables of the theory of planned behaviour (general attitude and intention towards phone use while driving, social norms towards mobile phone use, perceived behavioural control, the specific beliefs about being able to engage in distracting activities and drive safely), and type A behaviour pattern were also collected. The results showed that, during the last year, 65% of drivers had read a text message and 49% had written a text using mobile phone applications. Likewise, a substantial proportion of the sample reported using social media while driving, by checking (34%), sending or typing a post (25%) on social network applications. Hierarchical stepwise regressions showed that a positive attitude towards mobile phone use while driving and beliefs about being able to drive safely and write or read a text message were significantly associated with the mobile phone applications use while driving. No associations were found between the type A behaviour pattern and mobile phone applications use.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0247006PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7888621PMC
February 2021

Development of the pedestrian anger expression inventory.

Traffic Inj Prev 2021 26;22(2):167-172. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Monash University Accident Research Centre, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.

Objective: There has been extensive research into road user behavior, although how pedestrians express their anger has yet to be explored. This is important given the high vulnerability of pedestrians and the additional risks that angry people often undertake. The present study developed a tool to measure one's tendency to engage in aggressive acts while walking: The pedestrian anger expression inventory (PAX).

Methods: The survey consisted of 37 items adapted from the Driving Anger Expression Inventory as well as a subset of items from the Pedestrian Behavior Questionnaire. Ten items from the Trait Anger Scale (TAS) questionnaire were also used to assess the general anger tendencies of individuals. A total of 475 participants from Tehran provided complete responses to a questionnaire administered via paper and pencil.

Results: A Principal Component Analysis showed a 30-item, 3-factor model describing three ways of expressing anger: 1) Anger Expression-In (internalizing anger), 2) Anger Expression-Out (in the form of aggression), and 3) Adaptive/Constructive Expression (dealing with anger in a constructive way). Hierarchical linear regression showed that trait anger was a significant predictor of pedestrian anger expression, above other demographic variables (age and gender). However, age and gender remained significant predictors of pedestrian anger. As age increased, the tendency to become angry while walking decreased. Male pedestrians were also significantly more likely to express their anger aggressively than female pedestrians.

Conclusions: In this study, we developed a questionnaire to measure anger expression in pedestrians, highlighting three broad ways pedestrians deal with their anger (internally, externally, or constructively). This questionnaire was used in Iran and therefore, further research is required to validate these tools among different samples and populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15389588.2020.1854454DOI Listing
January 2021

Personality traits as predictors of cyclist behaviour.

Accid Anal Prev 2020 Sep 6;145:105704. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Monash University Accident Research Centre, Monash University, VIC 3800, Australia.

Road user behaviour and personality traits are important determinants of driver crash risk. While a great deal of research has been undertaken to understand the relationships between crash involvement, behaviours and personality traits for motor vehicle drivers, comparatively few studies have considered these factors for cyclists. This manuscript presents the findings of a study conducted amongst a sample of six hundred and fifteen (615) Australian cyclists, investigating these issues. The aim of this research was to establish a structure for a cycling behaviour questionnaire applicable to a cohort of Australian cyclists. Using the dimensions identified from the questionnaire, the research investigated the relationship between self-reported crashes, behaviours and personality traits, in order to further develop our understanding of risk factors associated with cycling. Personality traits (agreeableness, extroversion, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness to experience) were measured using the Big Five Inventory. While cyclist behaviour was measured using a modified version of the cyclist behaviour questionnaire developed by the Dutch national road safety research centre (SWOV). Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was performed on the cycling behaviour questionnaire to identify underlying subscales of behaviour. The PCA identified a two dimension model representing violations (α = 0.74) and errors (α = 0.65), consisting of 16 items from the original 22 item cyclist behaviour questionnaire. Linear regressions for each of the cyclist behaviour factors identified that age was negatively associated with errors and violations, indicating that older cyclists report fewer errors or violations. Similarly, there was a negative association with average weekly kilometres travelled. Gender was a significant predictor of errors, but not violations, with male cyclists reporting fewer errors than females. When considering personality traits, there was a positive association between extroversion and both errors and violations. Significant negative associations were identified for agreeableness and conscientiousness. Neither neuroticism nor openness to experience were associated with the frequency of errors or violations. The research identified that demographics, travel characteristics and personality traits provide insight into engagement in aberrant cycling behaviours and these behaviours are associated with self-reported crash involvement. The research provides insight into behaviours that could be targeted with appropriate education and enforcement strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105704DOI Listing
September 2020

Determinants of road traffic injuries in Iranian children; results from a National Representative Demographic- Health Survey 2010.

BMC Pediatr 2020 05 19;20(1):231. Epub 2020 May 19.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Saveh University of Medical Sciences, Saveh, Iran.

Background: Road Traffic Injuries (RTIs) are a leading cause of disabilities and mortalities in Iran. The occurrence of RTIs among children is increasing. This study aims are to assess RTIs among Iranian children and to determine the main socio-economics determinants.

Methods: The National Institute of Health Research (NIHR) in collaboration with the Iran Ministry of Health (MoH) conducted a nationwide survey: The Multiple Indicator Demographic and Health Survey 2010 (IrMIDHS 2010). The Survey was undertaken by Medical Universities in Iran. Based on multistage clustered randomized sampling, 30,960 households were included in the survey. We performed a multivariate logistic regression to determine the main socio-economic factors associated with RTIs among children.

Results: Approximately 0.9% of the children received RTIs in 2010. Main socio-economics contributors to RTIs involving Iranian children included household size (Adjusted OR: 1.06 (CI 95% 1.01, 1.14), sex (Adjusted OR: 0.38 (CI 95% 0.29, 0.50), living with both parents (Adjusted OR: 0.55 (CI 95% 0.13, 0.95), being in the 2nd (Adjusted OR: 0.81 (CI 95%: 0.60, 0.90) or 4th income quartile (Adjusted OR: 0.13 (CI 95%: 0.02, 0.92) rather than the 1st income quartile, being aged five to nine (Adjusted OR: 1.39 (CI 95%: 1.10, 2.10), or aged 15 to 18 (Adjusted OR: 2.94 (CI 95%: 2.07, 4.97), and residency in a non- owned or non-tenancy house (Adjusted OR: 0.42 (CI 95%: 0.23 0.74).

Conclusions: Children need safe places for playing and doing their daily activities. Policy and regulation development aimed at protecting children from road traffic injuries needs to take into consideration the socio-economic factors associated with risk of road traffic injury among children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-020-02127-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7236294PMC
May 2020

Self-reported aggression amongst active cyclists.

Accid Anal Prev 2019 Jul 8;128:46-52. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Monash University, Accident Research Centre, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, 3800 Australia.

There is a paucity of research regarding aggressive behaviours of on-road cyclists and the consequences that aggression may have on their safety. To address this, we examined self-reported anger-based aggression in a sample of "active" cyclists (N = 623: males = 69%) defined as those who regularly ride a bicycle on-road (all rode at least once a week, 64% rode between 4-7 days per week). Using the Cyclist Anger Expression Inventory (CAX) three broad types of anger-based aggression were identified: 1) constructive ways of dealing with anger, 2) verbal aggression and 3) personal physical aggression. Cyclists reported that most to almost all of the time they deal with anger in adaptive constructive ways. When they were aggressive, they were most likely to express this through verbal types of aggression such as shouting or swearing aloud. Personal physical types of aggression were infrequent and these were the only type of behaviour found to be related to crashes. Regression analyses showed that factors associated with personal physical aggression included anger propensities, distance travelled, being male and younger. Interestingly, personal physical aggression was also more frequently expressed by cyclists classified as "strong and fearless" (Geller, 2009), that is avid cyclists who feel comfortable in all riding environments. Therefore, although the expressions of extreme aggression are rare, they are expressed in a group of riders who regularly ride on the road, making them particularly vulnerable. Effective strategies need to be developed to lessen cyclist aggression and mitigate the potential risks associated with these behaviours, for both cyclists and other vulnerable road users.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.04.004DOI Listing
July 2019

Self-reported violations, errors and lapses for older drivers: Measuring the change in frequency of aberrant driving behaviours across five time-points.

Accid Anal Prev 2019 Feb 24;123:132-139. Epub 2018 Nov 24.

Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Canada.

The current study aimed to: 1. to confirm the 21-item, three-factor Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ) structure suggested by Koppel et al. (2018) within an independent sample of Canadian older drivers; 2. to examine whether the structure of the DBQ remained stable over a four-year period; 3. to conduct a latent growth analysis to determine whether older drivers' DBQ scores changed across time. Five hundred and sixty Canadian older drivers (males = 61.3%) from the Candrive/Ozcandrive longitudinal study completed the DBQ yearly for four years across five time-points that were approximately 12 months apart. In Year 1, the average age of the older drivers was 76.0 years (SD = 4.5 years; Range = 70-92 years). Findings from the study support the 21-item, three-factor DBQ structure suggested by Koppel and colleagues for an Australian sample of older drivers as being acceptable in an independent sample of Canadian older drivers. In addition, Canadian older drivers' responses to this version of the DBQ were stable across the five time-points. More specifically, there was very little change in older drivers' self-reported violations, and no significant change for self-reported errors or lapses. The findings from the current study add further support for this version of the DBQ as being a suitable tool for examining self-reported aberrant driving behaviours in older drivers. Future research should investigate the relationship between older drivers' self-reported aberrant driving behaviours and their performance on functional measures, their responses to other driving-related abilities and practice scales and/or questionnaires, as well their usual (or naturalistic) driving practices and/or performance on on-road driving tasks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2018.11.009DOI Listing
February 2019

Do mindfulness interventions improve road safety? A systematic review.

Accid Anal Prev 2019 Feb 21;123:88-98. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of General Practice, Monash University, VIC 3168, Australia.

Mindfulness has been identified as a potentially effective intervention for reducing road trauma. In this paper, we report on the results of a systematic review which examined the evidence regarding the relationship between mindfulness and road safety. The review was conducted following PRISMA guidelines (PROSPERO 2017: CRD42017075704). The primary outcomes measured were crash or near-crash rates and the secondary outcomes were driving violations (including speeding and texting while driving) and driving performance (i.e., errors in driving simulator, etc.). This review was registered with PROSPERO 2017: CRD42017075704. A systematic search of databases from the disciplines of public health, psychology and transport safety (Ovid Cochrane Library, Ovid PsycINFO, Ovid EMBASE, CINAHL PLUS, Ovid TRANSPORT and TRID: TRIS and ITRD database) was conducted on February 7 2018. Seventeen studies (12 cross-sectional and 5 case-control) published between 2011 and 2017 met the inclusion criteria. These all focused on the association between mindfulness or mind-wandering on road safety measures including driving performance (vehicle control, reaction time), compliance with speed zones and traffic signals, near-crash and crash rates, as well as propensity to engage in distracted driving behaviours. The results of the review suggest that mindfulness may be particularly useful for preventing distracted driving. However, a number of limitations in the existing research are noted. It is clear that more research is warranted to specifically investigate the effectiveness of mindfulness as an intervention for reducing road trauma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2018.11.013DOI Listing
February 2019

What is the relationship between self-reported aberrant driving behaviors, mindfulness, and self-reported crashes and infringements?

Traffic Inj Prev 2018 07 9;19(5):480-487. Epub 2018 May 9.

c Department of General Practice , Monash University , Melbourne , Victoria , Australia.

Objectives: This study investigated the relationship between self-reported aberrant driving behaviors, mindfulness, and self-reported crashes and infringements.

Methods: Three hundred and eighteen participants (M = 46.0 years, SD = 13.7 years; female: 81.8%) completed an online survey that assessed aberrant driving behaviors, mindfulness (including regular mindfulness meditation [MM]), and self-reported crashes and infringements during the past 2 years. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to examine the relationship between self-reported aberrant driving behaviors and mindfulness simultaneously, as well as with participants' age and estimated kilometers driven over the past year.

Results: The results of the SEM showed that mindfulness was negatively related to each self-reported aberrant driving behavior, with the strongest relationships being between mindfulness and driving-related lapses (-0.58) and errors (-0.46). Participants who practice MM had significantly fewer crashes in the past 2 years and reported significantly fewer driving-related violations and lapses compared to participants who did not practice MM (crashes: 9.3% vs. 18.8%, P < .05; violations: M = 6.66 [SD = 3.44] vs. M = 7.68 [SD = 4.53], P < .05; errors: M = 5.17 [SD = 3.44] vs. M = 6.19 [SD = 4.12], P < .05).

Conclusions: More research is needed to understand whether MM results in more mindful and attentive drivers or whether individuals who practice MM may have other traits or behaviors that are linked to improved safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15389588.2018.1440083DOI Listing
July 2018

Associations between alcohol consumption patterns and attitudes towards alcohol interlocks.

Accid Anal Prev 2017 Nov 6;108:83-90. Epub 2017 Sep 6.

Accident Research Centre, Monash University, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Drink-driving and alcohol-related crashes are a significant problem globally. Alcohol interlocks are used to prevent drivers with a blood alcohol concentration above a pre-determined level from starting their vehicle, making the technology highly effective in preventing drink-drive episodes. While alcohol interlocks are commonly used in drink-drive offender groups, their broader use as a preventative road safety strategy is considered increasingly feasible. In this context it is important to understand attitudes towards the technology, and to investigate whether these attitudes vary according to alcohol consumption patterns as this influences the acceptability of a broad-based preventative alcohol interlock program.

Methods: A representative sample of 2994 Australian drivers participated in an online cross-sectional survey. Participants reported their alcohol consumption, drink-drive behaviour and attitudes towards the use of alcohol interlocks for personal use and for drink-drive offenders.

Results: Half of the sample stated that alcohol interlocks would be of use personally. Seventy-four percent of high-risk drinkers (defined by an AUDIT score ≥20) stated they would find the technology personally useful when compared to 49% of low-risk drinkers (AUDIT ≤7). Overwhelmingly, more than 80% of participants agreed with the mandatory instalment of alcohol interlocks and compulsory clinical interventions for drink-drive offenders, with more low-risk drinkers supporting this than the high-risk drinkers.

Conclusions: While there were mixed opinions regarding the perceived personal usefulness of alcohol interlocks, higher-risk drinkers were most likely to perceive interlocks as being of use for themselves. This high-risk group however, was less likely to provide support for clinical interventions and additional re-licensing requirements aimed at eliciting changes in drinking behaviour. These findings have important implications for drink-drive offender relicensing and the likely success of drink-driver education, and interventions aimed at curbing risky alcohol consumption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2017.08.021DOI Listing
November 2017

The relative importance of real-time in-cab and external feedback in managing fatigue in real-world commercial transport operations.

Traffic Inj Prev 2017 05 21;18(sup1):S71-S78. Epub 2017 Mar 21.

b Seeing Machines Ltd , Canberra , Australia.

Objective: Real-time driver monitoring systems represent a solution to address key behavioral risks as they occur, particularly distraction and fatigue. The efficacy of these systems in real-world settings is largely unknown. This article has three objectives: (1) to document the incidence and duration of fatigue in real-world commercial truck-driving operations, (2) to determine the reduction, if any, in the incidence of fatigue episodes associated with providing feedback, and (3) to tease apart the relative contribution of in-cab warnings from 24/7 monitoring and feedback to employers.

Methods: Data collected from a commercially available in-vehicle camera-based driver monitoring system installed in a commercial truck fleet operating in Australia were analyzed. The real-time driver monitoring system makes continuous assessments of driver drowsiness based on eyelid position and other factors. Data were collected in a baseline period where no feedback was provided to drivers. Real-time feedback to drivers then occurred via in-cab auditory and haptic warnings, which were further enhanced by direct feedback by company management when fatigue events were detected by external 24/7 monitors. Fatigue incidence rates and their timing of occurrence across the three time periods were compared.

Results: Relative to no feedback being provided to drivers when fatigue events were detected, in-cab warnings resulted in a 66% reduction in fatigue events, with a 95% reduction achieved by the real-time provision of direct feedback in addition to in-cab warnings (p < 0.01). With feedback, fatigue events were shorter in duration a d occurred later in the trip, and fewer drivers had more than one verified fatigue event per trip.

Conclusions: That the provision of feedback to the company on driver fatigue events in real time provides greater benefit than feedback to the driver alone has implications for companies seeking to mitigate risks associated with fatigue. Having fewer fatigue events is likely a reflection of the device itself and the accompanying safety culture of the company in terms of how the information is used. Data were analysed on a per-truck trip basis, and the findings are indicative of fatigue events in a large-scale commercial transport fleet. Future research ought to account for individual driver performance, which was not possible with the available data in this retrospective analysis. Evidence that real-time driver monitoring feedback is effective in reducing fatigue events is invaluable in the development of fleet safety policies, and of future national policy and vehicle safety regulations. Implications for automotive driver monitoring are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15389588.2017.1306855DOI Listing
May 2017

Investigating the impact of static roadside advertising on drivers' situation awareness.

Appl Ergon 2017 Apr 30;60:136-145. Epub 2016 Nov 30.

Monash University Accident Research Centre, 21 Alliance Lane, Clayton, Victoria, 3800, Australia.

Roadside advertising has the potential to create a crash risk for drivers as it may distract attention from driving at critical times. In an on-road instrumented vehicle study, we examined if and how static advertising billboards affect drivers' situation awareness across different driving environments. Nineteen fully licensed drivers drove an instrumented vehicle around a 38 km urban test route comprising freeway, busy urban retail and arterial road sections. The route contained a number of static billboards. Drivers provided continuous verbal protocols throughout the drive. Results indicated that the structure and content of drivers' situation awareness was not appreciably affected by the billboards in any of the road environments examined. Drivers focused their attention on the billboards when driving demand was low, such as when driving on the freeway with light to moderate traffic, in lower speed zones, or when stationary. However, when drivers were required to perform a manoeuvre or driving demands increased, drivers directed less attention to the billboards and focussed their awareness on the immediate driving task. This suggests that drivers can, at least under some conditions, effectively self-regulate their attention to billboards when required to focus on the immediate traffic or driving situation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2016.11.009DOI Listing
April 2017

A driving simulator evaluation of potential speed reductions using two innovative designs for signalised urban intersections.

Accid Anal Prev 2017 Jan 28;98:25-36. Epub 2016 Sep 28.

Monash University Accident Research Centre, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.

Intersections are typically associated with a higher level of crash risk than other types of facilities on the road network. Standard cross-road intersections are particularly hazardous because by their very design, drivers may travel through at speeds that are incompatible with human biomechanical tolerance should a crash occur. Further, drivers are exposed to dangerous conflict angles, which are likely to result in serious injury. This paper examines the effectiveness of two new intersection designs aimed at restricting potentially dangerous conflict angles while reducing driver speeds through the intersection. These designs, named the "Cut-Through" and the "Squircle", incorporate key features of both signalised intersections and roundabouts. The intersections are controlled by signals similar to a signalised roundabout. Instead of a standard central island, right turning traffic (equivalent to left turns in jurisdictions that drive on the right) cut through the central island, thereby avoiding traffic interlocks and delays that can occur with the traditional signalised roundabout. Across two driving simulator studies, vehicle speed data were collected on approach to and through each of the proposed intersection designs. Performance was benchmarked against equivalent standard signalised cross-road intersections and standard non-signalised roundabouts. Notably, drivers reduced their speeds by approximately 30-40% when negotiating both the Cut-Through and the Squircle compared to the standard signalised intersections. The safety potentials of the two new intersection designs are discussed within the guidelines of the Safe Systems principles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2016.09.022DOI Listing
January 2017

Prospective memory while driving: comparison of time- and event-based intentions.

Ergonomics 2017 Jun 10;60(6):780-790. Epub 2016 Aug 10.

d Department of Psychology , University of Hull , Hull , UK.

Prospective memories can divert attentional resources from ongoing activities. However, it is unclear whether these effects and the theoretical accounts that seek to explain them will generalise to a complex real-world task such as driving. Twenty-four participants drove two simulated routes while maintaining a fixed headway with a lead vehicle. Drivers were given either event-based (e.g. arriving at a filling station) or time-based errands (e.g. on-board clock shows 3:30). In contrast to the predominant view in the literature which suggests time-based tasks are more demanding, drivers given event-based errands showed greater difficulty in mirroring lead vehicle speed changes compared to the time-based group. Results suggest that common everyday secondary tasks, such as scouting the roadside for a bank, may have a detrimental impact on driving performance. The additional finding that this cost was only evident with the event-based task highlights a potential area of both theoretical and practical interest. Practitioner Summary: Drivers were given either time- or event-based errands whilst engaged in a simulated drive. We examined the effect of errands on an ongoing vehicle follow task. In contrast to previous non-driving studies, event-based errands are more disruptive. Common everyday errands may have a detrimental impact on driving performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2016.1214288DOI Listing
June 2017

Transport company safety climate-The impact on truck driver behavior and crash involvement.

Traffic Inj Prev 2017 04 21;18(3):306-311. Epub 2016 Jun 21.

c Massey University , Wellington , New Zealand.

Objective: The present study investigated the relationships between safety climate and driving behavior and crash involvement.

Methods: A total of 339 company-employed truck drivers completed a questionnaire that measured their perceptions of safety climate, crash record, speed choice, and aberrant driving behaviors (errors, lapses, and violations).

Results: Although there was no direct relationship between the drivers' perceptions of safety climate and crash involvement, safety climate was a significant predictor of engagement in risky driving behaviors, which were in turn predictive of crash involvement.

Conclusions: This research shows that safety climate may offer an important starting point for interventions aimed at reducing risky driving behavior and thus fewer vehicle collisions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15389588.2016.1199865DOI Listing
April 2017

In the eye of the beholder: A simulator study of the impact of Google Glass on driving performance.

Accid Anal Prev 2016 Jan 10;86:68-75. Epub 2015 Nov 10.

Monash University Accident Research Centre, 21 Alliance Lane, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australia.

This study examined whether, and to what extent, driving is affected by reading text on Google Glass. Reading text requires a high level of visual resources and can interfere with safe driving. However, it is currently unclear if the impact of reading text on a head-mounted display, such as Google Glass (Glass), will differ from that found with more traditional head-down electronic devices, such as a dash-mounted smartphone. A total of 20 drivers (22-48 years) completed the Lane Change Test while driving undistracted and while reading text on Glass and on a smartphone. Measures of lateral vehicle control and event detection were examined along with subjective workload and secondary task performance. Results revealed that drivers' lane keeping ability was significantly impaired by reading text on both Glass and the smartphone. When using Glass, drivers also failed to detect a greater number of lane change signs compared to when using the phone or driving undistracted. In terms of subjective workload, drivers rated reading on Glass as subjectively easier than on the smartphone, which may possibly encourage greater use of this device while driving. Overall, the results suggest that, despite Glass allowing drivers to better maintain their visual attention on the forward scene, drivers are still not able to effectively divide their cognitive attention across the Glass display and the road environment, resulting in impaired driving performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2015.10.010DOI Listing
January 2016

Trait Predictors of Aggression and Crash-Related Behaviors Across Drivers from the United Kingdom and the Irish Republic.

Risk Anal 2015 Sep 24;35(9):1730-45. Epub 2015 Mar 24.

Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedford, UK.

Aggressive driving is acknowledged as a contributor to motor vehicle crashes. This study explored a theoretical model of aggressive expression and crash-related outcomes using self-report data collected, using an online questionnaire, from drivers in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland. The proposed model tested whether the personality traits of boredom proneness, sensation seeking, and impulsivity, coupled with trait driving anger, predicted aggressive driving; and whether aggressive driving predicted crash-related outcomes (loss of concentration and control, near misses, and moving violations). The structural model was confirmed, with aggressive expressions of anger being found to mediate the relationships driving anger and impulsivity had with the crash-related outcomes. Multigroup invariance analysis showed that the model remained invariant across drivers from the United Kingdom and Ireland, suggesting that the contributing factors for aggressive expression and crash involvement are similar across both countries. When self-reported crash-related conditions were compared between drivers in the United Kingdom and Ireland, drivers in the United Kingdom reported more aggressive driving, more minor crashes, more incidents of road rage, and more frequent losses of concentration and vehicle control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/risa.12379DOI Listing
September 2015

Multiple driver distractions: a systemic transport problem.

Accid Anal Prev 2015 Jan 26;74:360-7. Epub 2014 Jul 26.

Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Strategies to contend with driver distraction may no longer be sufficient for the emerging variety of contemporary driver distractions. A more systematic and systemic approach holds promise for improved road safety but is not currently being developed. This systematic review of multiple driver distractions aims to address this gap and presents two key findings. Systematic classification of distracting tasks with respect to driving is challenging, and engagement with Multiple-Additional-to-Driving (MAD) tasks is almost universally detrimental to driving performance. A model is presented to assist in systematically characterising multiple driver demands. Identified literature is placed into context using the model and shortfalls are identified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2014.07.006DOI Listing
January 2015

Development of a short form of the driving anger expression inventory.

Accid Anal Prev 2014 Nov 22;72:169-76. Epub 2014 Jul 22.

Driving Research Group, Cranfield University, UK. Electronic address:

The present study developed a revised version of the driving anger expression inventory (25-items) and a short (15-item) version using data from 551 drivers. Split half factor analyses on both versions confirmed the original four factors; personal physical aggressive expression, use of a vehicle to express anger, verbal aggressive expression and adaptive/constructive expression. The two DAX versions were strongly correlated, demonstrating the suitability of both forms of the scale and the aggressive forms of expression were higher for drivers who reported initiating road rage interactions. Total aggressive expression was also higher for drivers who reported recent crash-related conditions, such as: loss of concentration, losing control of their vehicle, moving violations, near-misses and major crashes. The revised DAX and DAX-short provide shorter versions of the 49-item DAX that can more easily be combined with other questionnaires and require smaller sample sizes to analyse. Further research is required to validate these tools among different samples and populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2014.06.021DOI Listing
November 2014

Driving anger in Malaysia.

Accid Anal Prev 2014 Oct 24;71:1-9. Epub 2014 May 24.

School of Psychology, University of Hertfordshire, UK.

The present study examined the types of situations that cause Malaysian drivers to become angry. The 33-item version of the driver anger scale (Deffenbacher et al., 1994) was used to investigate driver anger amongst a sample of 339 drivers. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the fit of the original six-factor model (discourtesy, traffic obstructions, hostile gestures, slow driving, illegal driving and police presence), after removing one item and allowing three error pairs to covary, was satisfactory. Female drivers reported more anger, than males, caused by traffic obstruction and hostile gestures. Age was also negatively related to five (discourtesy, traffic obstructions, hostile gestures, slow driving and police presence) of the six factors and also to the total DAS score. Furthermore, although they were not directly related to crash involvement, several of the six forms of driving anger were significantly related to the crash-related conditions of: near misses, loss of concentration, having lost control of a vehicle and being ticketed. Overall the pattern of findings made in the present research were broadly similar to those from Western countries, indicating that the DAS is a valid measure of driving anger even among non-European based cultures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2014.04.019DOI Listing
October 2014

A comparison of the Driving Anger Scale and the Propensity for Angry Driving Scale.

Accid Anal Prev 2013 Sep 10;58:88-96. Epub 2013 May 10.

School of Engineering, Cranfield University, UK.

The present study investigated the factor structures of the 14-item version of the DAS (Driving Anger Scale) and the Propensity for Angry Driving Scale (PADS) using a sample of New Zealand drivers drawn from the general population. The two scales were also investigated with regards to their relationships with general trait anger, risky driving behaviour, along with crash involvement and a variety of crash-related conditions. Confirmatory Factor Analysis supported both scales as unidimensional, although the PADS was reduced from a 19-item to an 18-item scale. Both the PADS and DAS were significantly related to trait anger, risky driving behaviour and near-misses. However, once the influence of the demographic variables and trait anger had been partialled out, the addition of the PADS and DAS made a significant contribution to predicting violations, but it was only the PADS which was significant. In contrast, after the demographic variables and trait anger had been partialled out, the addition of the DAS and PADS again made a significant contribution to the prediction of near-misses, but this time it was only the DAS which made a significant contribution. The present study clearly shows that both scales are robust measures, measuring similar, but slightly different aspects of driving anger.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2013.05.002DOI Listing
September 2013

The expression of anger amongst Turkish taxi drivers.

Accid Anal Prev 2013 Jul 22;56:42-50. Epub 2013 Mar 22.

School of Engineering, Cranfield University, UK.

The present study tested the four factor structure of the DAX on a sample of Turkish taxi drivers and the relationship these factors had with a number of other variables. Confirmatory Factor Analysis found that the data broadly fit the four factor solution of the DAX. These factors included three aggressive expressions: Verbal Aggressive Expression; Personal Physical Aggressive Expression; Use of a Vehicle to Express anger, and one Adaptive/Constructive factor. Driving experience was negatively related to the three types of aggressive expression. The Total Aggressive Expression was positively related to annual mileage and preferred driving speed, but negatively related to age and experience. The present research also found that the three aggressive types of anger expression were significantly related to potentially crash related conditions, such as losing control of the vehicle, loss of concentration and near-misses. However, none of the DAX factors was significantly related to either minor or major crashes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2013.03.013DOI Listing
July 2013

The impact of working memory load on task execution and online plan adjustment during multitasking in a virtual environment.

Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) 2013 Jun 12;66(6):1241-58. Epub 2012 Dec 12.

Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street,Liverpool, UK.

Three experiments investigated the impact of working memory load on online plan adjustment during a test of multitasking in young, nonexpert, adult participants. Multitasking was assessed using the Edinburgh Virtual Errands Test (EVET). Participants were asked to memorize either good or poor plans for performing multiple errands and were assessed both on task completion and on the extent to which they modified their plans during EVET performance. EVET was performed twice, with and without a secondary task loading a component of working memory. In Experiment 1, articulatory suppression was used to load the phonological loop. In Experiment 2, oral random generation was used to load executive functions. In Experiment 3, spatial working memory was loaded with an auditory spatial localization task. EVET performance for both good- and poor-planning groups was disrupted by random generation and sound localization, but not by articulatory suppression. Additionally, people given a poor plan were able to overcome this initial disadvantage by modifying their plans online. It was concluded that, in addition to executive functions, multiple errands performance draws heavily on spatial, but not verbal, working memory resources but can be successfully completed on the basis of modifying plans online, despite a secondary task load.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17470218.2012.748813DOI Listing
June 2013

Couples, contentious conversations, mobile telephone use and driving.

Accid Anal Prev 2013 Jan 13;50:416-22. Epub 2012 Jun 13.

Applied Psychology, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.

Studies have shown that the inappropriate use of in-vehicle technology may lead to hazardous disruption of driver performance. This paper reports an investigation into the socio-technical implications of maintaining a difficult conversation while driving. Twenty romantically involved couples participated in a driving-simulator experiment. The participants engaged in emotionally difficult conversations while one partner drove. The contentious conversation topics were identified using a revealed differences protocol, requiring partners to discuss sources of ongoing disagreement in their relationship. The conversations were conducted either using handsfree telephone or with both parties present in the simulator. Results indicate that the revealed differences tasks were subjectively viewed as emotionally more difficult than a control. Driver performance was found to be adversely effected for both longitudinal and lateral vehicle control. Performance was worst during contentious conversations with the partner present, suggesting the drivers may be better able to regulate driving task demands with the partner not in the vehicle during difficult discussions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2012.05.015DOI Listing
January 2013

The road user behaviour of school students in Belgium.

Accid Anal Prev 2012 Sep 30;48:495-504. Epub 2012 Mar 30.

Cranfield University, UK.

The present study aimed to investigate both the on road behaviour of Belgian school students and the validity of the Adolescent Road User Behaviour Questionnaire (ARBQ) in a sample of students attending school in Belgium. In total, 294 adolescents completed the ARBQ along with measures of their self-reported accident involvement and sensation seeking behaviour. Confirmatory Factor Analysis supported the original factor structure of: "unsafe road crossing", "playing on the road" and "planned protective behaviour" for the 21-item version of the questionnaire, but not for the full scale. Males were found to engage more often in unsafe crossing behaviour and playing on the roads. There were also age differences, with unsafe road crossing increasing with age and engagement in planned protective behaviours improving with age. Those who reported being involved in an accident also reported more frequent engagement in unsafe crossing, playing on the roads, thrill seeking behaviour and lower levels of behaviour inhibition. Therefore, this study confirms that the ARBQ is a useful tool for investigating safety-related behaviours that contribute to accident involvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2012.03.004DOI Listing
September 2012

Anger-congruent behaviour transfers across driving situations.

Cogn Emot 2011 Dec 1;25(8):1423-38. Epub 2011 Jun 1.

School of Philosophy, Psychology and Language Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Anger and aggression on the road may sometimes appear unprovoked and unrelated to current driving circumstances. It is unclear whether such anger and aggression arises because of events prior to those circumstances in which anger is experienced and aggression is exhibited. In this study, time pressure and enforced following of a slowly moving vehicle were used to increase drivers' anger in order to assess whether affect and behaviour during a subsequent, non-provocative, drive would change accordingly. Ninety-six drivers drove twice in a simulated urban environment. During the first drive, oncoming traffic and a slowly moving lead vehicle required that half of the drivers travelled far slower than they would choose. During the second drive, drivers again followed slower vehicles and were required to respond to traffic events not encountered in the manipulation drive. Mood (Profile of Mood States) was assessed before and after each drive, and anger evaluations, arousal (heart rate) and behaviour (speed, lane position and collisions) were measured during drives. Anger increased and both mood and driving behaviour deteriorated in drivers exposed to slower lead vehicles, compared with control group drivers. These behavioural differences of speed and lane positioning carried over into the subsequent drive even to driving situations unlike those where provocation had previously occurred. Drivers who had previously been impeded later approached hazards with less caution, and attempted more dangerous overtaking manoeuvres. It is concluded that sometimes dangerous driving may result from anger provoked by circumstances other than those in which the behaviour is exhibited.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02699931.2010.551184DOI Listing
December 2011