Publications by authors named "Amanda Cashen"

110 Publications

Donor Memory-like NK cells Persist and Induce Remissions in Pediatric Patients with Relapsed AML after Transplant.

Blood 2021 Dec 6. Epub 2021 Dec 6.

Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States.

Pediatric and young adult (YA) patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) have extremely poor prognosis. Standard salvage chemotherapy and donor lymphocyte infusions (DLI) have little curative potential. Previous studies showed that natural killer (NK) cells can be stimulated ex vivo with interleukin-12 (IL-12), IL-15, and IL-18 to generate memory-like (ML) NK cells with enhanced anti-leukemia responses. We treated nine pediatric/YA patients with post-HCT relapsed AML with donor ML NK cells on a phase I trial. Patients received fludarabine, cytarabine and filgrastim followed two weeks later by infusion of DLI and ML NK cells from the original HCT donor. ML NK cells were successfully generated from haploidentical, matched-related and matched-unrelated donors. Following infusion, donor-derived ML NK cells expanded and maintained ML multidimensional mass cytometry phenotype for over 3 months. Furthermore, ML NK cells exhibited persistent functional responses as evidenced by leukemia-triggered IFN-g production. Following DLI and ML NK cell adoptive transfer, 4 of 8 evaluable patients achieved complete remission at day 28. Two patients maintained a durable remission for over 3 months with one patient in remission for greater than two years. No significant toxicity was experienced. This study demonstrates that in a compatible immune environment post-HCT, donor ML NK cells robustly expand and persist with potent anti-leukemic activity in the absence of exogenous cytokines. ML NK cells in combination with DLI present a novel immunotherapy platform for AML that has relapsed after allogeneic HCT. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT03068819.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2021013972DOI Listing
December 2021

Outcome of Allogeneic Transplantation for Mature T-cell Lymphomas: Impact of Donor Source and Disease Characteristics.

Blood Adv 2021 Dec 3. Epub 2021 Dec 3.

University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

Mature T-cell lymphomas constitute the most common indication of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) in lymphomas. Large studies evaluating contemporary outcomes of allo-HCT in mature T-cell lymphomas, relative to commonly used donor sources are not available. Included in this registry study were adult patients who had undergone allo-HCT for anaplastic large cell lymphoma, angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL), or peripheral T-cell lymphoma-NOS (PTCL-NOS) between 2008 and 2018. HCT platforms compared were post-transplant cyclophosphamide-based haploidentical (haplo-) HCT, matched sibling donor (MSD) HCT, matched unrelated donor HCT with in-vivo T-cell depletion (MUD TCD+), and MUD HCT without TCD (MUD TCD-). Co-primary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS); secondary endpoints included non-relapse mortality (NRM), and relapse/progression incidence (RI). 1942 patients were eligible (haplo-HCT 237; MSD 911; MUD-TCD+ 468; MUD TCD- 326). Cohorts were comparable for baseline characteristics except higher proportions of patients with decreased performance status (PS) and marrow graft recipients in the haplo-HCT group. On univariate and multivariate comparisons, OS and PFS, RI, and NRM were not significantly different between haplo-HCT, MSD, MUD-TCD+, and MUD-TCD- cohorts, with 3-year OS and PFS of 60%, 63%, 59%, and 64%; and 50%, 50%, 48%, and 52%, respectively. Significant predictors of inferior OS and PFS on multivariate analysis were active disease status at HCT and decreased PS. AITL was associated with significantly reduced relapse risk and better PFS compared to PTCL-NOS. Allo-HCT can provide durable PFS in patients with mature T-cell lymphoma. Outcomes of haplo-HCT were comparable to that of matched donor allo-HCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021005899DOI Listing
December 2021

Systemic IL-15 promotes allogeneic cell rejection in patients treated with natural killer cell adoptive therapy.

Blood 2021 Nov 19. Epub 2021 Nov 19.

Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States.

NK cells are a promising alternative to T cells for cancer immunotherapy. Adoptive therapies with allogeneic, cytokine-activated NK cells are being investigated in clinical trials. However, the optimal cytokine support after adoptive transfer to promote NK cell expansion, and persistence remains unclear. Correlative studies from two independent clinical trial cohorts treated with MHC-haploidentical NK cell therapy for relapsed/refractory AML revealed that cytokine support by systemic IL-15 (N-803) resulted in reduced clinical activity, compared to IL-2. We hypothesized that the mechanism responsible was IL-15/N-803 promoting recipient CD8 T cell activation that in turn accelerated donor NK cell rejection. This idea was supported by increased proliferating CD8+ T cell numbers in patients treated with IL-15/N-803, compared to IL2. Moreover, mixed lymphocyte reactions showed that IL-15/N-803 enhanced responder CD8 T cell activation and proliferation, compared to IL-2 alone. Additionally, IL-15/N-803 accelerated the ability of responding T cells to kill stimulator-derived ML NK cells, demonstrating that additional IL-15 can hasten donor NK cell elimination. Thus, systemic IL-15 used to support allogeneic cell therapy may paradoxically limit their therapeutic window of opportunity and clinical activity. This study indicates that stimulating patient CD8 T cell allo-rejection responses may critically limit allogeneic cellular therapy supported with IL-15.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2021011532DOI Listing
November 2021

Phase I/Dose Expansion Trial of Brentuximab vedotin/Lenalidomide in Relapsed or Refractory Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma.

Blood 2021 Nov 15. Epub 2021 Nov 15.

Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States.

New therapies are needed for patients with relapsed/refractory (rel/ref) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) who do not benefit from or are ineligible for stem cell transplant and chimeric antigen receptor therapy. The CD30-targeted antibody-drug conjugate brentuximab vedotin (BV) and the immunomodulator lenalidomide (Len) have demonstrated promising activity as single agents in this population. We report the results of a phase I/dose expansion trial evaluating the combination of BV/Len in rel/ref DLBCL. Thirty-seven patients received BV every 21 days with Len dosed continuously for a maximum of 16 cycles. The maximum tolerated dose of the combination was 1.2 mg/kg BV with 20 mg/day Len. BV/Len was well tolerated with a toxicity profile consistent with their use as single agents. Most patients required G-CSF support due to neutropenia. Overall response rate (ORR) was 57% (95% CI: 39.6-72.5%), complete response rate 35% (95% CI: 20.7-52.6%), median duration of response 13.1 months, median progression-free survival 10.2 (95% CI: 5.5-13.7) months and median overall survival 14.3 months (95% CI 10.2-35.6). Response rates were highest in patients with CD30+ DLBCL (73%) but did not differ according to cell of origin (p=0.96). NK cell expansion and phenotypic changes in CD8+ T-cell subsets in non-responders were identified by mass cytometry. BV/Len represents a potential treatment option for patients with rel/ref DLBCL. This combination is being further explored in a phase III study (NCT04404283). Current trial registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02086604).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2021011894DOI Listing
November 2021

Combination of dociparstat sodium (DSTAT), a CXCL12/CXCR4 inhibitor, with azacitidine for the treatment of hypomethylating agent refractory AML and MDS.

Leuk Res 2021 11 22;110:106713. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Division of Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO, United States. Electronic address:

Leukemia stem cells utilize cell adhesion molecules like CXCR4/CXCL12 to home to bone marrow stromal niches where they are maintained in a dormant, protected state. Dociparstat sodium (DSTAT, CX-01) is a low anticoagulant heparin with multiple mechanisms of action, including inhibition of the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis, blocking HMGB1, and binding platelet factor 4 (PF-4). We conducted a pilot study adding DSTAT to azacitidine for patients with AML or MDS unresponsive to or relapsed after prior hypomethylating agent therapy, hypothesizing that DSTAT may improve response rates. Twenty patients were enrolled, with a median of 2 prior lines of therapy and 6 cycles of prior hypomethylating agents. Among fifteen patients evaluable for response, there was 1 complete remission, and 3 marrow complete remissions, for a response rate of 27 % among evaluable patients (20 % overall). Hematologic improvement was observed in 5 additional patients. The median overall survival for all enrolled patients was 205 days (95 % CI 119-302). While cytopenias and infections were common, these were not out of proportion to what would be expected in this population of patients undergoing treatment with azacitidine alone. In summary, this trial demonstrated the feasibility of combining DSTAT with azacitidine, with several responses observed, suggesting this combination warrants further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.leukres.2021.106713DOI Listing
November 2021

Effect of time to relapse on overall survival in patients with mantle cell lymphoma following autologous haematopoietic cell transplantation.

Br J Haematol 2021 12 28;195(5):757-763. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Section of Hematology/Oncology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

In young and fit patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), intensive induction therapy followed by a consolidative autologous haematopoietic cell transplant (autoHCT) is the standard of care in the front-line setting. Recently, time-to-event analysis has emerged as an important risk assessment tool in lymphoma, though its impact in MCL is not well defined. We utilized the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research database to evaluate the effect of post-autoHCT time to relapse on overall survival (OS) over time in 461 patients who underwent autoHCT within 12 months of MCL diagnosis. On multivariate analysis, the impact of relapse on OS was greatest at the six-month [hazard ratio (HR) = 7·68], 12-month (HR = 6·68), and 18-month (HR = 5·81) landmark timepoints. Using a dynamic landmark model we demonstrate that adjusted OS at five years following each landmark timepoint improved with time for relapsing and non-relapsing patients. Furthermore, early relapse (<18 months) following autoHCT defines a high-risk group with inferior post-relapse OS. This retrospective analysis highlights the impact of time to relapse on OS in MCL patients undergoing up-front autoHCT and emphasizes the need to consider novel therapeutic approaches for patients suffering early relapse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17865DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8627449PMC
December 2021

Loss of synergistic transcriptional feedback loops drives diverse B-cell cancers.

EBioMedicine 2021 Sep 27;71:103559. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA. Electronic address:

Background: The most common B-cell cancers, chronic lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma (CLL), follicular and diffuse large B-cell (FL, DLBCL) lymphomas, have distinct clinical courses, yet overlapping "cell-of-origin". Dynamic changes to the epigenome are essential regulators of B-cell differentiation. Therefore, we reasoned that these distinct cancers may be driven by shared mechanisms of disruption in transcriptional circuitry.

Methods: We compared purified malignant B-cells from 52 patients with normal B-cell subsets (germinal center centrocytes and centroblasts, naïve and memory B-cells) from 36 donor tonsils using >325 high-resolution molecular profiling assays for histone modifications, open chromatin (ChIP-, FAIRE-seq), transcriptome (RNA-seq), transcription factor (TF) binding, and genome copy number (microarrays).

Findings: From the resulting data, we identified gains in active chromatin in enhancers/super-enhancers that likely promote unchecked B-cell receptor signaling, including one we validated near the immunoglobulin superfamily receptors FCMR and PIGR. More striking and pervasive was the profound loss of key B-cell identity TFs, tumor suppressors and their super-enhancers, including EBF1, OCT2(POU2F2), and RUNX3. Using a novel approach to identify transcriptional feedback, we showed that these core transcriptional circuitries are self-regulating. Their selective gain and loss form a complex, iterative, and interactive process that likely curbs B-cell maturation and spurs proliferation.

Interpretation: Our study is the first to map the transcriptional circuitry of the most common blood cancers. We demonstrate that a critical subset of B-cell TFs and their cognate enhancers form self-regulatory transcriptional feedback loops whose disruption is a shared mechanism underlying these diverse subtypes of B-cell lymphoma.

Funding: National Institute of Health, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital Foundation, Doris Duke Foundation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2021.103559DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8403728PMC
September 2021

American Society of Transplantation and Cellular Therapy, Center of International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research, and European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Clinical Practice Recommendations for Transplantation and Cellular Therapies in Mantle Cell Lymphoma.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 09;27(9):720-728

Section of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.

Autologous (auto-) and allogeneic (allo-) hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) are accepted treatment modalities in contemporary treatment algorithms for mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy recently received approval for MCL; however, its exact place and sequence in relation to HCT remain unclear. The American Society of Transplantation and Cellular Therapy, Center of International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research, and the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation jointly convened an expert panel to formulate consensus recommendations for role, timing, and sequencing of auto-HCT, allo-HCT, and CAR T cell therapy for patients with newly diagnosed and relapsed/refractory (R/R) MCL. The RAND-modified Delphi method was used to generate consensus statements. Seventeen consensus statements were generated, with a few key statements as follows: in the first line setting, auto-HCT consolidation represents standard of care in eligible patients, whereas there is no clear role of allo-HCT or CAR T cell therapy outside of clinical trials. In the R/R setting, the preferential option is CAR T cell therapy, especially in patients with MCL failing or intolerant to at least one Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor, while allo-HCT is recommended if CAR T cell therapy fails or is infeasible. Several recommendations were based on expert opinion, where the panel developed consensus statements for important real-world clinical scenarios to guide clinical practice. In the absence of contemporary evidence-based data, the panel found RAND-modified Delphi methodology effective in providing a formal framework for developing consensus recommendations for the timing and sequence of cellular therapies for MCL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.03.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8447221PMC
September 2021

ASTCT, CIBMTR, and EBMT clinical practice recommendations for transplant and cellular therapies in mantle cell lymphoma.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Dec 20;56(12):2911-2921. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Section of Hematology/Oncology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Autologous (auto-) or allogeneic (allo-) hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) are accepted treatment modalities for mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Recently, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy received approval for MCL; however, its exact place and sequence in relation to HCT is unclear. The ASTCT, CIBMTR, and the EBMT, jointly convened an expert panel to formulate consensus recommendations for role, timing, and sequencing of auto-, allo-HCT, and CAR T-cell therapy for patients with newly diagnosed and relapsed/refractory (R/R) MCL. The RAND-modified Delphi method was used to generate consensus statements. Seventeen consensus statements were generated; in the first-line setting auto-HCT consolidation represents standard-of-care in eligible patients, whereas there is no clear role of allo-HCT or CAR T-cell therapy, outside of a clinical trial. In the R/R setting, the preferential option is CAR T-cell therapy especially in MCL failing or intolerant to at least one Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor, while allo-HCT is recommended if CAR T-cell therapy has failed or is not feasible. In the absence of contemporary evidence-based data, the panel found RAND-modified Delphi methodology effective in providing a formal framework for developing consensus recommendations for the timing and sequence of cellular therapies for MCL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01288-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8639670PMC
December 2021

Measurable residual disease does not preclude prolonged progression-free survival in CLL treated with ibrutinib.

Blood 2021 12;138(26):2810-2827

Division of Hematology and Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

E1912 was a randomized phase 3 trial comparing indefinite ibrutinib plus 6 cycles of rituximab (IR) to 6 cycles of fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab (FCR) in untreated younger patients with CLL. We describe measurable residual disease (MRD) levels in E1912 over time and correlate them with clinical outcome. Undetectable MRD rates (<1 CLL cell per 104 leukocytes) were 29.1%, 30.3%, 23.4%, and 8.6% at 3, 12, 24, and 36 months for FCR, and significantly lower at 7.9%, 4.2%, and 3.7% at 12, 24, and 36 months for IR, respectively. Undetectable MRD at 3, 12, 24, and 36 months was associated with longer progression-free survival (PFS) in the FCR arm, with hazard ratios (MRD detectable/MRD undetectable) of 4.29 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.89-9.71), 3.91 (95% CI, 1.39-11.03), 14.12 (95% CI, 1.78-111.73), and not estimable (no events among those with undetectable MRD), respectively. In the IR arm, patients with detectable MRD did not have significantly worse PFS compared with those in whom MRD was undetectable; however, PFS was longer in those with MRD levels <10-1 than in those with MRD levels above this threshold. Our observations provide additional support for the use of MRD as a surrogate end point for PFS in patients receiving FCR. In patients on indefinite ibrutinib-based therapy, PFS did not differ significantly by undetectable MRD status, whereas those with MRD <10-1 tended to have longer PFS, although continuation of ibrutinib would very likely be necessary to maintain treatment efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020010146DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8718628PMC
December 2021

Determining subpopulation methylation profiles from bisulfite sequencing data of heterogeneous samples using DXM.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 09;49(16):e93

Center for Pharmacogenomics, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Epigenetic changes, such as aberrant DNA methylation, contribute to cancer clonal expansion and disease progression. However, identifying subpopulation-level changes in a heterogeneous sample remains challenging. Thus, we have developed a computational approach, DXM, to deconvolve the methylation profiles of major allelic subpopulations from the bisulfite sequencing data of a heterogeneous sample. DXM does not require prior knowledge of the number of subpopulations or types of cells to expect. We benchmark DXM's performance and demonstrate improvement over existing methods. We further experimentally validate DXM predicted allelic subpopulation-methylation profiles in four Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphomas (DLBCLs). Lastly, as proof-of-concept, we apply DXM to a cohort of 31 DLBCLs and relate allelic subpopulation methylation profiles to relapse. We thus demonstrate that DXM can robustly find allelic subpopulation methylation profiles that may contribute to disease progression using bisulfite sequencing data of any heterogeneous sample.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkab516DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8450090PMC
September 2021

Impact of a 40-Gene Targeted Panel Test on Physician Decision Making for Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

JCO Precis Oncol 2021 14;5. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

McDonnell Genome Institute, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO.

Purpose: Physicians treating hematologic malignancies increasingly order targeted sequencing panels to interrogate recurrently mutated genes. The precise impact of these panels on clinical decision making is not well understood.

Methods: Here, we report our institutional experience with a targeted 40-gene panel (MyeloSeq) that is used to generate a report for both genetic variants and variant allele frequencies for the treating physician (the limit of mutation detection is approximately one AML cell in 50).

Results: In total, 346 sequencing reports were generated for 325 patients with suspected hematologic malignancies over an 8-month period (August 2018 to April 2019). To determine the influence of genomic data on clinical care for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), we analyzed 122 consecutive reports from 109 patients diagnosed with AML and surveyed the treating physicians with a standardized questionnaire. The panel was ordered most commonly at diagnosis (61.5%), but was also used to assess response to therapy (22.9%) and to detect suspected relapse (15.6%). The panel was ordered at multiple timepoints during the disease course for 11% of patients. Physicians self-reported that 50 of 114 sequencing reports (44%) influenced clinical care decisions in 44 individual patients. Influences were often nuanced and extended beyond identifying actionable genetic variants with US Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs.

Conclusion: This study provides insights into how physicians are currently using multigene panels capable of detecting relatively rare AML cells. The most influential way to integrate these tools into clinical practice will be to perform prospective clinical trials that assess patient outcomes in response to genomically driven interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/PO.20.00182DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8140802PMC
January 2021

Survival after autologous versus allogeneic transplantation in patients with relapsed and refractory Hodgkin lymphoma.

Leuk Lymphoma 2021 10 14;62(10):2408-2415. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

For relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma, salvage chemotherapy followed by auto-HCT is the standard of care. It is important to identify subpopulations who could benefit from allo-HCT. This retrospective analysis included 277 patients with rrHL who underwent first transplant with auto-HCT or allo-HCT between 2007-2017. Patients in the auto-HCT cohort ( = 218) were older, more likely to be in CR at the time of transplant and receive maintenance therapy post-transplant. Patients who underwent allo-HCT ( = 59) had a higher MSKCC relapse score. Factors associated with an inferior PFS and OS included early relapse, advanced stage, extranodal involvement and not achieving CR following salvage chemotherapy. After controlling for these 4 risk factors and MSKCC score, PFS ( = 0.112) or OS ( = 0.256) was not affected by the choice of transplant. In patients with ≥ 3 high risk features, the 4-year PFS was 51% in the allo-HCT vs. 39% ( = 0.107) in the auto-HCT cohort.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2021.1927016DOI Listing
October 2021

Phase I Trial of N-803, an IL15 Receptor Agonist, with Rituximab in Patients with Indolent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 06 8;27(12):3339-3350. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri.

Purpose: N-803 is an IL15 receptor superagonist complex, designed to optimize persistence and trans-presentation, thereby activating and expanding natural killer (NK) cells and CD8 T cells. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) direct Fc receptor-bearing immune cells, including NK cells, to recognize and eliminate cancer targets. The ability of IL15R agonists to enhance tumor-targeting mAbs in patients has not been reported previously.

Patients And Methods: Relapsed/refractory patients with indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma were treated with rituximab and intravenous or subcutaneous N-803 on an open-label, dose-escalation phase I study using a 3+3 design (NCT02384954). Primary endpoint was maximum tolerated dose. Immune correlates were performed using multidimensional analysis via mass cytometry and cellular indexing of transcriptomes and epitopes by sequencing (CITE-seq) which simultaneously measures protein and single-cell RNA expression.

Results: This immunotherapy combination was safe and well tolerated and resulted in durable clinical responses including in rituximab-refractory patients. Subcutaneous N-803 plus rituximab induced sustained proliferation, expansion, and activation of peripheral blood NK cells and CD8 T cells, with increased NK cell and T cells present 8 weeks following last N-803 treatment. CITE-seq revealed a therapy-altered NK cell molecular program, including enhancement of AP-1 transcription factor. Furthermore, the monocyte transcriptional program was remodeled with enhanced MHC expression and antigen-presentation genes.

Conclusions: N-803 combines with mAbs to enhance tumor targeting in patients, and warrants further investigation in combination with immunotherapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-4575DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8197753PMC
June 2021

Belinostat in combination with standard cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone as first-line treatment for patients with newly diagnosed peripheral T-cell lymphoma.

Exp Hematol Oncol 2021 Feb 18;10(1):15. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Medical Oncology, Yale Cancer Center, 333 Cedar St, TMP 3, PO Box 208028, New Haven, CT, 06510, USA.

Background: Belinostat is a histone deacetylase inhibitor approved for relapsed refractory peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL). The primary objective of this study was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of belinostat combined with CHOP (Bel-CHOP). Secondary objectives included safety/tolerability, overall response rate (ORR), and belinostat pharmacokinetics (PK).

Methods: Patients were ≥ 18 years with histologically confirmed, previously untreated PTCL. Patients received belinostat (1000 mg/m once daily) + standard CHOP for 6 cycles with varying schedules using a 3 + 3 design in Part A. Part B enrolled patients at MTD dose.

Results: Twenty-three patients were treated. One patient experienced DLT (Grade 3 non-hematologic toxicity) on Day 1-3 schedule, resulting in escalation to Day 1-5 schedule (n = 3). No DLTs were observed and Day 1-5 schedule with 1000 mg/m was declared as MTD. Twelve additional patients were enrolled in Part B using MTD. Median relative dose intensity was 98%. All patients experienced adverse events (AEs), including nausea (78%), fatigue (61%), and vomiting (57%). Serious AEs occurred in 43%, with febrile neutropenia (17%) and pyrexia (13%). Overall ORR was 86% with 71% reported CR at MTD. Belinostat PK parameters were similar to single-agent.

Conclusions: Bel-CHOP was well tolerated and MTD in CHOP combination was the same dose and schedule as single agent dosing.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01839097.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40164-021-00203-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7893947PMC
February 2021

A phase I trial evaluating the effects of plerixafor, G-CSF, and azacitidine for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes.

Leuk Lymphoma 2021 06 19;62(6):1441-1449. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Division of Oncology, Department of Medicine, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, MO, USA.

Interactions between the bone marrow microenvironment and MDS tumor clones play a role in pathogenesis and response to treatment. We hypothesized G-CSF and plerixafor may enhance sensitivity to azacitidine in MDS. Twenty-eight patients with MDS were treated with plerixafor, G-CSF and azacitidine with a standard 3 + 3 design. Subjects received G-CSF 10 mcg/kg D1-D8, plerixafor D4-D8, and azacitidine 75 mg/m D4-D8, but the trial was amended to reduce G-CSF dose to 5 mcg/kg for 5 days after 2 patients had significant leukocytosis. Plerixafor was dose escalated to 560 mcg/kg/day without dose limiting toxicity. Two complete responses and 6 marrow responses were seen for an overall response rate (ORR) of 36% in evaluable patients, and ORR of 53% in patients receiving the triplet. Evidence of mobilization correlated with a higher ORR, 60% vs. 17%. Plerixafor, G-CSF and azacitidine appears tolerable when given over 5 days and has encouraging response rates.KEY POINTSPlerixafor and G-CSF can be safely combined with azacitidine for 5 days in patients with MDS.The overall response rate of 53% for evaluable patients with this regimen is higher than expected and more responses were seen in patients with blast mobilization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2021.1872068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8178174PMC
June 2021

A Pilot Study of Lenalidomide Maintenance Therapy after Autologous Transplantation in Relapsed or Refractory Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 12 20;26(12):2223-2228. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Division of Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri. Electronic address:

For patients with relapsed or refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL), salvage chemotherapy followed by consolidation with autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) remains the standard of care. Even with this aggressive treatment strategy, 5-year progression-free survival is ≤50%, and there remains interest in maintenance strategies to improve long-term disease-free survival. Lenalidomide is an immunomodulatory agent with demonstrated activity in multiple subtypes of lymphoma including cHL, and has also been shown to improve both progression-free and overall survival as maintenance therapy after ASCT in multiple myeloma. This multicenter study evaluated maintenance lenalidomide after ASCT for patients with cHL. Patients were enrolled 60 to 90 days post-transplant and received oral lenalidomide on days 1 to 28 of 28-day cycles for a maximum of 18 cycles. Lenalidomide was started at 15 mg daily and increased to maximum of 25 mg daily if tolerated. The primary objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of this regimen, with a goal <30% rate of discontinuation at or before cycle 12 for drug-related reasons. Twenty-seven patients were enrolled and 26 received at least 1 dose of lenalidomide. With a median follow-up of 51.3 months (range, 12.2 to 76.2 months), 23 of 26 patients were alive. Median event-free survival was 9.4 months and median progression-free survival had not been reached, with 17 of 26 patients (65.4%) remaining in remission at last follow-up. Excluding 4 patients who discontinued therapy for progression and 2 who discontinued due to noncompliance, the discontinuation rate at or before cycle 12 was 52%. Treatment was complicated by a high frequency of hematologic adverse events, with 15 patients (58%) experiencing grade 3 to 4 hematologic toxicity and 5 (19%) experiencing grade 4 hematologic toxicity. We conclude that the regimen of maintenance lenalidomide explored in this study is not feasible for patients with cHL immediately following ASCT. An alternative lenalidomide dose or schedule may be better tolerated following ASCT for patients with relapsed or refractory cHL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.08.017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8212249PMC
December 2020

Multidimensional Analyses of Donor Memory-Like NK Cells Reveal New Associations with Response after Adoptive Immunotherapy for Leukemia.

Cancer Discov 2020 12 21;10(12):1854-1871. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

Department of Medicine, Division of Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri.

Natural killer (NK) cells are an emerging cancer cellular therapy and potent mediators of antitumor immunity. Cytokine-induced memory-like (ML) NK cellular therapy is safe and induces remissions in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, the dynamic changes in phenotype that occur after NK-cell transfer that affect patient outcomes remain unclear. Here, we report comprehensive multidimensional correlates from ML NK cell-treated patients with AML using mass cytometry. These data identify a unique differentiated ML NK-cell phenotype distinct from conventional NK cells. Moreover, the inhibitory receptor NKG2A is a dominant, transcriptionally induced checkpoint important for ML, but not conventional NK-cell responses to cancer. The frequency of CD8α donor NK cells is negatively associated with AML patient outcomes after ML NK therapy. Thus, elucidating the multidimensional dynamics of donor ML NK cells revealed critical factors important for clinical response, and new avenues to enhance NK-cell therapeutics. SIGNIFICANCE: Mass cytometry reveals an memory-like NK-cell phenotype, where NKG2A is a dominant checkpoint, and CD8α is associated with treatment failure after ML NK-cell therapy. These findings identify multiple avenues for optimizing ML NK-cell immunotherapy for cancer and define mechanisms important for ML NK-cell function..
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2159-8290.CD-20-0312DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7710923PMC
December 2020

CAR-modified memory-like NK cells exhibit potent responses to NK-resistant lymphomas.

Blood 2020 11;136(20):2308-2318

Division of Oncology, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO.

Natural killer (NK) cells are a promising cellular immunotherapy for cancer. Cytokine-induced memory-like (ML) NK cells differentiate after activation with interleukin-12 (IL-12), IL-15, and IL-18, exhibit potent antitumor responses, and safely induce complete remissions in patients with leukemia. However, many cancers are not fully recognized via NK cell receptors. Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have been used to enhance tumor-specific recognition by effector lymphocytes. We hypothesized that ML differentiation and CAR engineering would result in complementary improvements in NK cell responses against NK-resistant cancers. To test this idea, peripheral blood ML NK cells were modified to express an anti-CD19 CAR (19-CAR-ML), which displayed significantly increased interferon γ production, degranulation, and specific killing against NK-resistant lymphoma lines and primary targets compared with nonspecific control CAR-ML NK cells or conventional CAR NK cells. The 19-CAR and ML responses were synergistic and CAR specific and required immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif signaling. Furthermore, 19-CAR-ML NK cells generated from lymphoma patients exhibited improved responses against their autologous lymphomas. 19-CAR-ML NK cells controlled lymphoma burden in vivo and improved survival in human xenograft models. Thus, CAR engineering of ML NK cells enhanced responses against resistant cancers and warrants further investigation, with the potential to broaden ML NK cell recognition against a variety of NK cell-resistant tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020006619DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7702478PMC
November 2020

Standard-of-Care Axicabtagene Ciloleucel for Relapsed or Refractory Large B-Cell Lymphoma: Results From the US Lymphoma CAR T Consortium.

J Clin Oncol 2020 09 13;38(27):3119-3128. Epub 2020 May 13.

Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL.

Purpose: Axicabtagene ciloleucel (axi-cel) is an autologous CD19-directed chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy approved for relapsed/refractory large B-cell lymphoma (LBCL) on the basis of the single-arm phase II ZUMA-1 trial, which showed best overall and complete response rates in infused patients of 83% and 58%, respectively. We report clinical outcomes with axi-cel in the standard-of-care (SOC) setting for the approved indication.

Patients And Methods: Data were collected retrospectively from all patients with relapsed/refractory LBCL who underwent leukapheresis as of September 30, 2018, at 17 US institutions with the intent to receive SOC axi-cel. Toxicities were graded and managed according to each institution's guidelines. Responses were assessed as per Lugano 2014 classification.

Results: Of 298 patients who underwent leukapheresis, 275 (92%) received axi-cel therapy. Compared with the registrational ZUMA-1 trial, 129 patients (43%) in this SOC study would not have met ZUMA-1 eligibility criteria because of comorbidities at the time of leukapheresis. Among the axi-cel-treated patients, grade ≥ 3 cytokine release syndrome and neurotoxicity occurred in 7% and 31%, respectively. Nonrelapse mortality was 4.4%. Best overall and complete response rates in infused patients were 82% (95% CI, 77% to 86%) and 64% (95% CI, 58% to 69%), respectively. At a median follow-up of 12.9 months from the time of CAR T-cell infusion, median progression-free survival was 8.3 months (95% CI, 6.0 to15.1 months), and median overall survival was not reached. Patients with poor Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2-4 and elevated lactate dehydrogenase had shorter progression-free and overall survival on univariable and multivariable analysis.

Conclusion: The safety and efficacy of axi-cel in the SOC setting in patients with relapsed/refractory LBCL was comparable to the registrational ZUMA-1 trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.19.02104DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7499611PMC
September 2020

Rituximab/bendamustine and rituximab/cytarabine induction therapy for transplant-eligible mantle cell lymphoma.

Blood Adv 2020 03;4(5):858-867

Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA.

The addition of high-dose cytarabine to rituximab/bendamustine (RB) induction could improve outcomes for transplant-eligible patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). We conducted a pooled analysis of 2 phase 2 trials and an off-trial cohort each testing 3 cycles of RB and 3 cycles of rituximab/high-dose cytarabine (RC) followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) among untreated, transplant-eligible patients with MCL. Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI) and Washington University in St. Louis (WUSTL) led separate phase 2 trials testing sequential and alternating cycles of RB/RC, respectively. Patients treated at DFCI with sequential RB/RC off trial were retrospectively identified. Minimal residual disease (MRD) was assessed in the DFCI trial. A total of 88 patients (23 DFCI trial, 18 WUSTL trial, and 47 off trial) received RB/RC; 92% of patients completed induction, and 84% underwent planned consolidative ASCT. Grade 3 or 4 adverse events among trial patients included lymphopenia (88%), thrombocytopenia (85%), neutropenia (83%), and febrile neutropenia (15%). There were no treatment-related deaths during induction and 2 following ASCT. Among 87 response-evaluable patients, the end-of-induction overall and complete response rates were 97% and 90%, respectively. After a median follow-up of 33 months, 3-year progression-free survival and overall survival were 83% and 92%, respectively. Patients undergoing MRD testing experienced prolonged MRD negativity after ASCT with emergence of MRD occurring in only 1 patient who subsequently relapsed. RB/RC followed by ASCT achieves high rates of durable remissions in transplant-eligible patients with MCL. These trials were registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01661881 (DFCI trial) and #NCT02728531 (WUSTL trial).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019001355DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7065472PMC
March 2020

Trends in postrelapse survival in classic Hodgkin lymphoma patients after experiencing therapy failure following auto-HCT.

Blood Adv 2020 01;4(1):47-54

Division of Hematology and Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI.

Patients with classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) who relapse after autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (auto-HCT) historically have had poor outcomes. We hypothesized that, post-auto-HCT relapse, overall survival (PR-OS) has improved in recent years as a result of more widespread use of novel therapies and allogeneic HCT (allo-HCT). We conducted a retrospective study in 4 US academic centers, evaluating 215 patients who underwent auto-HCT from 2005 to 2016 and relapsed thereafter. Patients were divided into 2 cohorts based on timing of auto-HCT, 2005 through 2010 (cohort 1; n = 118) and 2011 to 2016 (cohort 2; n = 97), to compare differences in clinical outcomes. The median age and disease status at auto-HCT were similar in cohorts 1 and 2. The proportions of patients who received brentuximab vedotin (Bv; 55% vs 69%; P = .07), checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs; 3% vs 36%; P ≤ .001), and allogeneic-HCT (22% vs 35%, P = .03) were significantly different between cohorts 1 and 2, respectively. At the 5-year follow-up after auto relapse, 32% and 50% of patients were alive in cohorts 1 and 2, respectively (P = .01). In multivariate analysis for PR-OS, cohort 1 vs 2 (hazard ratio [HR], 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14-4.60; P = .01), age at auto-HCT (HR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.18-1.87; P ≤ .001), and time to relapse from auto-HCT (HR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.47-74; P ≤ .0001), retained independent prognostic significance for PR-OS. Our study supports the hypothesis that survival of cHL patients after auto-HCT failure has significantly improved in recent years, most likely because of incorporation of novel therapies and more widespread use of allo-HCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019000736DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6960457PMC
January 2020

Implication of Rituximab Infusion Reactions on Clinical Outcomes in Patients With Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma: A Single Institution Experience.

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2019 12 30;19(12):806-811. Epub 2019 Sep 30.

Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO. Electronic address:

Background: The addition of the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab to chemotherapy for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has led to improvements in progression-free survival and overall survival, although the exact mechanism of rituximab is not known. Rituximab administration often results in transient, non-life-threatening infusion reactions (IRs). We report a retrospective cohort of patients with DLBCL who received rituximab to determine the significance of IRs on clinical outcomes.

Patients And Methods: We identified and analyzed a retrospective cohort of 229 patients with DLBCL. They were stratified into 2 cohorts; those who did and did not have an IR. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the prognostic significance of rituximab-related IRs relative to DLBCL subtype, International Prognostic Index score, c-Myc translocations or amplifications, chemotherapy regimen, and Ki-67 proliferative index.

Results: Baseline characteristics did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. Rituximab was included as initial treatment in all patients. Patients with an IR had a significantly higher overall survival (hazard ratio, 0.26; 95% confidence interval, 0.07-0.95) at 5 years. In addition, subgroup analysis showed a significantly higher progression-free survival in patients with the germinal center subtype of disease and c-Myc alterations who had a rituximab-related IR (log-rank P < .0001).

Conclusions: The presence of a rituximab-related IR is associated with a better overall survival in patients with DLBCL. Although limited by the small sample size and retrospective nature, these results provide rationale for further investigation into the mechanism of action of rituximab in order to optimize the efficacy of CD20 monoclonal antibodies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clml.2019.09.604DOI Listing
December 2019

Ibrutinib-Rituximab or Chemoimmunotherapy for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

N Engl J Med 2019 08;381(5):432-443

From Stanford University, Stanford (T.D.S., S.E.C.), the University of California, Irvine, Medical Center, Orange (S.O.), and Kaiser Permanente National Cancer Institute Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP)-Permanente Medical Group, Oakland (C.C.Z.) - all in California; Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston (X.V.W., R.M.S.); Mayo Clinic, Rochester (N.E.K., C.A.H., J.F.L., M.L.), and Minnesota Oncology, Burnsville (A.K.S.) - both in Minnesota; Northwell Health Cancer Institute, Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra-Northwell, Lake Success (J.B.), and University of Rochester, Rochester (P.M.B.) - both in New York; Mayo Clinic, Phoenix, AZ (D.F.J., E.B.); Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis (A.F.C.); Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York (A.R.M., M.T.); Aurora Cancer Care, West Allis, WI (M.P.M.); National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (R.F.L.); and the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa (H.E.).

Background: Data regarding the efficacy of treatment with ibrutinib-rituximab, as compared with standard chemoimmunotherapy with fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab, in patients with previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have been limited.

Methods: In a phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned (in a 2:1 ratio) patients 70 years of age or younger with previously untreated CLL to receive either ibrutinib and rituximab for six cycles (after a single cycle of ibrutinib alone), followed by ibrutinib until disease progression, or six cycles of chemoimmunotherapy with fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab. The primary end point was progression-free survival, and overall survival was a secondary end point. We report the results of a planned interim analysis.

Results: A total of 529 patients underwent randomization (354 patients to the ibrutinib-rituximab group, and 175 to the chemoimmunotherapy group). At a median follow-up of 33.6 months, the results of the analysis of progression-free survival favored ibrutinib-rituximab over chemoimmunotherapy (89.4% vs. 72.9% at 3 years; hazard ratio for progression or death, 0.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.22 to 0.56; P<0.001), and the results met the protocol-defined efficacy threshold for the interim analysis. The results of the analysis of overall survival also favored ibrutinib-rituximab over chemoimmunotherapy (98.8% vs. 91.5% at 3 years; hazard ratio for death, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.54; P<0.001). In a subgroup analysis involving patients without immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region () mutation, ibrutinib-rituximab resulted in better progression-free survival than chemoimmunotherapy (90.7% vs. 62.5% at 3 years; hazard ratio for progression or death, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.14 to 0.50). The 3-year progression-free survival among patients with mutation was 87.7% in the ibrutinib-rituximab group and 88.0% in the chemoimmunotherapy group (hazard ratio for progression or death, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.14 to 1.36). The incidence of adverse events of grade 3 or higher (regardless of attribution) was similar in the two groups (in 282 of 352 patients [80.1%] who received ibrutinib-rituximab and in 126 of 158 [79.7%] who received chemoimmunotherapy), whereas infectious complications of grade 3 or higher were less common with ibrutinib-rituximab than with chemoimmunotherapy (in 37 patients [10.5%] vs. 32 [20.3%], P<0.001).

Conclusions: The ibrutinib-rituximab regimen resulted in progression-free survival and overall survival that were superior to those with a standard chemoimmunotherapy regimen among patients 70 years of age or younger with previously untreated CLL. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute and Pharmacyclics; E1912 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02048813.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1817073DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6908306PMC
August 2019

Fifty Shades of GATA2 Mutation: A Case of Plasmablastic Lymphoma, Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infection, and Myelodysplastic Syndrome.

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2019 09 29;19(9):e532-e535. Epub 2019 May 29.

Division of Oncology, Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clml.2019.05.015DOI Listing
September 2019

A Phase II Multicenter Study of the Addition of Azacitidine to Reduced-Intensity Conditioning Allogeneic Transplant for High-Risk Myelodysplasia (and Older Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia): Results of CALGB 100801 (Alliance).

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 10 15;25(10):1984-1992. Epub 2019 Jun 15.

Division of Hematology, The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, Ohio.

Relapse remains the major cause of death in older patients transplanted for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete remission or for patients with advanced myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) at any age. Conventional myeloablative conditioning followed by allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation is associated with significantly less relapse compared with reduced-intensity conditioning when performed in younger patients with AML or MDS, but the toxicity of this approach in older patients is prohibitive. We hypothesized that pharmacokinetic targeting to optimize busulfan (BU) exposure, combined with the administration of azacitidine (AZA) post-transplant would mitigate the risk of relapse while reducing nonrelapse mortality and ultimately improve progression-free survival (PFS). On this phase II multicenter study, 63 patients (40 unrelated donors and 23 matched related donors) received a uniform conditioning regimen consisting of fludarabine i.v. (days -7 to -3), BU targeted to a daily area under the curve (AUC) of 4000 μM/min (days -6 to -3) after the administration of a 25-mg/m i.v. test dose on 1 day between days -14 to -9, and antithymocyte globulin (days -6, -5, and -4 (2 doses for matched related donors and 3 for matched unrelated donors only). Beginning on days +42 to +90, all patients were planned to receive up to 6 monthly cycles of AZA at 32 mg/m subcutaneously for 5 days. The median age was 62 years (range, 44 to 74); 13 had AML and 50 had MDS; 87% of patients were within 20% of the target AUC based on a validation sample. Forty-one patients (65%) started AZA at a median of 61 days (range, 43 to 91) post-transplant, and 17 patients (41%) completed all 6 cycles of AZA. The cumulative incidence of nonrelapse mortality at 2 years was 33.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 22%-45%). The cumulative incidence of relapse was 25% (95% CI, 15%-37%) at 2 years. With a median follow-up of 58.9 months, the estimated PFS probability at 2 years and 5 years after transplantation was 41.2% (80% CI, 33.9%-49.9%) and 26.9% (80% CI, 20.4%-35.5%), respectively, for the entire group with a median PFS of 15.8 months (95% CI, 6.7 to 28.3). The probability of overall survival at 2 and 5 years was 45.7% (95% CI, 34.9%-59.9%) and 31.2% (95% CI, 21.3% to 45.8%), respectively, for the entire group with a median overall survival of 19.2 months (95% CI, 8.7 to 37.5). In summary, we demonstrated the feasibility of a novel reduced-intensity conditioning regimen with test dose BU targeted to an AUC of 4000 μM/min. The feasibility of AZA in this setting appears to be limited if applied to an unselected population of older hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01168219.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.06.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6790289PMC
October 2019

Postrelapse survival in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma after therapy failure following autologous transplantation.

Blood Adv 2019 06;3(11):1661-1669

Division of Hematology and Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI.

Outcomes for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients relapsing after autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (auto-HCT) have been historically poor. We studied outcomes of such patients using data from 4 transplantation centers. Eligibility criteria included adult patients (age ≥18 years) with DLBCL experiencing disease relapse after auto-HCT performed during 2006 to 2015. The time period was stratified into 2 eras (era 1, 2006-2010; era 2, 2011-2015). The primary end point was postrelapse overall survival (PR-OS). Secondary end points were factors prognostic of PR-OS. Of the 700 patients with DLBCL who underwent auto-HCT, 248 (35%) relapsed after auto-HCT. Median PR-OS of all relapsed DLBCL patients after auto-HCT (n = 228) was 9.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 7-15). Median PR-OS was significantly better for patients in complete (17.8 months; 95% CI, 7.9-41.6) vs partial remission at auto-HCT (7.1 months; 95% CI, 5.4-11; = .01), those undergoing auto-HCT >1 year (12.8 months; 95% CI, 7.6-24.9) vs ≤1 year after DLBCL diagnosis (6.3 months; 95% CI, 4.5-9.2; = .01), and those with late (56.4 months; 95% CI, 23.7-∞) vs early relapse (5.9 months; 95% CI, 4.5-8.8; < .0001). On multivariate analysis, although late relapse (hazard ratio [HR], 0.21; 95% CI, 0.13-0.34; < .0001) was associated with significantly lower mortality, the risk of mortality increased with age (HR, 1.25 per decade; 95% CI, 1.06-1.48; = .009). This is the largest study to date to evaluate outcomes of DLBCL patients relapsing after auto-HCT. Our study provides benchmarking for future trials of chimeric antigen receptor T cells and other promising agents evaluating PR-OS after auto-HCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019000102DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6560348PMC
June 2019

Multicenter Analysis of Advanced Stage Grade 3A Follicular Lymphoma Outcomes by Frontline Treatment Regimen.

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2019 02 12;19(2):95-102. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Division of Hematology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

Background: Follicular lymphoma (FL) is a common form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma with a wide spectrum of presentation. While grade 1/2 FL is considered low grade and grade 3B FL is approached as an aggressive lymphoma, the management of grade 3A FL remains controversial.

Patients And Methods: We performed a retrospective, multicenter analysis of patients aged ≥ 18 years with advanced stage 3/4 grade 3A FL diagnosed between January 2006 and July 2016. Patients were stratified by frontline chemotherapy regimen: anthracycline based (ATC), bendamustine (BD), and cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone (CVP). A total of 103 patients were identified from 6 contributing centers: 65 patients received ATC chemotherapy, 30 BD, and 8 CVP. The primary outcome was time to progression (TTP). Secondary outcomes included progression-free survival, overall survival, complete response rates, large cell transformation, and impact of standardized maximum uptake value on positron emission tomography/computed tomography with outcomes. Patient characteristics were similar among the 3 treatment groups.

Results: For TTP at 24 months from initiation of treatment, 72% of ATC, 79% of BD, and 50% of CVP patients had not experienced disease progression (P = .01). Multivariate analysis demonstrated a TTP benefit for ATC compared to CVP (hazard ratio 3.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-8.25; P = .01) but no difference when compared to BD. Similar findings were seen with progression-free survival. While overall survival was similar among the 3 arms, there was a higher risk of large cell transformation following BD and CVP. Last, standardized maximum uptake value on positron emission tomography/computed tomography did not affect TTP when comparing BD- and ATC-treated patients.

Conclusion: Although ATC was superior to CVP, clinical outcomes (TTP, progression-free survival, and overall survival) were similar compared to BD chemotherapy for patients with grade 3A FL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clml.2018.11.010DOI Listing
February 2019

10-day decitabine schedule in acute myeloid leukaemia: no extra bang for the buck.

Authors:
Amanda F Cashen

Lancet Haematol 2019 01 10;6(1):e6-e7. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Section of Bone Marrow Trasnplant and Leukemia, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(18)30213-8DOI Listing
January 2019
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