Publications by authors named "Amal Chandra Das"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Phosphate-solubility and phosphatase activity in Gangetic alluvial soil as influenced by organophosphate insecticide residues.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2016 Apr 22;126:56-61. Epub 2015 Dec 22.

Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur 741252, India. Electronic address:

An experiment was conducted under laboratory conditions to investigate the effect of four organophosphate insecticides, viz. monocrotophos, profenophos, quinalphos and triazophos at their field application rates (0.75, 1.0, 0.5 and 0.6 kg a.i.ha(-1), respectively), on the growth and activities of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms in relation to availability of insoluble phosphates in the Gangetic alluvial soil of West Bengal, India. The proliferation of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms was highly induced with profenophos (38.3%), while monocrotophos exerted maximum stimulation (20.8%) towards the solubility of insoluble phosphates in soil. The phosphatase activities of the soil (both acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase) were significantly increased due to the incorporation of the insecticides in general, and the augmentation was more pronounced with quinalphos (43.1%) followed by profenophos (27.6%) for acid phosphatase, and with monocrotophos (25.2%) followed by profenophos (16.1%) for alkaline phosphatase activity in soil. The total phosphorus was highly retained by triazophos (19.9%) followed by monocrotophos (16.5%), while incorporation of triazophos and quinalphos manifested greater availability of water soluble phosphorus in soil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2015.12.018DOI Listing
April 2016

Residual effect of pre-emergence herbicides on microbial activities in relation to mineralization of C, N and P in the Gangetic alluvial soil of West Bengal, India.

Environ Monit Assess 2015 Jul 26;187(7):465. Epub 2015 Jun 26.

Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, 741252, West Bengal, India.

An experiment has been conducted under laboratory conditions to investigate the residual effect of three pre-emergence herbicides (thiobencarb, pendimethalin and pretilachlor) at fivefold field application rates (7.5, 10.0 and 2.5 kg a.i. ha(-1), respectively), on the changes of microbial activities and some biochemical processes in the Gangetic alluvial soil of West Bengal. Application of herbicides in general significantly increased microbial biomass resulting in greater mineralization of C, N and P in soil. The highest stimulation of microbial biomass C was recorded with thiobencarb (24.4%) followed by pendimethalin (23.4%). Microbial biomass N was highly induced under pretilachlor (54.5%) and thiobencarb (52.7%), while the stimulation of microbial biomass P was at par in the herbicide-treated soils. Compared to untreated control, the highest amount of organic C was retained with thiobencarb followed by pendimethalin. A similar trend was recorded with thiobencarb for total N, while pendimethalin induced exchangeable NH4 (+) and soluble NO3 (-) to the highest extent (42.2 and 34.5%, respectively). Regarding the availability of P in soil, pretilachlor manifested greater stimulation (33.1%) than thiobencarb (21.6%) and pendimethalin (11.4%). As compared to untreated control, thiobencarb harboured maximum number of bacteria (107.9%), while pretilachlor exerted the highest stimulations towards the proliferations of actinomycetes (132.6%) and fungi (149.5%) in soil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-015-4698-9DOI Listing
July 2015

Effect of Pre-emergence Herbicides on Microbial Biomass and Biochemical Processes in a Typic Fluvaquent Soil Amended with Farm Yard Manure.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2015 Sep 6;95(3):395-400. Epub 2015 Jun 6.

Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, 741252, West Bengal, India,

Application of thiobencarb, pendimethalin and pretilachlor at rates of 7.5, 10.0 and 2.5 kg a.i. ha(-1), respectively, under laboratory conditions, significantly increased microbial biomass C, N and P, resulting in greater availability of C, N and P in soil amended with farm yard manure. Application of thiobencarb highly induced microbial biomass C (46.3 %) and N (40.6 %), while pretilachlor and thiobencarb augmented microbial biomass P to the extent of 14.9 % and 14.1 %, respectively. Application of pendimethalin retained the highest amount of total N (19.9 %), soluble NO3 (-) (56 %) and available P (69.5 %) in soil. A similar trend was recorded with thiobencarb for oxidizable organic C (18.1 %) and with pretilachlor for exchangeable NH4 (+) (65.8 %). At the end of the experiment, the highest stimulation of bacteria was recorded with thiobencarb (29.6 %), while pretilachlor harboured the maximum number of actinomycetes (37.2 %) and fungi (40 %) in soil compared to the untreated control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-015-1571-zDOI Listing
September 2015

Non-symbiotic N2-fixation and phosphate-solubility in Gangetic alluvial soil as influenced by pre-emergence herbicide residues.

Chemosphere 2015 Sep 15;135:202-7. Epub 2015 May 15.

Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, West Bengal 741252, India.

An experiment has been conducted under laboratory conditions to investigate the effect of two pre-emergence herbicides viz., thiobencarb (at 1.5 and 4.5 kg a.i. ha(-1)) and pretilachlor (at 0.5 and 1.5 kg a.i. ha(-1)), on the changes of growth and activities of aerobic non-symbiotic N2-fixing bacteria and phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms in relation to availability of mineral nitrogen and soluble phosphorus in the Gangetic alluvial soil (Typic Haplustept) of West Bengal, India. Application of herbicides, in general, significantly increased growth and activities of microorganisms, resulting in greater release of available nitrogen and soluble phosphorus in soil; and the stimulation was more pronounced when the herbicides were applied at their lower concentrations (recommended field application rates), more so with thiobencarb, as compared to pretilachlor. As compared to untreated control, application of thiobencarb at lower concentration increased the proliferation of aerobic non-symbiotic N2-fixing bacteria, phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms and non-symbiotic N2-fixing capacity of soil to the extent of 54.0, 44.6 and 31.7%, respectively; and accumulated the highest amount of available nitrogen (37.8%) and phosphorus (54.5%) in soil, while pretilachlor at field application rate highly induced (37.2%) phosphate-solubilizing capacity of soil. At higher concentration, pretilachlor was superior to thiobencarb in augmenting the growth and activities of phosphate-solubilizers. The results of the present study also indicated that gradual increase in concentration of the herbicides over their recommended field application rates was not much conducive for growth and activities of microorganisms, and subsequent release of nutrients in soil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.04.039DOI Listing
September 2015

Effect of thiobencarb and pretilachlor on microorganisms in relation to mineralization of C and N in the Gangetic alluvial soil of West Bengal.

Environ Monit Assess 2014 Oct 5;186(10):6849-56. Epub 2014 Jul 5.

Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, 741252, West Bengal, India.

An experiment was conducted under laboratory conditions to investigate the effect of two pre-emergence herbicides, viz., thiobencarb (at 1.5 and 4.5 kg active ingredient (a.i.) ha(-1)) and pretilachlor (at 0.5 and 1.5 kg a.i. ha(-1)), on the growth and multiplication of some microorganisms (bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi) in relation to transformations and availability of C and N in the Gangetic alluvial soil (Typic Haplustept) of West Bengal, India. Application of both the herbicides, in general, significantly increased microbial biomass, resulting in greater retention, mineralization and availability of oxidizable organic C and N in soil, and the stimulations were more pronounced when the herbicides were applied at their lower concentrations (recommended field application rates), more so with thiobencarb, as compared to pretilachlor. Compared to untreated control soil, the application of thiobencarb at lower concentration increased the proliferation of total bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi by 57.3, 36.6 and 55.2%, respectively, and released the highest amount (40.2%) of soluble NO₃(-) in soil, while pretilachlor at field application rate induced the growth and multiplication of bacteria and fungi by 58.3 and 17.6%, respectively. Irrespective of the concentrations, the stimulations were at par for both the herbicides towards the retention of oxidizable organic C, total N and exchangeable NH₄(+) in soil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-014-3893-4DOI Listing
October 2014

A comparative study on the decomposition of edible and non-edible oil cakes in the Gangetic alluvial soil of West Bengal.

Environ Monit Assess 2014 Aug 16;186(8):5199-207. Epub 2014 Apr 16.

Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, 741252, West Bengal, India.

An experiment has been conducted under laboratory conditions to investigate the effect of decomposition of two edible oil cakes, viz. mustard cake (Brassica juncea L) and groundnut cake (Arachis hypogaea L), and two non-edible oil cakes, viz. mahua cake (Madhuca indica Gmel) and neem cake (Azadirachta indica Juss), at the rate of 5.0 t ha(-1) on the changes of microbial growth and activities in relation to transformations and availability of some plant nutrients in the Gangetic alluvial (Typic Haplustept) soil of West Bengal, India. Incorporation of oil cakes, in general, highly induced the proliferation of total bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi, resulting in greater retention and availability of oxidizable C, N, and P in soil. As compared to untreated control, the highest stimulation of total bacteria and actinomycetes was recorded with mustard cake (111.9 and 84.3 %, respectively) followed by groundnut cake (50.5 and 52.4 %, respectively), while the fungal colonies were highly accentuated due to the incorporation of neem cake (102.8 %) in soil. The retention of oxidizable organic C was highly increased due to decomposition of non-edible oil cakes, more so under mahua cake (14.5 %), whereas edible oil cakes and groundnut cake in particular exerted maximum stimulation (16.7 %) towards the retention of total N in soil. A similar trend was recorded towards the accumulation of available mineral N in soil and this was more pronounced with mustard cake (45.6 %) for exchangeable NH4 (+) and with groundnut cake (63.9 %) for soluble NO3 (-). The highest retention of total P (46.9 %) was manifested by the soil when it was incorporated with neem cake followed by the edible oil cakes; while the available P was highly induced due to the addition of edible oil cakes, the highest being under groundnut cake (23.5 %) followed by mustard cake (19.6 %).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-014-3769-7DOI Listing
August 2014

Effect of combined application of systemic herbicides on microbial activities in north bengal alluvial soil.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2014 Feb 17;92(2):183-9. Epub 2013 Nov 17.

Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, 741252, West Bengal, India,

An experiment was conducted under laboratory conditions to investigate the effect of combined application of three systemic herbicides, viz., fenoxaprop, pendimethalin and paraquat at 50 g, 1.0 kg and 1.0 kg a.i. ha(-1), respectively, on the changes of microbial biomass C, N and P in relation to transformations and availability of some plant nutrients in an alluvial soil (Typic Orchraqualf) of West Bengal, India. Application of the herbicides, in general, significantly increased microbial biomass C, N and P, resulting in greater availability of C, N and P in soil. The microbial biomass C was highly induced (28.4 %) when fenoxaprop was applied with pendimethalin, while fenoxaprop along with paraquat exerted maximum stimulation towards microbial biomass N (19.9 %) and biomass P (16.2 %). Application of fenoxaprop along with pendimethalin retained the highest amount of organic C (17.4 %), exchangeable NH4(+) (29 %) and available P (19.6 %), while fenoxaprop with paraquat augmented total N and soluble NO3(-) by 21.4 % and 25.2 %, respectively in soil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-013-1154-9DOI Listing
February 2014

Effect of systemic herbicides on microbial biomass in relation to availability of some plant nutrients in an alluvial soil of West Bengal.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2013 Jun 18;90(6):666-72. Epub 2013 Apr 18.

Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur 741252, West Bengal, India.

An experiment was conducted under laboratory conditions to investigate the effect of three herbicides, viz., fenoxaprop, pendimethalin and paraquat, at their recommended field application rates (50 g, 1.0 kg and 1.0 kg a.i. ha⁻¹, respectively), on the changes of microbial biomass C, N and P in relation to transformations and availability of plant nutrients in an alluvial soil (Typic Orchraqualf) from West Bengal, India. Application of herbicides, in general, significantly increased the microbial biomass C, N and P, resulting in greater availability of these plant nutrients in soil. The microbial biomass C was highly increased due to application of fenoxaprop (39.8%) followed by paraquat (28.2%). Application of pendimethalin led to the maximum stimulation of microbial biomass N (37.1%), while microbial biomass P was increased by 15.2% following the incorporation of paraquat into the soil. Compared to untreated control soil, the soil retained the highest amount of organic C (19.8%) when it was treated with pendimethalin. A similar trend was recorded with fenoxaprop for total N (19.6%) and exchangeable NH₄⁺ (21.3%) in soil. The stimulation of soluble NO₃⁻ was highest under fenoxaprop (22.3%) followed by paraquat (20.7%). Regarding the availability of P in soil, paraquat manifested greater stimulation (17.8%) than fenoxaprop (15.4%) or pendimethalin (13.1%). Application of paraquat also gave the highest amount of total P (17.8%) in the soil solution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-013-0994-7DOI Listing
June 2013

Soil application of dinitroaniline and arylphenoxy propionic herbicides influences the activities of phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms in soil.

Environ Monit Assess 2012 Dec 15;184(12):7453-9. Epub 2012 Feb 15.

Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, West Bengal 741 252, India.

An experiment was conducted under laboratory conditions to investigate the effect of two systemic herbicides, viz. pendimethalin (a dinitroaniline) and quizalofop (an arylphenoxy propionic acid) at their recommended field application rates (1.0 kg and 50 g active ingredient per hectare, respectively), either separately or in a combination, on growth and activities of phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms in relation to their effects on biochemical transformations and availability of organic carbon, total and available phosphorus in a Typic Haplustept soil of West Bengal, India. Application of herbicides, in general, significantly stimulated the growth and activities of phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms which increased microbial biomass resulting in higher accumulation of oxidizable organic carbon, total and available phosphorus in soil as compared to untreated control. The combined application of both the herbicides highly stimulated the proliferations of phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms, while pendimethalin alone significantly accentuated phosphate-solubilizing capacities 36.4% as compared to untreated control and retained highest amount of total phosphorus due to greater microbial activities in soil. The separate application of quizalofop also manifested an induced effect on the proliferations of phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms and accounted significant amounts of organic carbon and available phosphorus in the soil system. The results of the present study thus indicated that the cited herbicides at their field application rates can be safely used to eradicate weeds in the crop fields.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-011-2512-xDOI Listing
December 2012

Effect of systemic herbicides on N2-fixing and phosphate solubilizing microorganisms in relation to availability of nitrogen and phosphorus in paddy soils of West Bengal.

Chemosphere 2006 Nov 21;65(6):1082-6. Epub 2006 Apr 21.

Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur 741 252, West Bengal, India.

A field experiment has been conducted with four systemic herbicides viz., butachlor [N-(butoxymethyl)-2-chloro-2',6'-diethyl-acetanilide], fluchloralin [N-(2-chloroethyl)-(2,6-dinitro-N-propyl-4-trifluoromethyl) aniline], oxadiazon [5-terbutyl-3-(2,4-dichloro-5-isopro poxyphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-one] and oxyfluorfen [2-chloro-1-(3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenyl)-4-(trifluoromethyl) benzene] at their recommended field rates (2.0, 1.5, 0.4 and 0.12kga.i.ha(-1), respectively) to investigate their effects on growth and activities of aerobic non-symbiotic N(2)-fixing bacteria and phosphate solubilizing microorganisms in relation to availability of nitrogen and phosphorus in the rhizosphere soils as well as yield of the rice crop (Oryza sativa L cv. IR-36). Application of herbicides, in general, highly stimulated the population and activities of the target microorganisms, which resulted in a greater amount of atmospheric nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization in the rhizosphere soils of the test crop. The greater microbial activities subsequently augmented the mineralization and availability of nitrogen and phosphorus in the soil solution, which in turn increased the yield of the crop. Among the herbicides, oxyfluorfen was most stimulative followed by fluchloralin and oxadiazon in augmenting the microbial activities in soil. Butachlor also accentuated the mineralization and availability of nitrogen due to higher incitement of non-symbiotic N(2)-fixing bacteria in paddy soil. The grain and straw yields of the crop were also significantly increased due to the application of oxyfluorfen (20.2% and 21%) followed by fluchloralin (13.1% and 15.4%) and butachlor (9.1% and 10.2%), respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.02.063DOI Listing
November 2006

A comparative study on the dissipation and microbial metabolism of organophosphate and carbamate insecticides in orchaqualf and fluvaquent soils of West Bengal.

Chemosphere 2005 Feb;58(5):579-84

Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur 741252, West Bengal, India.

An experiment has been conducted under laboratory conditions to investigate the effect of phorate (an organophosphate insecticide) and carbofuran (a carbamate insecticide) at their recommended field rates (1.5 and 1.0 kga.i.ha-1, respectively) on the growth and multiplication of microorganisms as well as rate of dissipation and persistence of the insecticidal residues including their metabolites in laterite (typic orchaqualf) and alluvial (typic fluvaquent) soils of West Bengal. Application of phorate and carbofuran in general, induced growth and development of bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, N2-fixing bacteria and phosphate solubilizing microorganisms in both the soils and the stimulation was more pronounced with phorate as compared to carbofuran. Application of phorate recorded highest stimulation of fungi in laterite and actinomycetes in alluvial soil. Carbofuran on the other hand, augmented fungi and N2-fixing bacteria in laterite and actinomycetes in alluvial soil. Bacterial population was inhibited due to the application of carbofuran in alluvial soil. Phorate sulfoxide and phorate sulfone, the two metabolites of phorate and 3-hydroxycarbofuran and 3-ketocarbofuran, the two metabolites of carbofuran isolated were less persistent in both the soils. Phorate persisted in laterite and alluvial soils up to 45 and 60 days, respectively depicting the half-life (T1/2) 9.7 and 11.5 days, respectively while the T1/2 of carbofuran for the said soils were 16.9 and 8.8 days, respectively. No metabolite of carbofuran was detected in soils after 30 days of incubation while phorate sulfone persisted in alluvial soil even after 60 days of application of the insecticide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2004.07.007DOI Listing
February 2005

Influence and persistence of phorate and carbofuran insecticides on microorganisms in rice field.

Chemosphere 2003 Dec;53(8):1033-7

Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur 741252, India.

An experiment was conducted in microplots (4 m x 4 m) with two insecticides, phorate and carbofuran at rates of 1.5 and 1.0 kga.i.ha(-1) respectively, to investigate its effect on the population and distribution of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi as well as the persistence of the insecticidal residues in rhizosphere soils of rice (Oryza sativa L., variety IR-50). Application of the insecticides stimulated the population of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi in the rhizosphere soils, and the stimulation was more pronounced with phorate as compared to carbofuran. Both the insecticides did not have marked effect on the numbers of Streptomyces and Nocardia in the rhizosphere soils. However, the growth of Bacillus, Escherichia, Flavobacterium, Micromonospora, Penicillium, Aspergillus and Trichoderma with phorate and that of Bacillus, Corynebacterium, Flavobacterium, Aspergillus and Phytophthora with carbofuran were increased. On the other hand, the numbers of Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Fusarium, Humicola and Rhizopus under phorate and Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Klebsiella, Fusarium, Humicola and Rhizopus under carbofuran were inhibited. Both the insecticides persisted in the rhizosphere soil for a short period of time and the rate of dissipation of carbofuran was higher than that of phorate in the soil depicting the half-life (T1/2) 9.1 and 10.4 days, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(03)00713-6DOI Listing
December 2003

Effect of the herbicides oxadiazon and oxyfluorfen on phosphates solubilizing microorganisms and their persistence in rice fields.

Chemosphere 2003 Oct;53(3):217-21

Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur 741 252, India.

A field experiment has been conducted with two herbicides viz. oxadiazon [5-terbutyl-3-(2,4-dichloro-5-isopropoxyphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-one] and oxyfluorfen [2-chloro-1-(3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenyl)-4-(trifluoromethyl) benzene] at rates of 0.4 and 0.12 kg a.i. ha(-1), respectively, to investigate their effect on the growth and activities of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms in relation to availability of phosphorus as well as persistence of the herbicides in the rhizosphere soil of wetland rice (Oryza sativa L. variety IR-36). Application of herbicides stimulated the population and activities of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms and also the availability of phosphorus in the rhizosphere soil. Oxyfluorfen provided greater microbial stimulation than oxadiazon. Dissipation of oxyfluorfen and oxadiazon followed first order reaction kinetics with half-life (T(1/2)) of 8.8 and 12 days, respectively. Sixty days after application 0.5% and 3% of the applied oxadiazon and oxyfluorfen residues persisted, respectively, in the rhizosphere soil of rice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(03)00440-5DOI Listing
October 2003
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