Publications by authors named "Amal A Mohamed"

32 Publications

Pro-Neurotensin as a Potential Novel Diagnostic Biomarker for Detection of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2022 22;15:1935-1943. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.

Background And Aims: Currently, liver biopsy is the gold standard method for diagnosis of non-alcoholic fatty liver severity. It is critical to develop non-invasive diagnostic method to diagnose nonalcoholic fatty liver rather than invasive techniques. Our case-control study was to address the value of circulating miRNA-122 and serum pro-neurotensin as a potential non-invasive biomarker for the diagnosis of non-alcoholic fatty acid diseases.

Methods: Clinical assessment, laboratory investigations, and anthropometric measurements were reported for 157 patients with proven NAFLD. Apparently, healthy participants (n=100) were enrolled as a control group. Serum samples were tested for micro-RNAs-122 and pro-neurotensin.

Results: Compared with the control subjects, both mi-RNA-122 and serum proneurotensin levels were increased in NAFLD (p<0.001) and at a cut-off ≥6.83, mi-RNA-122 had 51.0% sensitivity, 70.0% specificity to differentiate NAFLD from healthy controls, while serum proneurotensin had 80.0% sensitivity and 80.0% specificity at a cutoff ≥108.

Conclusion: The circulating pro-neurotensin might be used as a novel biomarker for diagnosis of patients with NAFLD, wherefore the integration of a circulating mi-RNA-122 and serum pro-neurotensin could be beneficial to diagnose NAFLD cases. Large-scale studies are needed to investigate the possible role of mi-RNA-122 and pro-neurotensin in the development, progression, and prognosis of NAFLD and NASH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S365147DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9234179PMC
June 2022

Phytochemical and Potential Properties of Seaweeds and Their Recent Applications: A Review.

Mar Drugs 2022 May 24;20(6). Epub 2022 May 24.

Animal and Fish Production Department, College of Agricultural and Food Sciences, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa 31982, Saudi Arabia.

Since ancient times, seaweeds have been employed as source of highly bioactive secondary metabolites that could act as key medicinal components. Furthermore, research into the biological activity of certain seaweed compounds has progressed significantly, with an emphasis on their composition and application for human and animal nutrition. Seaweeds have many uses: they are consumed as fodder, and have been used in medicines, cosmetics, energy, fertilizers, and industrial agar and alginate biosynthesis. The beneficial effects of seaweed are mostly due to the presence of minerals, vitamins, phenols, polysaccharides, and sterols, as well as several other bioactive compounds. These compounds seem to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antimicrobial, and anti-diabetic activities. Recent advances and limitations for seaweed bioactive as a nutraceutical in terms of bioavailability are explored in order to better comprehend their therapeutic development. To further understand the mechanism of action of seaweed chemicals, more research is needed as is an investigation into their potential usage in pharmaceutical companies and other applications, with the ultimate objective of developing sustainable and healthier products. The objective of this review is to collect information about the role of seaweeds on nutritional, pharmacological, industrial, and biochemical applications, as well as their impact on human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md20060342DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9227187PMC
May 2022

Spastic Paraplegia 20 and Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase 31 Expression for the Detection of Colorectal Cancer.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2022 Apr;56(2):138-149

Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt.

Background/aims: Genetic alterations, including changes in the expression of spastic paraplegia 20 (SPG20) and serine/threonine protein kinase 31 (STK31), may play an important role in the carcinogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Identification of such changes is suitable for the recognition of tumors at an early stage, which would significantly improve patient survival. While recent studies have identified that SPG20 and STK31 expression levels increase in CRC tissues, their use as a biomarker is yet to be investigated. Our aim was to determine whether circulating SPG20 and STK31 mRNAlevels could help distinguish between patients with CRC and healthy individuals. Additionally, we aimed to analyze the correlation between SPG20 and STK31 expression patterns and the tumor stage in patients with CRC.

Methods: Venous blood samples from 50 patients with CRC and 50 healthy controls were used. RNA extraction was performed, and the mRNA expression of SPG20 and STK31 was determined using RT-qPCR.

Results: STK31 and SPG20 mRNA levels were significantly upregulated in patients compared to those in controls. There was a strong positive correlation between the expression of the two potential tumor biomarkers, STK31 and SPG20 (R=0.636, p=0.000). However, there was no significant relationship between the expression of STK31 or SPG20 and patient data, including demographic, clinical, pathological, and laboratory data. Additionally, there was a significant correlation between the expression level of STK31, but not SPG20, and patient disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS).

Conclusion: Circulating mRNA levels of SPG20 and STK31 could be used as ideal noninvasive biomarkers for early diagnosis of CRC. They could assist the oncologist in recommending appropriate management strategies for individual patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.33594/000000509DOI Listing
April 2022

Isotretinoin Induced Hyperlipidemia and Impact of Leptin Gene 7799039 Polymorphism in Safety of Acne Patients.

Pharmgenomics Pers Med 2021 24;14:1679-1687. Epub 2021 Dec 24.

Department of Dermatology, Andrology, Sexual Medicine and STDs, Faculty of Medicine, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt.

Background: Acne vulgaris (AV) is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the pilosebaceous unit. Leptin (LEP) gene polymorphisms is associated with higher risk of multiple disorders. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) exerts comedogenic effect by stimulating the sebaceous glands. Isotretinoin is an effective oral therapy for AV with many side effects including hyperlipidemia and increased serum levels of liver enzymes.

Purpose: To evaluate the impact of LEP gene rs7799039 polymorphism in acne patients' clinical response lipid profile and liver enzymes following 6 months oral isotretinoin therapy in Egyptian AV patients.

Methods: One hundred eligible AV patients received 0.5 mg/kg oral isotretinoin for 6 months. Patients' demographics and clinical data were obtained. Body mass index (BMI), lipid profile, liver enzymes and IGF-1 were measured at baseline and after 6 months of therapy. Genotyping was done for LEP gene 7799039.

Results: Six month administration of oral isotretinoin in Egyptian AV patients is associated with significantly elevated aspartate transaminase (AST) in CC and AC genotypes (P<0.001). Significant alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation was observed in CC, AC and AA genotypes (P <0.001, 0.004, 0.002, respectively). Total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) were elevated significantly P<0.001) in the three genotypes. IGF-1 was decreased significantly in CC and AC genotypes (P<0.001). CC genotype is associated with highest response (P<0.001).

Conclusion: LEP rs7799039 gene had an impact on the clinical response, lipid profile and liver enzymes in AV patients treated with oral isotretinoin. LEP rs7799039 CC genotype is predicted to be the treatment candidate for 6 month oral isotretinoin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PGPM.S341723DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8714009PMC
December 2021

NAFLD mark: an accurate model based on microRNA-34 for diagnosis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients.

J Genet Eng Biotechnol 2021 Oct 18;19(1):157. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Ain Helwan, Cairo, 11795, Egypt.

Background: It remains essential for non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) patients, to develop a sensitive and specific diagnostic model. Data regarding the use of micro (mi)RNA-34 for NAFLD diagnosis are few. Routine clinical assessment, laboratory tests were done for Egyptian individuals (n = 314) were included (100 healthy individuals and 214 NAFLD patients). Quantification of miRNA-34 was done using real-time PCR. Extremely significant variables were entered into stepwise logistic regression. The diagnostic power of variables was estimated by the area under the ROC (AUC).

Results: MiRNA-34 levels were higher in NAFLD patients than healthy individuals with a significant difference (P< 0.0001). The multivariate analysis was used to evaluate the NAFLD-associated variables (CRP, cholesterol, body mass index (BMI), ALT had p< 0.0001 while mRNA-34 had (p=0.0004). The AUCs (CI) of candidate NAFLD markers were in the order of miRNA-34 0.72 (0.66-0.77) < ALT 0.73 (0.67-0.79) < BMI 0.81 (0.76-0.86) < cholesterol < 0.85 (0.79-0.90) < CRP 0.88 (0.84-0.92). We developed a novel index for discriminating patients with NAFLD named NAFLD Mark. AUC was jumped to 0.98 (0.93-0.99) when five markers were combined. The AUC of NAFLD mark for NAFLD detection was higher than the AUCs of seven common NAFLD indexes (0.44-0.86).

Conclusions: The NAFLD mark is a non-invasive and highly sensitive and specific model for NAFLD diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s43141-021-00257-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8523615PMC
October 2021

COVID-19 in Pediatrics: A Diagnostic Challenge.

Curr Pediatr Rev 2021 ;17(3):225-228

Departments of pediatric, Benha Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Benha, Egypt.

Most pediatric patients with COVID-19 described in the literature have unusual or mild respiratory symptoms. Fever is usually a prominent feature. Cough is described frequently. Less common are sore throat, headache, productive cough, nausea, and diarrhea. Some studies estimate that children made up about 2% of the affected population. Nearly 1.2% of infected children need hospital treatment and some children require mechanical ventilation. The immune system in children is in its development stage, therefore the immune response to pathogens is different from adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1573396317666210329153515DOI Listing
December 2021

Association of Polymorphism in Survivin Gene and the Risk of Liver Cancer Resulting from Hepatitis C Virus Among Egyptian Patients.

Curr Cancer Drug Targets 2021 ;21(6):536-543

Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Pharmaceutical Industries, Future University in Egypt, Cairo, Egypt.

Background: This study aims to investigate the relation between Survivin gene polymorphisms and the risk of Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) resulting from hepatitis C infection among the Egyptian population.

Methods: This prospective study was conducted on 164 patients, 57 patients were diagnosed with hepatitis C, where 57 were diagnosed with HCC in addition to 50 healthy volunteers as controls. Genotyping for Survivin rs1042489 and rs8073069 single nucleotide polymorphisms was carried out by the allelic discrimination Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms genotyping technology.

Results: The results of Survivin rs1042489 polymorphism revealed that the TC and CC genotypes were significantly different between hepatocellular carcinoma patients (OR=15.5, 95%CI: 3.299-72.825,P<0.001), and controls (OR=44, 95%CI: 8.025-241.254, P<0.001). Furthermore, CC genotype was significantly different between cirrhotic and hepatocellular carcinoma patients (OR=19.2, 95%CI: 3.097-119.049, P=0.002). Moreover, the TC genotype shows a significant difference between controls and cirrhotic patients (OR=5.5, 95%CI: 2.111-14.328, P<0.001). However, when comparing TT genotypes, CC+TC genotypes results showed a significant association with increasing the risk of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (OR=4.812, 95%CI: 1.893-12.233, P=0.001), (OR=21.607, 95%CI: 4.738-98.532, P<0.01), respectively. On the other hand, there was no significant difference among all studied groups for all genotypes regarding Survivin rs8073069. Also, the CC+GC genotype showed no significant association with increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (P=0.999) compared with the GG genotypes.

Conclusion: The study indicates that functional Survivin rs1042489 polymorphism may contribute to the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma while Survivin rs8073069 polymorphism has no significant association with increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma among the studied groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1568009621666210302090917DOI Listing
January 2022

Covid-19: Urgent Call to Action.

Antiinflamm Antiallergy Agents Med Chem 2021 ;20(2):118-122

Tropical Medicine and Infectious Diseases Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.

Novel Corona Virus 2019 (COVID-19) is a new virus spread rapidly all over the world. It has specific respiratory or gastrointestinal tract symptoms. Its reported complications include respiratory distress, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and septic shock. Due to heavy cytokines released by the virus; corticosteroids (40-120 mg / day) were given to severe cases to reduce pneumonia. It's a difficult task to control the spread of SARS-CoV-2, and to invent proper vaccines and treatments. In this review, the existing understanding of fatal, pandemic human coronavirus SARS-Cov2 (COVID-19), with special reference to its diagnosis, origin, transmission, and different approaches to develop its therapeutics, will be discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871523019666201202092859DOI Listing
June 2021

Plant-bacterial endophyte secondary metabolite matching: a case study.

Arch Microbiol 2020 Dec 28;202(10):2679-2687. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Aswan University, Aswan, 81528, Egypt.

Some studies focused on metabolic relationships between plants and their endophytic bacterial associates, and more research is required to generate critical evidence for these relationships. In the current interest, we tried to confirm the relationship between the traditional medicinal plant, Calotropis procera (Aiton) W.T. Aiton, and its associated endophytes, Bacillus siamensis and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, as the first matching study regarding the production of bioactive secondary metabolites from the plant vis-a-vis its bacterial endophytes.Secondary metabolites of both the plant and its endophytic bacteria were extracted using different solvents, e.g., water, methanol, and ethyl acetate. All extracts exhibited high quantities of phenolics, flavonoids, tannins, and saponins. In addition, they showed significant antioxidant capacity which was found to be positively correlated with total phenolic contents. The highest total antioxidant capacity (99.28 ± 0.0 mg AA equivalent/g extract) was measured for the aqueous extract of B. siamensis.Antibacterial activity of the different extracts was evaluated against certain pathogenic bacteria, i.e., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus agalactiae, Salmonella typhi, Serratia marcescens, and Staphylococcus aureus. It was strikingly found that the broadest antibacterial spectrum was revealed by extracts of both C. procera and its endophytic B. siamensis. Interestingly, antibacterial activity was significantly correlated to phenolic and flavonoid contents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00203-020-01989-7DOI Listing
December 2020

Predictive and Prognostic Value of Ascitic Fluid Mannose Binding Lectin in Patients with Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis.

Antiinflamm Antiallergy Agents Med Chem 2021 ;20(2):196-200

Department of Tropical Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.

Background: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is a common bacterial infection of ascitic fluid, mainly in ascites due to liver cirrhosis. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) can activate phagocytosis and the complement system. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis was detected to be higher in MBL deficiency. This study aimed to assess ascitic fluid MBL in liver cirrhosis and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.

Methods: Ninety patients with cirrhotic ascites were included. Forty five of them had SBP. Child- Pugh score, Model for End Stage Liver Disease (MELD) and its update (uMELD) scores were used to assess the severity of liver cirrhosis. Ascitic fluid samples were obtained for differentiation of leucocytic count, estimation of albumin, protein, glucose, and serum-ascitic albumin gradient. Ascitic fluid levels of MBL were measured for all patients. SBP was documented if polymorphonuclear leucocytic count ≥250/mm in ascitic fluid.

Results: Ascitic fluid MBL level was significantly lower in patients with SBP. MBL had a significant negative correlation with ascitic total leukocytic count (TLC), also with serum creatinine, bilirubin, PT, INR and MELD score among SBP patients. However, it had a significant positive correlation with ascitic protein and with platelets. According to multivariate analysis, fever, TLC, platelets, creatinine, MBL, glucose and polymorphs were independent predictors for SBP development.

Conclusion: Ascitic fluid MBL could be a good predictive and prognostic marker in patients with cirrhosis and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871523019666200617132513DOI Listing
November 2021

SARS-CoV-2: The Path of Prevention and Control.

Infect Disord Drug Targets 2021 ;21(3):358-362

Tropical Medicine and Infectious Diseases Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.

The 2019 coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) continues to expand worldwide. Although the number of cases and the death rate among children and adolescents are reported to be low compared to adults, limited data have been reported. We urgently need to find the treatment and vaccine to stop the epidemic. Vaccine development is in progress, but any approved and effective vaccine for COVID-19 will take at least 12 to 18 months. The World Health Organization (WHO), the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) have issued instructions and strategies for controlling COVID-19 outbreak to the general public, physicians, travelers and injured patients to follow so that the transmission to a healthy population can be prevented. In this review, we summarize demographic data, clinical characteristics, complications and outcomes and finally prevention and control strategies for this serious pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871526520666200520112848DOI Listing
August 2021

Serum Vitamin D Levels in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients Before and During Treatment.

Infect Disord Drug Targets 2020 ;20(6):840-847

Tropical Medicine Department, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.

Background & Aims: Hepatitis B is a potentially life-threatening liver infection and it is a major global health problem. Over the past decade, numerous studies have reported that patients with CLD, especially HCV-positive and HBV-positive patients, have decreased 25(OH) D levels. The current study was designed to assess the serum levels of vitamin D [25(OH) D3] in chronic hepatitis B patients, before and during treatment with antiviral therapy.

Methods: It was a prospective study in which 80 subjects were enrolled between December 2017 and June 2018. A total of 50 treatment-naïve chronic HBV patients and 30 healthy subjects were recruited. The studied cases received treatment in the form of Lamivudine 100 mg tablet, once daily. Full routine laboratory investigations, HBV DNA measurement by real-time PCR were conducted once before initiation of antiviral treatment and again at least 6 months later. Serum vitamin D level [25(OH)D3 was assessed twice, once before initiation of antiviral treatment and again at least 6 months later. This was done for all the patients enrolled in the study.

Results: The studied cases showed a significantly low mean serum Vitamin D level when assessed before treatment (21.6 ± 5.8 ng/ml), compared to the level after 6 ms of treatment (31.1 ± 7.3 ng/ml) which was comparable to that of the control group (33.4 ± 5 ng/ml).

Conclusion: The present study highlights the impact of antiviral therapy on vitamin D deficiency in CHB patients, where effective therapy improves vitamin D levels. Meanwhile, it is recommended to study the impact of vitamin D replacement and correction on the disease progression or regression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871526519666191112112903DOI Listing
September 2021

Chemical ingredients and antioxidant activities of underutilized wild fruits.

Heliyon 2019 Jun 20;5(6):e01874. Epub 2019 Jun 20.

Department of Biology, College of Arts & Science, Shaqra University, Sajir, Saudi Arabia.

This study evaluated nutritional values, bioactive constituents and antioxidant activities of the five wild underutilized fruits in the mountains of southwest Saudi Arabia ( (L.) Voigt, Hochst. Ex A.Dc., (L.), Forssk., and Willd.). The moisture content, crude fibers, total protein, total lipids, total hydrolyzable carbohydrate, total soluble sugars, and total free amino acids were analyzed. The results showed varying amounts among fruits of the five study species. In addition, the mineral composition, amino acid content, phenolic compounds, vitamins, and antioxidant activity were assessed. The highest content of total phenolic and total tannins was measured in (20.69 mg/g and 3.84 mg/g) and the lowest in (10.83 mg/g and 1.44 mg/g), respectively. The methanol extract (1 mg/ml) of displayed higher percentage of DPPH radical scavenging activity (87.36%). The methanol extract (1 mg/ml) of exhibited the highest effect of total antioxidant activity and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity (71.53%). The sufficient nutritional and antioxidant value of these wild fruits provide healthy food source for the local residents, much the same as many cultivated fruits and vegetables.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e01874DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6595169PMC
June 2019

Curcumin analogue 1,5-bis(4-hydroxy-3-((4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)methyl)phenyl)penta-1,4-dien-3-one mediates growth arrest and apoptosis by targeting the PI3K/AKT/mTOR and PKC-theta signaling pathways in human breast carcinoma cells.

Bioorg Chem 2018 08 7;78:46-57. Epub 2018 Mar 7.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut 71516, Egypt.

Recent developments in the literature have demonstrated that curcumin exhibit antioxidant properties supporting its anti-inflammatory, chemopreventive and antitumoral activities against aggressive and recurrent cancers. Despite the valuable findings of curcumin against different cancer cells, the clinical use of curcumin in cancer treatment is limited due to its extremely low aqueous solubility and instability, which lead to poor in vivo bioavailability and limited therapeutic effects. We therefore focused in the present study to evaluate the anti-tumor potential of curcumin analogues on the human breast carcinoma cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7, as well as their effects on non-tumorigenic normal breast epithelial cells (MCF-10). The IC values of curcumin analogue J1 in these cancer cell lines were determined to be 5 ng/ml and 10 ng/ml, in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells respectively. Interestingly, at these concentrations, the J1 did not affect the viability of non-tumorigenic normal breast epithelial cells MCF-10. Furthermore, we found that J1 strongly induced growth arrest of these cancer cells by modulating the mitochondrial membrane potentials without significant effect on normal MCF-10 cells using JC-1 staining and flow cytometry analysis. Using annexin-V/PI double staining assay followed by flow cytometry analysis, we found that J1 robustly enhanced the induction of apoptosis by increasing the activity of caspases in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cancer cells. In addition, treatment of breast cancer cells with J1 revealed that, in contrast to the expression of cyclin B1, this curcumin analogue vigorously decreased the expression of cyclin A, CDK2 and cyclin E and subsequently sensitized tumor cells to cell cycle arrest. Most importantly, the phosphorylation of AKT, mTOR and PKC-theta in J1-treated cancer cells was markedly decreased and hence affecting the survival of these cancer cells. Most interestingly, J1-treated cancer cells exhibited a significant inhibition in the activation of RhoA followed by reduction in actin polymerization and cytoskeletal rearrangement in response to CXCL12. Our data reveal the therapeutic potential of the curcumin analogue J1 and the underlying mechanisms to fight breast cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2018.03.006DOI Listing
August 2018

Association between Severity of Liver Disease, Frequency of Infection, and Degree of Gastric Lesion in Egyptian Patients with Hepatitis B Virus Infection.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 01;98(1):221-226

Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

The relationship between hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, severity of liver disease, frequency of infection, and degree of gastric lesions was not yet fully investigated in Egyptian patients. The present work was performed on 100 Egyptian patients with HBV from the National Hepatology and Tropical Medicine Institute and 70 healthy volunteers as control group. The participants were subjected to full medical history taking, clinical examination, and laboratory investigations. All patients were positive for HBV surface antigen (HBV sAg), HBV DNA, and negative for hepatitis C virus antibodies. The severity of the liver disease was assessed using Child-Pugh scoring system. Screening of all participants for Ag in stool was performed. Biopsy specimens were taken from the gastric lesions of -infected patients for histopathological examination. The mean age of the patients and control group were 34.9 and 33.4 years, respectively. The levels of the liver enzymes were statistically higher in HBV patients than the control group. Ag in stool was detected in 45.7% of the control group, and a higher percentage (60%) was detected in the patients group. Chronic gastritis with glandular atrophy and metaplasia was found in 15.6% of patients of Child-Pugh A, 70% of Child-Pugh B, and 100% of Child-Pugh C. It could be concluded that the prognosis of the liver disease significantly influences the severity of the gastric pathology in infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0291DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5928701PMC
January 2018

Circulating Hypermethylated RASSF1A as a Molecular Biomarker for Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2017 06 25;18(6):1637-1643. Epub 2017 Jun 25.

Clinical and Chemical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt. Email:

Background: Detection of circulating DNA can be applied for the diagnosis of many malignant neoplasms, including the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The molecular pathogenesis of HCC is complex, involving different genetic and epigenetic alterations, chromosomal aberrations, gene mutations and altered molecular pathways. RASSF1A is a well-established tumor suppressor gene which suffers frequent inactivation due to promoter hypermethylation of CPG islands in multiple tumors including HCC, resulting in the reduction or loss of gene expression. Objective: To examine the role of circulating RASSF1A as a non-invasive diagnostic marker for HCC. Participant and Methods: A total of 45 HCC patients with a background of HCV infection, 40 cases of HCV infection without tumours and 40 apparently healthy controls were subjected to full history taking, clinical examination, routine laboratory investigations, assessment of serum AFP and detection of circulating hypermethylated RASSF1A gene by methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme digestion and real-time PCR. Results: The level of hypermethylated RASSF1A was significantly elevated in the HCC group as compared to the HCV and control groups (p=0.001 for both). Copy number in serum was associated with increased tumor size (p value <0.001). On the other hand, no significant correlation was observed between RASSF1A and AFP (p=0.5). Using ROC curve analysis, the best cut-off for circulating serum RASSF1A to differentiate the HCC group was 8 copies/μl. Conclusion: The presence of hypermethylated RASSF1A in serum may be a useful and informative biomarker for HCC diagnosis and might be introduced as a screening method for populations at risk of HCC development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22034/APJCP.2017.18.6.1637DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6373823PMC
June 2017

Clinical significance of SNP (rs2596542) in histocompatibility complex class I-related gene A promoter region among hepatitis C virus related hepatocellular carcinoma cases.

J Adv Res 2017 Jul 18;8(4):343-349. Epub 2017 Mar 18.

Department of Microbial Biotechnology, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt.

The major histocompatibility complex class I-related gene A (MICA) is an antigen induced by stress and performs an integral role in immune responses as an anti-infectious and antitumor agent. This work was designed to investigate whether (SNP) rs2596542C/T in MICA promoter region is predictive of liver cirrhosis (LC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or not. Forty-seven healthy controls and 94 HCV-infected patients, subdivided into 47 LC and 47 HCC subjects were enrolled in this study. SNP association was studied using real time PCR and soluble serum MICA concentration was measured using ELISA. Results showed that heterozygous genotype rs2596542CT was significantly ( = 0.022) distributed between HCC and LC related CHC patients. The sMICA was significantly higher ( = 0.0001) among HCC and LC. No significant association ( = 0.56) between rs2596542CT genotypes and sMICA levels was observed. Studying SNP rs2596542C/T association with HCC and LC susceptibility revealed that statistical significant differences ( = 0.013,  = 0.027) were only observed between SNP rs2596542C/T and each of HCC and LC, respectively, versus healthy controls, indicating that the rs2596542C/T genetic variation is not a significant contributor to HCC development in LC patients. Moreover, the T allele was considered a risk factor for HCC and LC vulnerability in HCV patients (OR = 1.93 and 2.1, respectively), while the C allele contributes to decreasing HCC risk. Therefore, SNP (rs2596542C/T) in MICA promoter region and sMICA levels might be potential useful markers in the assessment of liver disease progression to LC and HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jare.2017.03.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5388909PMC
July 2017

Catalase and ascorbate peroxidase-representative H2O2-detoxifying heme enzymes in plants.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2016 Oct 23;23(19):19002-29. Epub 2016 Aug 23.

Amity Institute of Microbial Technology (AIMT), Amity University Uttar Pradesh, E3 Block, Sector 125, Noida, UP, 201303, India.

Plants have to counteract unavoidable stress-caused anomalies such as oxidative stress to sustain their lives and serve heterotrophic organisms including humans. Among major enzymatic antioxidants, catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX; EC 1.11.1.11) are representative heme enzymes meant for metabolizing stress-provoked reactive oxygen species (ROS; such as H2O2) and controlling their potential impacts on cellular metabolism and functions. CAT mainly occurs in peroxisomes and catalyzes the dismutation reaction without requiring any reductant; whereas, APX has a higher affinity for H2O2 and utilizes ascorbate (AsA) as specific electron donor for the reduction of H2O2 into H2O in organelles including chloroplasts, cytosol, mitochondria, and peroxisomes. Literature is extensive on the glutathione-associated H2O2-metabolizing systems in plants. However, discussion is meager or scattered in the literature available on the biochemical and genomic characterization as well as techniques for the assays of CAT and APX and their modulation in plants under abiotic stresses. This paper aims (a) to introduce oxidative stress-causative factors and highlights their relationship with abiotic stresses in plants; (b) to overview structure, occurrence, and significance of CAT and APX in plants;
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-7309-6DOI Listing
October 2016

MONOCYTE CHEMOTACTIC PROTEIN AND RESPONSE TO PEGYLATED INTERFERON-ALPHA-2A TREATMENT IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEPATITIS C (CHC) GENOTYPE 4.

J Egypt Soc Parasitol 2016 Apr;46(1):117-24

The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection varies across the world, with the highest number of infections reported in Egypt. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) is a potent chemokine, and its hepatic expression is up-regulated during chronic HCV infection. Fifty naive patients with chronic hepatitis C in National Hepatology & Tropical Medicine Research Institute and 20 healthy volunteers as controls were enrolled in a prospective study designed with strict inclusion criteria to nullify the effect of confounding variables and further minimize selection bias. Fifty naive patients were treated with PEG-IFN-a2b, at a dose of 1801 g/kg subcutaneously every week plus ribavirin at a dose of 1000- 1200 mg/day, according to the patient's body weight, for 48 weeks. Quantification of HCV-RNA by real-time PCR and MCP-1 by ELISA were performed for every patient and controls. There was a sta- tistically significant difference between patients and control group as regards the quantity of MCP-1 (P < 0.05) (Mann-Whitney test) (P = 0.004). There was a significant difference between responders and nonresponses regarding MCP-1 (P < 0.05), responders showed a higher percentage of cases with initial MCP-1 < 306 (P < 0.05). We conclude the importance of the detection of MCP-1 expression at the start of therapy as a factor for assessing the likelihood of HCV genotype 4 patients to achieving a sustained virological response to treatment with IFN-a2 in combination with ribavirin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12816/0026156DOI Listing
April 2016

Protein kinase expression as a predictive factor for interferon response in chronic hepatitis C patients.

J Adv Res 2014 Jan 14;5(1):117-23. Epub 2013 Mar 14.

Tropical Department, National Hepatology and Tropical Medicine Research Institute, Egypt.

Egypt has the highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide. Currently, combined pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy are the standard treatment. The biological activity of interferon (IFN) is mediated by the induction of intracellular antiviral proteins, such as 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase, and dsRNA-activated protein kinase. IFN-inducible double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) is thought to play a key antiviral role against HCV. Some studies observed that PKR expression was higher in sustained viral responders compared with the non-responders. The PKR is considered as antiviral toward HCV and responsible for IFN's effect against HCV while others have showed that, there were kinetic results indicate that HCV infection is not altered by reduced levels of PKR, indicating that HCV is resistant to the translational inhibitory effects of the phosphorylated forms of PKR. This study was conducted on 50 consecutive patients with chronic HCV infection (CHC) and 20 healthy controls. All the patients were subjected to clinical and laboratory assessment, abdominal ultrasound, and liver biopsy. Determination of PKR gene quantity by using a real time PCR was done at the baseline and at the end of treatment for all patients and controls. Pre-treatment levels of protein kinase gene were significantly higher in responders in comparison with non-responders (P < 0.001). It was found that 97.06% of patients who were responding to treatment had the expression of protein kinase gene greater than 2(6) cycle threshold.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jare.2013.01.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4294718PMC
January 2014

Evaluation of circulating ADH and MIC-1 as diagnostic markers in Egyptian patients with pancreatic cancer.

Pancreatology 2015 Jan-Feb;15(1):34-9. Epub 2014 Oct 27.

Tulane University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Despite the incidence rate of pancreatic cancer (PC) is uncommon in developing countries, it is considered as one of the most lethal disease. Improving patients' survival requires diagnosis of the disease at early stage. Therefore, it is imperative to identify more specific and sensitive marker(s) to be used for early detection of PC.

Objectives: Our aim is to evaluate the potential role of circulating ADH and MIC-1 to be used as diagnostic markers in Egyptian patients and assess their value either alone or combined with CA19-9 in early detection of PC.

Methods: Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), macrophage inhibitory cytokine (MIC-1) and CA19-9 were measured by ELISA in serum procured from PC patients (n = 50) versus normal subjects (n = 20).

Results: Our results demonstrate that the circulating levels of ADH, MIC-1 and CA19-9 in blood of PC were significantly higher than in healthy controls (HCs) (p < 0.001). The highest marker sensitivity observed at early stage was MIC-1 (90%) and specificity was ADH (83%). The level of all three markers was elevated significantly in early stage of PC in comparison to HCs. The addition of ADH and MIC-1 to CA19-9 significantly improved the efficacy of diagnosis (p = 0.023).

Conclusion: Our data demonstrate that not only the combination of ADH and MIC-1 to CA19-9 can be used in early detection of PC but also can improve the overall quality of diagnosis of this lethal disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pan.2014.10.008DOI Listing
October 2015

Can zinc levels predict response to pegylated-interferon and ribavirin therapy in hepatitis C genotype 4 infected Egyptian patients?

Acta Gastroenterol Belg 2014 Jun;77(2):217-23

Background And Aims: Zinc has been found to be low in chronic hepatitis patients. Its level was correlated with response to Interferon/ribavirin therapy in patients infected with hepatitis C genotype 1. In Egypt, inexpensive predictors to treatment response in Hepatitis C genotype 4 infected patients are desperately needed. We aim to explore if pretreatment zinc serum levels correlate with response to pegylated- interferon and ribavirin therapy in Egyptian patients.

Methods: This is an observational prospective study where 57 treatment naive hepatitis C genotype 4 infected patients that were Hepatitis B and Human Immunodeficiency virus negative were recruited in a hospital setting. The study was performed from October 2010 till June 2012. Patients had Liver biopsy and basic biochemical profiles were performed pretreatment for all patients. Treatment consisted of 48 weeks of pegylated-interferon-alpha2a and ribavirin therapy. Blood samples were withdrawn from 21 healthy subjects to compare zinc levels and other biochemical markers. Patients were followed up to 72 weeks.

Results: Pretreatment serum zinc levels were significantly lower in hepatitis C infected patients compared to healthy volunteers (p < 0.05). Moreover, zinc levels correlated to sustained virological response in treated patients (p = 0.00).

Conclusion: Serum zinc levels can be used as an inexpensive predictor to effective Pegylated-interferon/ribavirin therapy in Egyptian patients infected with Hepatitic C genotype 4.
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June 2014

Major constituents of Boswellia carteri resin exhibit cyclooxygenase enzyme inhibition and antiproliferative activity.

Nat Prod Commun 2013 Oct;8(10):1365-6

Bioactive Natural Products and Phytoceuticals Laboratory, Department of Horticulture, Michigan State University, East Lansing, 48824, Michigan, USA.

Aromatic gum from Boswellia carteri (olibanum oleogum) has long been used in Egyptian traditional medicine. Cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) enzyme inhibitory assay guided purification of the extracts of this resin resulted in five bioactive compounds, 3alpha-O-acetyl-8,24-dien-tirucallic acid (1), verticilla-4(20),7,11-triene (2), cembrene A (3), incensole acetate (4), and incensole (5). The pure isolates were investigated for their inhibitory effects on COX-1 and -2 enzymes and human tumor cell lines Hep-G2, MCF-7 and RAW 264.7. Compounds 1-5 inhibited COX-2 enzyme by 39.0, 32.7, 60.0, 46.3, and 49.8%, respectively. Furthermore, compound 2 showed an inhibitory concentration of 50% (IC50) at 9 microg/mL against Hep-G2 tumor cell line. This is the first report of COX-1 and -2 enzyme and tumor cell proliferation inhibitory effects of compounds 1 and 2.
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October 2013

Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of crude extracts and essential oils of Syzygium cumini leaves.

PLoS One 2013 12;8(4):e60269. Epub 2013 Apr 12.

Plant Biochemistry Department, National Research Centre (NRC), Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

This research highlights the chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils and various crude extracts (using methanol and methylene chloride) from Syzygium cumini leaves. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).The abundant constituents of the oils were: α-pinene (32.32%), β-pinene (12.44%), trans-caryophyllene (11.19%), 1, 3, 6-octatriene (8.41%), delta-3-carene (5.55%), α-caryophyllene (4.36%), and α-limonene (3.42%).The antioxidant activities of all extracts were examined using two complementary methods, namely diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing power (FRAP). In both methods, the methanol extract exhibited a higher activity than methylene chloride and essential oil extracts. A higher content of both total phenolics and flavonoids were found in the methanolic extract compared with other extracts. Furthermore, the methanol extract had higher antibacterial activity compared to methylene chloride and the essential oil extracts. Due to their antioxidant and antibacterial properties, the leaf extracts from S. cumini may be used as natural preservative ingredients in food and/or pharmaceutical industries.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0060269PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3625181PMC
October 2013

Serum Levels of Interleukin-6 and Interleukin-10 as Biomarkers for Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Egyptian Patients.

ISRN Hepatol 2013 15;2013:412317. Epub 2013 Sep 15.

Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Interleukin-10 (IL-10) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) have been reported to be related to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) prognosis. This study aimed to investigate the clinical usefulness of serum levels of IL-6 and IL-10 as biomarkers for HCC among high-risk patients. Materials and Methods. 80 individuals were enrolled in this study; they were categorized into 4 groups: group 1 healthy individuals (NC) (n = 20), group 2 chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients (n = 20), group 3 cirrhotic patients (LC) (n = 20), and HCC group (n = 20). Using ELISA technique serum levels of IL-6, IL-10, and alpha fetoprotein (AFP) were evaluated in all groups. Results. The mean serum levels of IL-6 were significantly higher in HCC than in LC, HCV, and NC groups (13.99 ± 1.80, 7.49 ± 0.43, 5.78 ± 0.74, and 2.57 ± 0.31), respectively (P < 0.05); also the serum levels of IL-10 were significantly higher in HCC compared with LC, HCV, and NC groups (13.69 ± 1.89, 7.37 ± 0.53, 5.18 ± 0.6, and 3.31 ± 0.42) (P < 0.05). We also found that the tumor size is correlated strongly with IL-6 and IL-10 levels (r = 0.925, P < 0.001; r = 0.821, P < 0.001), respectively. Conclusion. The combination of those markers may help to identify a group of HCC patients with low AFP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/412317DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4890868PMC
June 2016

Implication of protein kinase R gene quantification in hepatitis C virus genotype 4 induced hepatocarcinogenesis.

Diagn Pathol 2012 Aug 15;7:103. Epub 2012 Aug 15.

Department of Biochemistry, National Hepatology and Tropical Medicine Research Institute, Cairo, Egypt.

Background: Protein kinase RNA (PKR-regulated) is a double-stranded RNA activated protein kinase whose expression is induced by interferon. The role of PKR in cell growth regulation is controversial, with some studies supporting a tumour suppressor function and others suggesting a growth-promoting role. However, it is possible that the function of PKR varies with the type of cancer in question.

Methods: We report here a detailed study to evaluate the function of PKR in hepatitis C virus genotype 4 (HCV-4) infected patients. PKR gene was quantitated in HCV related malignant and non-malignant liver tissue by RT-PCR technique and the association of HCV core and PKR was assessed.

Results: If PKR functions as a tumour suppressor in this system, its expression would be higher in chronic hepatitis tissues. On the contrary our study demonstrated the specific association of HCV-4 with PKR expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues, leading to an increased gene expression of the kinase in comparison to chronic hepatitis tissues. This calls into question its role as a tumour suppressor and suggests a positive regulatory role of PKR in growth control of liver cancer cells. One limitation of most of other studies is that they measure the levels rather than the quantitation of PKR gene.

Conclusion: The findings suggest that PKR exerts a positive role in cell growth control of HCV-4 related HCC, obtaining a cut-off value for PKR expression in liver tissue provides the first evidence for existence of a viral activator of PKR.

Virtual Slides: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1267826959682402.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-1596-7-103DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3487824PMC
August 2012

Association of tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene polymorphisms with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus nephritis in a cohort of egyptian patients.

Iran J Kidney Dis 2011 Nov;5(6):392-7

Department of Pediatrics, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt.

Introduction: The production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha has been deeply deregulated in systemic lupus erythematosus. We evaluated the association of -863C>A and -1031T>C polymorphisms of the TNF gene with susceptibility to and clinical manifestations of juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus.

Materials And Methods: This study was performed on 70 juvenile patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (mean age, 13.0 ± 4.2 years). Ninety age- and sex-matched children served as a controls. All participants were genotyped for the TNF -863C>A and -1031T>C polymorphisms by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Analysis of serum TNF-alpha was done by solid-phase sandwich enzyme immunoassay.

Results: The mean serum TNF-alpha was significantly higher in the SLE patients compared to controls (P < .001). Regarding all participants, the mean serum TNF-alpha was significantly higher in children with -863AA genotype compared to carriers of -863C allele (P < .001). The TNF -863AA genotype frequencies were significantly higher in the patients group compared with the controls (P = .005) and were associated with increased risk for SLE development (odds ratio, 4.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.38 to 13.13; P = .005). The -863AA variant was associated with nephritis (P < .001) and Raynaud phenomenon (P = .001).

Conclusions: The -863A allele of the TNF gene can be used as a genetic marker for SLE susceptibility and was associated with high TNF-alpha production, Raynaud phenomenon, and nephritis in juvenile SLE Egyptian patients.
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November 2011

Chronic hepatitis c genotype-4 infection: role of insulin resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Virol J 2011 Nov 1;8:496. Epub 2011 Nov 1.

Biochemistry Department, National Hepatology and Tropical Medicine Institute, Cairo 11796, Egypt.

Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and different HCV genotypes show characteristic variations in their pathological properties. Insulin resistance (IR) occurs early in HCV infection and may synergize with viral hepatitis in HCC development. Egypt has the highest reported rates of HCV infection (predominantly genotype 4) in the world; this study investigated effects of HCV genotype-4 (HCV-4) on prevalence of insulin resistance in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and HCC in Egyptian patients.

Methods: Fifty CHC patients, 50 HCC patients and 20 normal subjects were studied. IR was estimated using HOMA-IR index and HCV-4 load determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Hepatitis B virus was excluded by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Standard laboratory and histopathological investigations were undertaken to characterize liver function and for grading and staging of CHC; HCC staging was undertaken using intraoperative samples.

Results: HCC patients showed higher IR frequency but without significant difference from CHC (52% vs 40%, p = 0.23). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed HOMA-IR index and International Normalization Ratio independently associated with fibrosis in CHC; in HCC, HbA1c, cholesterol and bilirubin were independently associated with fibrosis. Fasting insulin and cholesterol levels were independently associated with obesity in both CHC and HCC groups. Moderate and high viral load was associated with high HOMA-IR in CHC and HCC (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: IR is induced by HCV-4 irrespective of severity of liver disease. IR starts early in infection and facilitates progression of hepatic fibrosis and HCC development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1743-422X-8-496DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3218090PMC
November 2011

UDP-dependent glycosyltransferases involved in the biosynthesis of steviol glycosides.

J Plant Physiol 2011 Jul 7;168(10):1136-41. Epub 2011 Apr 7.

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, 81528, South Valley University, Aswan, Egypt.

A short-term experiment was designed to measure the transcript levels of downstream genes contributing to the biosynthesis of steviol glycosides. Stevia rebaudiana plants were subjected to long- and short-day conditions for different time intervals. Samples from both lower and upper leaves were collected. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, the transcript levels of three UDP-dependent glycosyltransferases, UGT85C2, UGT74G1 and UGT76G1, were studied. The results were compared with the steviol glycoside contents measured in the leaves, which were quantified by reversed phase HPLC. In the same daylength condition, steviol glycoside concentration and the transcript levels of the three UGT genes were higher in upper leaves than in lower leaves. Steviol glycosides accumulated more in plants under short-day conditions. Under these conditions, a highly significant correlation was found between UGT85C2 transcription and total steviol glycoside accumulation in the upper leaves. This suggests that the glycosylation of steviol to form steviolmonoside is the rate-limiting step in the glycosylation pathway of steviol glycosides. In these upper leaves, a relatively high accumulation of rebaudioside A compared to stevioside was also observed, however, without correlation with the transcription of UGT76G1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2011.01.030DOI Listing
July 2011

K469E polymorphism of the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 gene in Egyptians with coronary heart disease.

Ann Saudi Med 2010 Nov-Dec;30(6):432-6

Department of Clinical and Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt.

Background And Objectives: The initial step in atherosclerosis is the adhesion of leukocytes to activated endothelial cells mediated by intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). This study aimed to investigate the association of K469E polymorphism of the ICAM-1 gene and soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) serum level with coronary heart disease (CHD) in Egyptian subjects.

Patients And Methods: Using a case-control design, we studied 100 patients with CHD, including 73 patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) and 27 with unstable angina (UA). The control group consisted of 50 healthy subjects with normal left ventricular function. All participants were genotyped for the ICAM-1 polymorphism by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Serum sICAM-1 was measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA).

Results: In CHD patients, the frequencies of K genotype (KK and EK) were significantly higher when compared to controls (P<.001) and were associated with an increased risk of disease development (OR=3.8, 95% CI: 1.7 to 8.5; P=.001). K genotype frequencies in patients with MI showed no significant difference when compared to patients with UA (P= .121). Serum sICAM-1 levels were comparable between CHD patients and controls (P= .37) and between MI and UA patients (P=.23). There were no significant differences in sICAM-1 levels among patients with different genotypes (P=.532). Men presented with higher sICAM-1 levels than women (P=.004).

Conclusion: ICAM-1 gene polymorphism in codon 469 is associated with a risk for CHD development in Egyptian subjects. Serum sICAM-1 is not influenced by this polymorphism and is not necessarily elevated in CHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0256-4947.71061DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2994157PMC
March 2011
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