Publications by authors named "Amélie Savers"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Reducing hypoxia and inflammation during invasive pulmonary aspergillosis by targeting the Interleukin-1 receptor.

Sci Rep 2016 05 24;6:26490. Epub 2016 May 24.

Unité de recherche Cytokines &Inflammation, Institut Pasteur, Paris.

Hypoxia as a result of pulmonary tissue damage due to unresolved inflammation during invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is associated with a poor outcome. Aspergillus fumigatus can exploit the hypoxic microenvironment in the lung, but the inflammatory response required for fungal clearance can become severely disregulated as a result of hypoxia. Since severe inflammation can be detrimental to the host, we investigated whether targeting the interleukin IL-1 pathway could reduce inflammation and tissue hypoxia, improving the outcome of IPA. The interplay between hypoxia and inflammation was investigated by in vivo imaging of hypoxia and measurement of cytokines in the lungs in a model of corticosteroid immunocompromised and in Cxcr2 deficient mice. Severe hypoxia was observed following Aspergillus infection in both models and correlated with development of pulmonary inflammation and expression of hypoxia specific transcripts. Treatment with IL-1 receptor antagonist reduced hypoxia and slightly, but significantly reduced mortality in immunosuppressed mice, but was unable to reduce hypoxia in Cxcr2(-/-) mice. Our data provides evidence that the inflammatory response during invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, and in particular the IL-1 axis, drives the development of hypoxia. Targeting the inflammatory IL-1 response could be used as a potential immunomodulatory therapy to improve the outcome of aspergillosis.
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May 2016

Infection-Mediated Priming of Phagocytes Protects against Lethal Secondary Aspergillus fumigatus Challenge.

PLoS One 2016 14;11(4):e0153829. Epub 2016 Apr 14.

Institut Pasteur, Unité Cytokines & Inflammation, Paris, France.

Phagocytes restrict the germination of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia and prevent the establishment of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in immunecompetent mice. Here we report that immunecompetent mice recovering from a primary A. fumigatus challenge are protected against a secondary lethal challenge. Using RAGγc knock-out mice we show that this protection is independent of T, B and NK cells. In protected mice, lung phagocytes are recruited more rapidly and are more efficient in conidial phagocytosis and killing. Protection was also associated with an enhanced expression of CXCR2 and Dectin-1 on bone marrow phagocytes. We also show that protective lung cytokine and chemokine responses are induced more rapidly and with enhanced dynamics in protected mice. Our findings support the hypothesis that following a first encounter with a non-lethal dose of A. fumigatus conidia, the innate immune system is primed and can mediate protection against a secondary lethal infection.
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September 2016

Assessment of efficacy of antifungals against Aspergillus fumigatus: value of real-time bioluminescence imaging.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2013 Jul 15;57(7):3046-59. Epub 2013 Apr 15.

Institut Pasteur Unité de Recherche Cytokines & Inflammation, Paris, France.

Aspergillus fumigatus causes life-threatening infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. Common drugs for therapy of aspergillosis are polyenes, azoles, and echinocandins. However, despite in vitro efficacy of these antifungals, treatment failure is frequently observed. In this study, we established bioluminescence imaging to monitor drug efficacy under in vitro and in vivo conditions. In vitro assays confirmed the effectiveness of liposomal amphotericin B, voriconazole, and anidulafungin. Liposomal amphotericin B and voriconazole were fungicidal, whereas anidulafungin allowed initial germination of conidia that stopped elongation but allowed the conidia to remain viable. In vivo studies were performed with a leukopenic murine model. Mice were challenged by intranasal instillation with a bioluminescent reporter strain (5 × 10(5) and 2.5 × 10(5) conidia), and therapy efficacies of liposomal amphotericin B, voriconazole, and anidulafungin were monitored. For monotherapy, the highest treatment efficacy was observed with liposomal amphotericin B, whereas the efficacies of voriconazole and anidulafungin were strongly dependent on the infectious dose. When therapy efficacy was studied with different drug combinations, all combinations improved the rate of treatment success compared to that with monotherapy. One hundred percent survival was obtained for treatment with a combination of liposomal amphotericin B and anidulafungin, which prevented not only pulmonary infections but also infections of the sinus. In conclusion, combination therapy increases treatment success, at least in the murine infection model. In addition, our novel approach based on real-time imaging enables in vivo monitoring of drug efficacy in different organs during therapy of invasive aspergillosis.
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July 2013