Publications by authors named "Alvydas Pavilonis"

29 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Formulation and Characterization of Potential Antifungal Oleogel with Essential Oil of Thyme.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2018 19;2018:9431819. Epub 2018 Apr 19.

Department of Drug Technology and Social Pharmacy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Sukileliu Pr. 13, LT-50161 Kaunas, Lithuania.

The aim of this research was to formulate oleogel with thyme essential oil with potential antimicrobial activity, design optimal formulation, and evaluate the influence of ingredients on texture parameters of preparation. Central composite design was applied to statistical optimization of colloidal silica and paraffin oil mixture for the modeling of oleogel delivery system. The influence of designed formulations on response variables (texture parameters), firmness, cohesiveness, consistency, and index of viscosity, was evaluated. Quality of essential oil of thyme was assessed by determinate concentration of thymol and carvacrol using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID). Microbiological tests have shown that oleogel with thyme essential oil affects microorganism when thyme essential oil's concentration is 0,05% in oleogel mixture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/9431819DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5933022PMC
April 2018

Perennial legumes as a source of ingredients for healthy food: proximate, mineral and phytoestrogen composition and antibacterial activity.

J Food Sci Technol 2017 Aug 23;54(9):2661-2669. Epub 2017 May 23.

Department of Grass Breeding, Institute of Agriculture, Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, 58344 Akademija, Kėdainiai District, Lithuania.

Abstract: Perennial legumes have been used as edible or medicinal plants since ancient times. The focus of the current study are perennial legumes- L., L., L., L., Scop., L. and L.-of branching stage as a potential source of value-added ingredients for healthy food. Freeze-dried samples were analysed for proximal composition, mineral, isoflavone and coumestrol contents as well as for antimicrobial activity. Legumes were protein-rich (23.0/100 g on average). Mineral contents in 100 g of plant dry matter averaged: K 2.64 g, Ca 1.81 g, Mg 0.475 g, P 0.324 g, Zn 2.76 mg and Fe 37.8 mg. According to the total amount of phytoestrogens, the species ranked as follows: (34.4 mg/g) ≫  ≫  ≥  =  =  ≥  (0.207 mg/g). Extracts of legumes, especially that of , exhibited noticeable potency to inhibit the growth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Perennial legumes of branching stage can be used as protein, mineral and phytoestrogen rich source for food ingredients and supplements.

Graphical Abstract:
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-017-2703-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5583096PMC
August 2017

Prevalence of O25b-ST131 clone among Escherichia coli strains producing CTX-M-15, CTX-M-14 and CTX-M-92 β-lactamases.

Infect Dis (Lond) 2017 Feb 26;49(2):106-112. Epub 2016 Aug 26.

d Laboratoire de Bacteriologie, Faculte de Médecine , Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6 , Paris , France.

Background: Dissemination of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli is closely associated with the worldwide spread of a single clone ST131, which is the main cause of urinary tract and bloodstream infections in patients from nursing homes and immunocompromised patients. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of ST131 clone and the replicons involved in the spread of bla genes among O25b-ST131 CTX-M-producing E. coli isolates in Lithuania.

Methods: The strains included in this study were screened for CTX-M β-lactamase-encoding genes, phylogenetic groups and ST131 clone by PCR. Bacterial conjugation was performed to identify plasmid replicon types responsible for bla genes dissemination.

Results: A total of 158 E. coli clinical non-duplicate ESBL isolates were analyzed. Nearly half (n = 67, 42.4%) of the investigated E. coli isolates belonged to phylogenetic group B2. The isolates producing CTX-M-92 β-lactamases were identified to be the ST131 clone more frequently than the non-ST131 clone (11.5% vs. 3.1%, p = .035). The CTX-M-15 isolates were identified as ST131 isolates less frequently than non-ST131 isolates (50.8% vs. 71.1%; p = .015). The ST131 clone isolates contained type L/M and A/C replicons; a fused FII/FIB replicon was found in four isolates (23.5%). Type HI1 replicon was identified in ST131 E. coli isolates producing CTX-M-15 β-lactamases.

Conclusions: This study demonstrates the predominance of the ST131 clone among CTX-M β-lactamase-producing E. coli isolates. Dissemination of bla genes in ST131 strains can be linked not only to highly adapted IncF plasmids such as FII/FIB and FII, but also to plasmid replicon types A/C, L/M and HI1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23744235.2016.1221531DOI Listing
February 2017

Formation and Biopharmaceutical Characterization of Electrospun PVP Mats with Propolis and Silver Nanoparticles for Fast Releasing Wound Dressing.

Biomed Res Int 2016 14;2016:4648287. Epub 2016 Feb 14.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Sukilėlių pr. 13, LT-50161 Kaunas, Lithuania.

Antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities of propolis and its ability to stimulate the immune system and promote wound healing make it a proper component for wound dressing materials. Silver nanoparticles are recognized to demonstrate strong antiseptic and antimicrobial activity; thus, it also could be considered in the development of products for wound healing. Combining propolis and silver nanoparticles can result in improved characteristics of products designed for wound healing and care. The aim of this study was to formulate electrospun fast dissolving mats for wound dressing containing propolis ethanolic extract and silver nanoparticles. Produced electrospun nano/microfiber mats were evaluated studying their structure, dissolution rate, release of propolis phenolic compounds and silver nanoparticles, and antimicrobial activity. Biopharmaceutical characterization of electrospun mats demonstrated fast release of propolis phenolic compounds and silver nanoparticles. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity on Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, and Candida albicans strains confirmed the ability of electrospun mats to inhibit the growth of the tested microorganisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/4648287DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4769747PMC
December 2016

Alternative preparation of propolis extracts: comparison of their composition and biological activities.

BMC Complement Altern Med 2015 May 27;15:156. Epub 2015 May 27.

Department of Drug Technology and Social Pharmacy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, A.Mickeviciaus 9, LT-44307, Kaunas, Lithuania.

Background: Propolis is the bee product noted for multiple biological effects, and therefore it is widely used for the prevention and treatment of a variety of diseases. The active substances of propolis are easily soluble in ethanol. However ethanolic extracts cannot be used in treatment of certain diseases encountered in ophthalmology, pediatrics, etc. Unfortunately, the main biologically active substances of propolis are scarcely soluble in water, oil and other solvents usually used in pharmaceutical industry. The aim of this study was to investigate chemical composition, radical scavenging and antimicrobial activity of propolis extracts differently made in nonethanolic solvents.

Methods: Total content of phenolic compounds in extracts was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu method. Chemical composition and radical scavenging activity of extracts were determined using HPLC system with free radical reaction detector. Antimicrobial activity of examined preparations was evaluated using the agar-well diffusion assay.

Results: Total amount of phenolic compounds in extracts made in polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG) and water mixture or in PEG, olive oil and water mixture at 70 °C was comparable to that of ethanolic extract. Predominantly identified compounds were phenolic acids, which contribute ca. 40 % of total radical scavenging activity. Investigated nonethanolic extracts inhibited the growth and reproduction of all tested microrganisms. Antimicrobial activity of some extracts was equal or exceeded the antimicrobial effect of ethanolic extract. Extracts made in pure water or oil only at room temperature, contained more than 5 - 10-fold lower amount of phenolic compounds, and demonstrated no antimicrobial activity.

Conclusions: Nonethanolic solvent complex and the effect of higher temperature allows more effective extraction of active compounds from propolis. Concentration of total phenolic compounds in these extracts does not differ significantly from the concentration found in ethanolic extract. Propolis nonethanolic extracts have radical scavenging and antimicrobial activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-015-0677-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4443635PMC
May 2015

Viability changes: microbiological analysis of dental casts.

Med Sci Monit 2014 Jun 6;20:932-7. Epub 2014 Jun 6.

Faculty of Odontology, Clinic of Dental and Maxillary Orthopedics, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Medical Academy, Kaunas, Lithuania.

Background: This study evaluated the survival of the most prevalent oral bacteria and fungi (Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans) in dental casts, and compared changes in the amounts of these microorganisms at different time intervals to determine how long dental casts may pose threat to the health of dental personnel and patients.

Material And Methods: When manufacturing the casts, regular water was replaced with sterile distilled water, where suspensions of the studied bacteria or the fungus at certain concentrations were prepared. When the dental casts were fully set (solidified), plaster shavings were examined immediately after the contact of the studied microorganism with the plaster, as well as after 1, 2, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours. Following that, we measured how the amount of the studied bacteria and fungi in 1 gram of the plaster changed within the studied period of time.

Results: Klebsiella pneumoniae survived in plaster for up to 4 days, and the reduction in the number of these bacteria became statistically significant after 1 day (p<0.05). Staphylococcus aureus remained viable in plaster for up to 4 days, and the number of these bacteria dropped after 1 day (p<0.05). Escherichia coli disappeared after 2 days, and a reduction was already observed after 2 hours (p<0.05). Candida albicans in plaster models died within 2 days, and a reduction in their number was observed after 1 day (p<0.05).

Conclusions: The microorganisms did not multiply in the gypsum casts and their number significantly dropped instead of increasing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.890500DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4061146PMC
June 2014

A combination of grapefruit seed extract and concentrated cranberry juice as a potential antimicrobial preservative for the improvement of microbiological stability of hypromellose gel.

Ceska Slov Farm 2013 Oct;62(5):212-9

Aqueous hypromellose gels are not microbiologically stable - they show signs of microorganism growth during storage. To extend the shelf-life of the gels, antimicrobial preservatives are needed. Some substances of plant origin are known for their antimicrobial properties, and thus they may be used as an alternative to synthetic preservatives. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological stability of aqueous hypromellose gel and the effectiveness of natural substances - grapefruit seed extract (GSE), concentrated cranberry juice, and a combination thereof - on the antimicrobial protection of the gel. The evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of GSE and cranberry juice showed that their antimicrobial effects differed. Both cranberry juice and GSE inhibited the growth of the standard gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, but the effect of GSE was significantly stronger. Candida albicans was sensitive only to GSE. For this reason, in order to affect all the microorganisms studied, either a combination of 0.7% GSE and 10% cranberry juice, or 5% GSE alone may be used. The combination of GSE and cranberry juice was effective only in acidic medium (pH being 2.5-5), while the antimicrobial effect of GSE was not dependent on the pH value.
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October 2013

CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli in Lithuania: associations between sites of infection, coresistance, and phylogenetic groups.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2013 ;49(9):393-8

Department of Microbiology, Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Eivenių 4, 50161 Kaunas, Lithuania.

Increasing resistance of Escherichia coli (E. coli) to antibiotics, especially to the third-generation cephalosporins, has prompted studies on widespread resistance genes such as blaCTX-M and differentiation of E. coli to phylogenetic groups. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between the CTX-M type and the phylogenetic group, the site of infection, and coresistance in Lithuanian E. coli isolates producing β-lactamases. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A total of 90 E. coli ESBL strains were recovered from the lower respiratory tract, the urinary tract, sterile body sites, wounds, and other body sites between 2008 and 2012. The E. coli isolates resistant to at least 2 antibiotics with different modes of action along with resistance to cefotaxime were considered as multiresistant. The blaCTX-M, blaTEM, blaOXA-1, and blaSHV genes, the phylogenetic groups, and the resistance profiles were analyzed. RESULTS. Of the 90 isolates, 84 (93.3%) were classified as multiresistant and 6 (6.6%) as resistant. The blaCTX-M-15 gene was the most prevalent gene followed by the blaCTX-M-14 and blaCTX-M-92 genes. The logistic regression analysis revealed the associations between CTX-M-15 and resistance to ceftriaxone, between CTX-M-14 and resistance to cefoxitin, aztreonam, ampicillin/sulbactam, ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, and tobramycin, and between CTX-M-92 and resistance to cefepime, piperacillin/tazobactam, gentamicin, and tobramycin. CONCLUSIONS. The results of this study showed a significant association between CTX-M-15, CTX-M-14, and CTX-M-92 β-lactamases and resistance to some antibiotics as well as CTX‑M-14 β-lactamase and phylogenetic group A in the Lithuanian population. The associations between the CTX-M type and the site of infection were not determined.
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December 2014

Synthesis and antimicrobial properties of naphthylamine derivatives having a thiazolidinone moiety.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2011 ;47(6):334-9

Department of Drug Chemistry, Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of pharmacophores having naphthylamine and nitro groups on the antimicrobial (antibacterial and antifungal) activity of thiazolidinone derivatives.

Materials And Methods: The initial 5-substituted-2-methylmercaptothiazolidin-4-ones were subjected to S-demethylation to yield 2-amino-substituted thiazolidinones. 4-Nitro-1-naphthylamine, nitrofuran aldehydes, and nitrobenzene aldehydes were used as pharmacophoric compounds having amino or aldehyde groups. Antimicrobial (antibacterial and antifungal) activity of the new compounds was tested in vitro against bacterial cultures - Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae - and fungal cultures - Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Candida kefyr, Candida tropicalis, and Candida parapsilosis.

Results: Microbiological analysis showed that all new thiazolidinone derivatives with nitronaphthylamine substituent possessed antibacterial and antifungal properties. New compounds 2a-b showed similar antibacterial activity in vitro against S. aureus and B. subtilis as aminopenicillins. The lowest antibacterial activity of all newly synthesized compounds was against capsule-forming bacteria K. pneumoniae and against gram-negative bacteria E. coli (minimum inhibitory concentration range, 500-1000 μg/mL).

Conclusions: The minimum inhibitory concentration of naphthylamine derivatives varied in the range of 0.4-1000 μg/mL, and activity of some newly synthesized compounds was similar to the activity of aminopenicillins and fluconazole, an antifungal preparation. Based on the results, it is possible to separate the perspective group of potential antimicrobial compounds.
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February 2012

Investigation of the antimicrobial activity of Rhaponticum (Rhaponticum carthamoides D.C. Iljin) and shrubby cinquefoil (Potentilla fruticosa L.).

Medicina (Kaunas) 2011 ;47(3):174-9

Department of Physiology, Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, A. Mickevičiaus, Kaunas, Lithuania.

The aim of the study was to determine antimicrobial activity of rhaponticum and shrubby cinquefoil extracts. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Ethanol extract from the leaves of rhaponticum (Rhaponticum carthamoides D.C. Iljin) and shrubby cinquefoil (Potentilla fruticosa L.) was produced at the Department of Food Technology, Kaunas University of Technology. The antimicrobial activity of the viscous extract or rhaponticum and shrubby cinquefoil was evaluated using standard microorganism cultures (bacteria Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 33499, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Proteus mirabilis ATCC 12459, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Bacillus cereus ATCC 8035 and fungi Candida albicans ATCC 60193). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the examined preparations was determined. RESULTS. Both studied preparations - rhaponticum (Rhaponticum carthamoides D.C. Iljin) and shrubby cinquefoil (Potentilla fruticosa L.) - demonstrated similar antimicrobial activity. The highest sensitivity to the studied preparations was observed in microbes with eukaryotic cell structure: Candida albicans, which is a fungus, and a spore-forming prokaryotic bacterium, Bacillus cereus. The highest resistance was observed in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. CONCLUSIONS. The studied preparations - viscous extracts of rhaponticum and shrubby cinquefoil - are substances with antimicrobial activity against gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis) bacteria, spore-forming bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus), and fungi (Candida albicans).
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December 2011

Antibiotic resistance mechanisms of clinically important bacteria.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2011 ;47(3):137-46

Department of Microbiology, Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.

Bacterial resistance to antimicrobial drugs is an increasing health and economic problem. Bacteria may be innate resistant or acquire resistance to one or few classes of antimicrobial agents. Acquired resistance arises from: (i) mutations in cell genes (chromosomal mutation) leading to cross-resistance, (ii) gene transfer from one microorganism to other by plasmids (conjugation or transformation), transposons (conjugation), integrons and bacteriophages (transduction). After a bacterium gains resistance genes to protect itself from various antimicrobial agents, bacteria can use several biochemical types of resistance mechanisms: antibiotic inactivation (interference with cell wall synthesis, e.g., β-lactams and glycopeptide), target modification (inhibition of protein synthesis, e.g., macrolides and tetracyclines; interference with nucleic acid synthesis, e.g., fluoroquinolones and rifampin), altered permeability (changes in outer membrane, e.g., aminoglycosides; new membrane transporters, e.g., chloramphenicol), and "bypass" metabolic pathway (inhibition of metabolic pathway, e.g., trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole).
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December 2011

Transferable class 1 and 2 integrons in Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica isolates of human and animal origin in Lithuania.

Foodborne Pathog Dis 2010 Oct;7(10):1185-92

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Vilnius University, M.K. Ciurlionio 21, Vilnius, Lithuania.

Antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli (n = 191) and Salmonella enterica (n = 87) isolates of human and animal origin obtained in Lithuania during 2005-2008 were characterized for the presence and diversity of class 1 and 2 integrons. E. coli isolates were obtained from patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) (n = 59) and both healthy and diseased farm animals, including poultry (n = 54), swine (n = 35), and cattle (n = 43). Isolates of non-typhoidal S. enterica were recovered from salmonellosis patients (n = 37) and healthy animals, including poultry (n = 31) and swine (n = 19). The presence of integrons, their gene cassette structure, and genome location were investigated by polymerase chain reaction, restriction fragment-length polymorphism, DNA sequencing, Southern blot hybridization, and conjugation experiments. Forty percent of the E. coli and 11% of the S. enterica isolates carried class 1 integrons, whereas class 2 integrons were found in E. coli isolates (9%) only. The incidence of integrons in human UTIs and cattle isolates was most frequent (p < 0.01). A total of 23 different gene cassettes within 15 different variable regions were observed. Seven different integron types, all of them transferable by conjugation, were common for isolates from human infections and for one or more groups of animal isolates. The most prevalent integron types contained arrays dfrA1-aadA1 (36%), dfrA17-aadA5 (23%), and dfrA1-sat1-aadA1 (78%). Two E. coli isolates from humans with UTIs harbored class 1 integron on conjugative plasmid with the novel array type of 4800 bp/dfrA17-aadA5Δ-IS26-ΔintI1-aadB-aadA1-cmlA residing on the Tn21-like transposon. Three S. enterica isolates from swine contained class 1 integron with the newly observed array type of 1800 bp/aadA7-aadA7. Integrons of 10 different types of both classes were located on transferable plasmids in E. coli and S. enterica. Our study demonstrated the existence of a considerable and common pool of transferable integrons in E. coli and S. enterica present in clinical and livestock environment in Lithuania.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/fpd.2010.0536DOI Listing
October 2010

Molecular characterization of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from hospitals in Lithuania.

J Med Microbiol 2010 Oct 24;59(Pt 10):1263-1265. Epub 2010 Jun 24.

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Vilnius University, M. K. Čiurlionio 21, LT-03101 Vilnius, Lithuania.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.021972-0DOI Listing
October 2010

Tigecycline - how powerful is it in the fight against antibiotic-resistant bacteria?

Medicina (Kaunas) 2010 ;46(4):240-8

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Vilnius University, 03101 Vilnius, Lithuania.

Tigecycline is a semisynthetic analogue of earlier tetracyclines and represents the first member of a novel class of antimicrobials - glycylcyclines - recently approved for clinical use. It is active against a broad range of gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial species including clinically important multidrug-resistant nosocomial and community-acquired bacterial pathogens. The exact molecular basis of tigecycline action is not clear at present, although similarly to the tetracyclines, it has been shown to inhibit the translation elongation step by binding to the ribosome 30S subunit and preventing aminoacylated tRNAs to accommodate in the ribosomal A site. Importantly, tigecycline overcomes the action of ribosomal protection proteins and is not a substrate for tetracycline efflux pumps of most bacteria - well-known and prevalent cellular mechanisms of microbial tetracycline resistance. The present review summarizes current knowledge on the molecular mechanism of the tigecycline action, antibacterial activity against various bacteria, clinical application, development of resistance to glycylcyclines.
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October 2010

Prevalence of trimethoprim resistance genes in Escherichia coli isolates of human and animal origin in Lithuania.

J Med Microbiol 2010 Mar 10;59(Pt 3):315-322. Epub 2009 Dec 10.

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Vilnius University, M. K. Čiurlionio 21, LT-03101 Vilnius, Lithuania.

A total of 456 non-repetitive Escherichia coli isolates from human clinical specimens (urinary, n=134; cervix, vagina and prostate, n=52; blood, pus and wounds, n=45), healthy animals (cattle, n=45; poultry, n=20) and diseased animals (cattle, n=53; swine, n=64; poultry, n=43) obtained in Lithuania during the period 2005-2008 were studied for trimethoprim (TMP) resistance and the prevalence of dfr genes. A TMP resistance rate in the range of 18-26 % respective to the origin was found in clinical isolates, 23-40 % in isolates from diseased animals and 9-20 % in isolates from healthy animals. Of 112 TMP-resistant isolates, 103 carried at least one of the six dfrA genes (dfrA1, dfrA5, dfrA8, dfrA12, dfrA14 and dfrA17) as determined by multiplex PCR and RFLP. The dfrA1 and dfrA17 genes were found most frequently in clinical isolates (17 and 19 isolates, respectively), whilst dfrA1 and dfrA14 genes dominated in isolates of animal origin (25 and 13 isolates, respectively). The dfrA5, dfrA12 and dfrA8 genes were detected at lower frequencies. The association with class 1/class 2 integrons was confirmed for 73-100 % of dfr genes found in most groups of isolates, except for the isolates from diseased swine. In this group, the majority of dfr-positive isolates (67 %, 8/12) carried dfrA8 (6/12) or dfrA14 genes (2/12) that were not associated with integrons. Non-integron location was also confirmed for the remaining dfrA8 genes (six clinical isolates and one isolate from diseased cattle) and for dfrA14 genes (two isolates from diseased cattle and swine each). All cassette-independent dfrA14 genes were found to be located within the strA gene. This study on the prevalence and distribution of TMP resistance genes among E. coli isolates of human and animal origin in Lithuania demonstrates that dfr genes are carried most frequently as gene cassettes within class 1 and/or class 2 integrons. However, TMP resistance in some of the isolates was found to be mediated by non-integron-associated dfrA8 and dfrA14 genes, indicating the existence of alternative sources for the spread of resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.015008-0DOI Listing
March 2010

Reduction of nosocomial infections and mortality attributable to nosocomial infections in pediatric intensive care units in Lithuania.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2009 ;45(3):203-13

Unit of Pediatric Intensive Care, Clinic of Children's Diseases, Hospital of Kaunas University of Medicine, Eiveniu 2, Kaunas, Lithuania.

Objective: The aim of the study was to identify the most important risk factors for nosocomial infections, evaluate the incidence rates and risk changes after the multimodal intervention, and to assess mortality attributable to nosocomial infections.

Material And Methods: This was a prospective surveillance study. Data were collected from January 2005 until December 2007 in three pediatric intensive care units. All patients aged between 1 month and 18 years hospitalized in units for more than 48 hours were included in the study. The patients were divided into preintervention (2006) and postintervention (2007) groups. The multimodal intervention included education of the staff and implementation of evidence-based infection control measures.

Results: A total of 755 children were included in the study. Major risk factors for nosocomial infections were identified: mechanical ventilation, central line, intracranial pressure device, and tracheostomy. Overall, the incidence rate (15.6 vs. 7.5 cases per 100 patients, P=0.002), incidence density (19.1 vs. 10.4 cases per 1000 patient-days, P=0.015), and the incidence of pneumonia (5.6 vs. 1.9 per 100 patients, P=0.016) have decreased in the postintervention as compared with the preintervention group. The relative risk reduction, absolute risk reduction, and number needed to treat were statistically significant for ventilator-associated pneumonia (66.5%, 3.7%, 27, respectively; P=0.016). There was no significant difference in survival time by the presence of nosocomial infection (83.67 patient-days without vs. 74.33 patient-days with infection, P>0.05)

Conclusions: The most important risk factors for nosocomial infections were mechanical ventilation, central line, intracranial pressure device, and tracheostomy. After the multimodal intervention, there was a statistically significant decrease in the incidence rates of nosocomial infections and the risk reduction for ventilator-associated pneumonia. No significant impact of nosocomial infections on mortality was determined.
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May 2009

[Antimicrobial activity of soft and purified propolis extracts].

Medicina (Kaunas) 2008 ;44(12):977-83

Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Social Pharmacy, Kaunas University of Medicine, A. Mickeviciaus 9, 44307 Kaunas, Lithuania.

Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of soft and purified propolis extracts. STUDY OBJECT AND METHODS: Antimicrobial activity of soft and purified propolis extracts was determined with reference cultures of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 33499, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Proteus mirabilis ATCC 12459, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Bacillus cereus ATCC 8035, and fungus Candida albicans ATCC 60193. Microbiological tests were performed under aseptic conditions. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)--the highest dilution of preparation (the lowest concentration of preparation) that suppresses growth of reference microorganisms--was determined.

Results: Concentration of phenolic compounds in soft propolis extract that possesses antimicrobial activity against gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis) and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis) is 0.587+/-0.054 mg and 0.587+/-0.054-0.394+/-0.022 mg (P>0.05) and in purified propolis extract--0.427+/-0.044 mg and 0.256+/-0.02 mg (P>0.05). Klebsiella pneumoniae is most resistant to soft propolis extract when the concentration of phenolic compounds is 1.119+/- 0.152 mg and to purified propolis extract when the concentration of phenolic compounds is 1.013+/-0.189 mg (P>0.05). Spore-forming Bacillus subtilis bacteria are more sensitive to soft and purified propolis extracts when the concentration of phenolic compounds is 0.134+/-0.002 mg and 0.075+/-0.025 mg, respectively, and Bacillus cereus--when the concentration is 0.394+/-0.022 mg and 0.256+/-0.02 mg (P>0.05). Sensitivity of fungus Candida albicans to soft and purified propolis extracts is the same as Bacillus subtilis. Encapsulated bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae is most resistant to antimicrobial action of soft and purified propolis extracts as compared with gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis bacteria (P<0.05), gram-negative Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis (P<0.05), spore-forming Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus bacteria (P<0.05), and fungus Candida albicans (P<0.05). There is no statistically significant difference between antimicrobial effect of soft propolis extract and purified propolis extract on gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, spore-forming bacteria, encapsulated bacteria, and Candida fungus.

Conclusions: Soft and purified propolis extracts possess antimicrobial activity. They could be recommended as natural preservatives in the manufacture of pharmaceutical products.
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February 2009

[Staphylococcus aureus prevalence among hospitalized patients].

Medicina (Kaunas) 2008 ;44(8):593-600

Department of Microbiology, Kaunas University of Medicine, A. Mickeviciaus 9, 44307 Kaunas, Lithuania.

OBJECTIVE. To determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus strains among hospitalized patients at the beginning of their hospitalization and during their treatment and the resistance of strains to antibiotics, and to evaluate epidemiologic characteristics of these strains. PATIENTS AND METHODS. Sixty-one patients treated at the Department of Cardiac, Thoracic and Vascular Surgery were examined. Identification of Staphylococcus aureus strains was performed using plasmacoagulase and DNase tests. The resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to antibiotics, beta-lactamase production, phagotypes, and phagogroups were determined. The isolated Staphylococcus aureus strains were tested for resistance to methicillin by performing disc diffusion method using commercial discs (Oxoid) (methicillin 5 microg per disk and oxacillin 1 microg per disk). RESULTS. A total of 297 Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated. On the first day of hospitalization, the prevalence rate of Staphylococcus aureus strains among patients was 67.3%, and it statistically significantly increased to 91.8% on days 7-10 of hospitalization (P<0.05). During hospitalization, patients were colonized with Staphylococcus aureus strains resistant to cephalothin (17.6% of patients, P<0.05), cefazolin (14.6%, P<0.05), tetracycline (15.0%, P<0.05), gentamicin (37.7%, P<0.001), doxycycline (30.7%, P<0.001), and tobramycin (10.6%, P>0.05). Three patients (4.9%) were colonized with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains, belonging to phage group II phage type 3A and phage group III phage types 83A and 77; 22.6-25.5% of Staphylococcus aureus strains were nontypable. During hospitalization, the prevalence rate of phage group II Staphylococcus aureus strains decreased from 39.6% to 5.7% (P<0.05) and the prevalence rate of phage group III Staphylococcus aureus strains increased to 29.5% (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS. Although our understanding of Staphylococcus aureus is increasing, well-designed community-based studies with adequate risk factor analysis are required to elucidate further the epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Surveillance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus provides relevant information on the extent of the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus epidemic, identifies priorities for infection control and the need for adjustments in antimicrobial drug policy, and guides intervention programs.
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September 2010

[Staphylococcus aureus prevalence among preschool- and school-aged pupils].

Medicina (Kaunas) 2007 ;43(11):887-94

Department of Microbiology, Kaunas University of Medicine, Kaunas, Lithuania.

Object: To determine the prevalence and incidence of Staphylococcus aureus strains among preschool- and school-aged pupils and susceptibility of these strains to antimicrobial materials.

Material And Methods: A study of 243 preschool- and 300 school-aged pupils was conducted during 2003-2004. Identification of Staphylococcus aureus was made with plasmacoagulase and DNase tests. The resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to antibiotics, beta-lactamase activity, phagotypes, and phage groups were determined. The isolated Staphylococcus aureus strains were tested for resistance to methicillin by performing disc diffusion method using commercial discs (Oxoid) (methicillin 5 microg per disk and oxacillin 1 microg per disk).

Results: A total of 292 (53.8%) Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated and identified (113 (46.5%) from preschool- and 179 (59.7%) from school-aged pupils). The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus strains among preschool-aged pupils varied from 46.5% to 47%. It increased to 59.0% (P>0.05) among schoolchildren aged from 11 to 15 years and to 73.0% (P<0.001) among schoolchildren aged from 16 to 19 years. Six methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated: two (1.8%) of them were from preschool-aged and four (2.2%) from school-aged pupils. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus strains with beta-lactamase activity increased from 70.7 to 76.6% in preschool-aged pupils, and it varied from 72.0 to 79.0% in school-aged pupils (P>0.05). Staphylococcus aureus strains of phage group II (32.2-43.4%) were prevailing; nontypable Staphylococcus aureus strains made up 19.2-33.6%.

Conclusions: The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus among preschool-aged children is 41.7 to 48.8%, and it increases among 9th-12th-grade pupils (73.0%, P<0.001). Some Staphylococcus aureus strains (2.1%) were resistant to methicillin. Staphylococcus aureus strains of phage group II (39.0%, P<0.05) are most prevalent among preschool- and school-aged pupils. Pupils were colonized with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains belonging to phage group III phagotype 83A and 77.
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January 2008

New ethacridine derivatives as the potential antifungal and antibacterial preparations.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2007 ;43(8):657-63

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, Kaunas University of Medicine, Kaunas, Lithuania.

Until the 20th century fungal infections were rather easy cured, and the need of new antifungal drugs was low. However, low choice of antifungal preparations, their toxicity, limited spectrum of action, and ability to produce resistant strains show the need of new effective medicines for systemic fungal diseases in nowadays. Our goal of research was to synthesize new antimicrobial compounds containing three or more pharmacophores in one molecule. The initial 5-substituted-2-methylmercaptothiazolidin-4-ones were subjected to S-demethylation to yield 2-amino-substituted thiazolidinones. Ethacridine, nitrofuran aldehydes and nitrobenzene aldehyde as pharmacophoric amino or aldehyde group having compounds have been used. Antimicrobial (antifungal) activity of the new compounds was screened in vitro in these bacterial cultures: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 33499 and fungal cultures: Candida albicans ATCC 60193, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Candida kefyr ATCC 8614, Candida tropicalis ATCC 8302, Candida parapsilosis. Results showed that the new compounds were significantly more effective as antimicrobial agents than initial preparation ethacridine. Ethacridine derivatives were not only effective against numerous gram-positive and some gram-negative bacteria, but the spectrum of action has been discovered against fungi. Minimal fungistatic concentration varies in the range 10.0-750 microg/mL and antibacterial concentration is in the range 62.5-1000 microg/mL. Compound 2a having nitrofuryl substituent in the fifth position of tiazolidine cycle was the most active of synthesized ethacridine compounds. The obtained results gave the opportunity to separate the perspective group of potential antiinfective compounds.
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November 2007

Combined serum IgG response to Helicobacter pylori VacA and CagA predicts gastric cancer.

FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 2007 Jul;50(2):220-5

Department of Microbiology, University of Medicine, Kaunas, Lithuania.

Helicobacter pylori is a major factor for the development of gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to define serum antibody patterns associated with H. pylori infection in patients with gastric cancer using a Western blot technique. Serum samples collected from 115 patients with gastric cancer and 110 age- and gender-matched patients without gastrointestinal diseases were tested for IgG antibodies to H. pylori antigens (outer membrane proteins and whole cell preparations). No significant differences were found between patients with and without gastric cancer using outer membrane proteins (82% and 73%, P>0.05) or whole cell antigens (84% and 76%, P>0.05), respectively. The significant differences between patients with and without gastric cancer were associated with bands of 94 kDa (54% and 20%, P<0.001) and 30 kDa (65% and 44%, P<0.01). A combination of antibodies to 85 kDa (VacA) and 120 kDa (CagA) was significantly (P<0.01) more frequent in gastric cancer patients than in patients without gastric cancer. The detection of antibodies to 94- and 30-kDa bands, in association with the determination of serum antibodies to CagA+/VacA+, may have a prospective value in assessment of the risk of developing of gastric cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-695X.2007.00268.xDOI Listing
July 2007

The peculiarities of Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistance to antibiotics and prevalence of serogroups.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2007 ;43(1):36-42

Department of Microbiology, Kaunas University of Medicine, Eiveniu 4, 50009 Kaunas, Lithuania.

Unlabelled: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most common nonfermenting aerobic gram-negative microorganisms identified in clinical specimens of hospitalized patients. The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains is a growing concern in hospital-acquired infections. Typing of strains is important for identifying the sources of infection as well as prevention of cross-infections and monitoring of the efficacy of antimicrobial therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance and prevalence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa serogroups isolated at Kaunas University of Medicine Hospital, Lithuania.

Material And Methods: Minimum inhibitory concentrations of piperacillin, cefoperazone, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, cefepime, imipenem, meropenem, gentamicin, amikacin, tobramycin, and ciprofloxacin for 609 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from various clinical specimens between November 2001 and November 2002 were determined by the microdilution method in Mueller-Hinton agar using interpretative guidelines of National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Serogroups of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were identified using serums of Seiken Co. Ltd (Tokyo, Japan), containing antibodies against antigens of Pseudomonas aeruginosa O-group.

Results: Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were the most sensitive to ceftazidime (78.9%), imipenem (73.6%), meropenem (70.9%) and the most resistant to gentamicin (54.1%) and ciprofloxacin (52.5%). Multidrug-resistant strains made up 9.85% of all Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains investigated. Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were 1.5-3.5 times more resistant to antibiotics compared to non-multidrug-resistant strains, except to amikacin: multidrug-resistant strains were more sensitive (81.7%) than non-multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains (61.0%). Pseudomonas aeruginosa serogroups O:E and O:B were the most common serogroups (34.7% and 29.0%, respectively) followed by serogroups O:I (11.4%) and O:A (10.1%). Pseudomonas aeruginosa serogroup O:E strains were the most prevalent among multidrug-resistant strains (48.3%).

Conclusions: The results of our study show that serogroup O:E was the most prevalent serogroup of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in our hospital, and its resistance to antibiotics was the highest.
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March 2007

[Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from burn wounds to antibiotics].

Medicina (Kaunas) 2006 ;42(5):377-83

Department of Microbiology, Kaunas University of Medicine, Kaunas, Lithuania.

Objective: To determine the colonization rate of Staphylococcus aureus in burn wounds and to assess the variation in the resistance of Staphylococcus aureus strains to antibiotics.

Material And Methods: A retrospective study of 72 patients with burn wounds was carried out during 1997 and 2003. Specimens taken from burn wounds at first, fifth, and later every seventh day of hospitalization were placed in transport medium. Isolates were grown on mannitol salt agar. Cultures of Staphylococcus aureus were determined using plasmacoagulase and DNA-ase tests. The resistance of Staphylococcus aureus strains to penicillin, oxacillin, ceftazidime, vancomycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, tobramycin, doxycycline, ciprofloxacin, cefepime, fusidic acid, and clindamycin was determined. The isolated strains of Staphylococcus aureus were tested for resistance to methicillin by performing a disc diffusion method using commercial discs (Oxoid) (5 microg methicillin per disk and 1 microg oxacillin per disk).

Results: During 1997-2003, a total of 221 Staphylococcus aureus cultures were isolated from burn wounds. More than one-fourth of all isolated Staphylococcus aureus strains (25.3%) were resistant to methicillin; 64% of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus strains were resistant to clindamycin and 28-30% - to gentamicin and kanamycin. The resistance rate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains to doxycycline, clindamycin, oxacillin, tobramycin, gentamicin, and kanamycin was 78.5-98%. Majority of Staphylococcus aureus strains were non-susceptible to ceftazidime (91-100%); the rate of resistance to clindamycin decreased from 99% to 36%, (p<0.05) and to ciprofloxacin - increased from 55-65% to 81% (p<0.05).

Conclusions: Staphylococcus aureus was the most prevalent pathogen isolated from burn wounds. On the first day of hospitalization Staphylococcus aureus isolates were obtained from 25.3% of patients; 12.5% of patients with burn wounds had methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus at the end of the first week of hospitalization and 66% of patients--after two weeks and later. The resistance of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus to gentamicin, tobramycin, and clindamycin decreased. The resistance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to clindamycin decreased and to ciprofloxacin--increased.
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September 2006

Staphylococcus aureus resistance to antibiotics and spread of phage types.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2006 ;42(4):332-9

Department of Microbiology, Kaunas University of Medicine, Kaunas, Lithuania.

Objective: The aim of this study was to identify the phage groups of Staphylococcus aureus strains, their prevalence, and resistance of different phage groups to antibiotics.

Materials And Methods: A total of 294 Staphylococcus aureus strains in Kaunas hospitals were obtained; they were phage typed and their resistance to antibiotics was determined. We used the method of routine dilution to test 17 antibiotics against the isolates. Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus to studied antibiotics was estimated on the basis of National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards according to minimal inhibition concentration of each antibiotic. Staphylococcus aureus strains were phage typed by the international diagnostic set of Staphylococci bacteriophages (Moscow, Russia).

Results: After evaluating the resistance of obtained Staphylococcus aureus strains to oxacillin/methicillin, it was determined that 5.8% of Staphylococcus aureus were resistant to methicillin. Almost all strains (93.75%) of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were susceptible to the fusidic acid, 18.75%--to ciprofloxacin; 31.25% of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains were susceptible to gentamicin, 37.5%--to doxycycline, and just 6.25%--to erythromycin. The strains of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus are susceptible to many studied antibiotics. The strains of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus are most resistant to penicillin--83.1% and to erythromycin--29.9%. Phage typing revealed that 20.9% of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and 56.2% of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were nontypable.

Conclusions: Using the international set of bacteriophages, 79.1% of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and 43.8% of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains were phage typed. Among the strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, phagotype 77 of phagogroup III was the most common and among the strains of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus--phagotype 3C of phagogroup II.
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May 2006

The humoral immuneresponse to Helicobacter pylori infection in children with gastrointestinal symptoms.

FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 2005 May;44(2):205-12

Department of Microbiology, Kaunas University of Medicine, Lithuania.

The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori is high in Eastern Europe. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of H. pylori in symptomatic Lithuanian children and to identify the infection by clinicopathological and serological analyses. One hundred sixteen symptomatic children (age 8-16) with gastritis and duodenal ulcer were included. Biopsies were histologically assessed according to the Sydney-System. Serum IgG antibodies against H. pylori were detected by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), using low molecular mass antigen. The western blot technique was used to detect serum antibodies against the cytotoxin-associated protein (CagA) using whole cell antigen. Histologically the prevalence of H. pylori infection was 79% and not influenced by demographic factors. Mucosal inflammation and atrophy were associated with a H. pylori infection. Intestinal metaplasia was found in eight children, suggesting early H. pylori acquisition in life. Increased levels of IgG antibodies were detected in 57% of children. The prevalence of IgG antibodies was significantly higher in patients with duodenal ulcer compared to children with gastritis. Forty-four (67%) H. pylori-seropositive children had antibodies against CagA. Low molecular weight-ELISA and whole cell-western blot results were significantly associated with histopathology, the presence of duodenal ulcer and the CagA status. A high number of false seronegative cases were due to poor immunological responses in children and poor locally validated tests. The prevalence of H. pylori infection in Lithuanian children is higher compared to Western Europe. The infection is acquired in early life. Diagnosing H. pylori infection, serology is helpful, but endoscopy/histology remains as gold standard.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.femsim.2005.02.005DOI Listing
May 2005

Helicobacter pylori antibodies and gastric cancer: a gender-related difference.

FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 2005 May;44(2):191-5

Department of Microbiology, Kaunas University of Medicine, Mickeviciaus 9, LT-4430 Kaunas, Lithuania.

Helicobacter pylori has been proposed as a causative agent of gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to define serum antibodies response against different H. pylori antigens in patients with gastric cancer. Serum samples were collected from 115 Lithuanian patients with non-cardia gastric cancer and 110 age- and sex-matched controls without cancer. Heat-stable, low-molecular-mass, and outer membrane proteins were used as antigens to analyze serum IgG antibody response against H. pylori by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Seroprevalence of H. pylori using low-molecular-mass antigen was significantly higher in gastric cancer patients, compared to controls (77% versus 57%, p<0.05). Significant differences in the prevalence of H. pylori infection between gastric cancer patients and controls were found in females using all three studied antigens: heat-stable (98% versus 84%, p<0.05), low-molecular-mass (88% versus 48%, p<0.05) and outer membrane proteins (78% versus 57%, p<0.05). In males, no significant differences were revealed between gastric cancer patients and controls. There may be other cofactors in addition to H. pylori that are important for the development of gastric cancer. H. pylori seems, however, to be a more important for development of gastric cancer in females than in males or males may have more confounding risk factors for gastric cancer than females.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.femsim.2004.11.011DOI Listing
May 2005

[The antimicrobiological analysis of procalment solution].

Medicina (Kaunas) 2005 ;41(3):221-5

Department of Drug Technology and Social Pharmacy, Kaunas University of Medicine, A. Mickeviciaus 9, 44307 Kaunas, Lithuania.

The Aim Of The Study: to analyse the antimicrobial activity of procalment solutions. The antimicrobial action of procalment solution and its components to the microorganism standard cultures (Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, sporic bacteria and fungi) and bacteria clinical strains has been studied. It has been found that the sensitivity of bacteria to procalment solutions depends on the structure of microorganism cell wall: procalment solutions are antimicrobially active against S. aureus, S. epidermidis, S. pyogenes, S. pneumoniae and sporic bacteria, act slightly on Corynebacterium diphteriae and Candida albicans. Gram-negative bacteria are more resistant to procalment solutions than Gram-positive: 54.6-72.8% of Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae) are resistant to procalment.
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February 2006

Ratings of contracting infectious diseases and of the risk of sexual HIV transmission by health care students from Germany, Lithuania, and Namibia.

Percept Mot Skills 2003 Dec;97(3 Pt 1):843-6

Dresden Medical School, University of Dresden, Germany.

In Germany, Lithuania, and Namibia different types of the HIV epidemic are present. HIV testing of health care students and their ratings of the risk of sexually acquired HIV infections and factors influencing the risk of contracting infectious diseases were analyzed. 182 German medical and dental students, 176 Lithuanian medical students, and 135 Namibian student nurses participated by completing anonymous questionnaires. The Namibian student nurses rated sexual HIV transmission risks higher than the Lithuanian and German medical students did. In general, the Lithuanian medical students rated risks of HIV transmission lowest, compared to the students in the other two samples. Risk behavior and environmental factors were most emphasized by the three student samples as having an influence on the risk of contracting infectious diseases. Thus, national prevalence of HIV influences ratings of sexual HIV transmission risks, while rating of factors influencing the risk of contracting infectious diseases are similar.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pms.2003.97.3.843DOI Listing
December 2003

What Bizzozero never could imagine - Helicobacter pylori today and tomorrow.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2003 ;39(6):542-9

Department of Microbiology, Kaunas University of Medicine, A. Mickeviciaus 9, 3000 Kaunas, Lithuania.

With the observation of spiral organism in the stomach about one hundred years ago a long history of a bacterium started ending up in a worldwide research programs, studies and consensuses. With this bacterium rediscovered by Marshall and Warren and later named Helicobacter pylori, a milestone of research was laid nearly twenty years ago. Helicobacter pylori is now recognized as the main cause of most cases of gastritis and ulcer disease in the stomach and the duodenum. In the course of the Helicobacter pylori research, Helicobacter pylori was found to trigger neoplastic alterations on the ground of the inflammation in the stomach. At first, a large number of publications served to describe the connection between Helicobacter pylori and the low malignant B-cell lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) of the stomach. Furthermore, on the basis of numerous seroepidemiological studies, researchers succeeded in documenting the participation of H. pylori, at least as a co-factor, in the development of gastric carcinoma. From large epidemiological studies made during the last twenty years as well as from microbiological research we have learned much more about this in the beginning nameless and mysterious bacterium.
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September 2005
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