Publications by authors named "Alvaro A Cruz"

126 Publications

Improving lung health in low-income and middle-income countries: from challenges to solutions.

Lancet 2021 Feb 22. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Global Asthma Network (GAN), Auckland, New Zealand; International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases, Paris, France; Woolcock Institute of Medical Research, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; UNSW Medicine, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) bear a disproportionately high burden of the global morbidity and mortality caused by chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs), including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchiectasis, and post-tuberculosis lung disease. CRDs are strongly associated with poverty, infectious diseases, and other non-communicable diseases (NCDs), and contribute to complex multi-morbidity, with major consequences for the lives and livelihoods of those affected. The relevance of CRDs to health and socioeconomic wellbeing is expected to increase in the decades ahead, as life expectancies rise and the competing risks of early childhood mortality and infectious diseases plateau. As such, the World Health Organization has identified the prevention and control of NCDs as an urgent development issue and essential to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030. In this Review, we focus on CRDs in LMICs. We discuss the early life origins of CRDs; challenges in their prevention, diagnosis, and management in LMICs; and pathways to solutions to achieve true universal health coverage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00458-XDOI Listing
February 2021

Potential Interplay between Nrf2, TRPA1, and TRPV1 in Nutrients for the Control of COVID-19.

Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2021 Feb 10:1-15. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

IMIM (Hospital del Mar Research Institute), Barcelona, Spain.

In this article, we propose that differences in COVID-19 morbidity may be associated with transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) and/or transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) activation as well as desensitization. TRPA1 and TRPV1 induce inflammation and play a key role in the physiology of almost all organs. They may augment sensory or vagal nerve discharges to evoke pain and several symptoms of COVID-19, including cough, nasal obstruction, vomiting, diarrhea, and, at least partly, sudden and severe loss of smell and taste. TRPA1 can be activated by reactive oxygen species and may therefore be up-regulated in COVID-19. TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels can be activated by pungent compounds including many nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2) (Nrf2)-interacting foods leading to channel desensitization. Interactions between Nrf2-associated nutrients and TRPA1/TRPV1 may be partly responsible for the severity of some of the COVID-19 symptoms. The regulation by Nrf2 of TRPA1/TRPV1 is still unclear, but suggested from very limited clinical evidence. In COVID-19, it is proposed that rapid desensitization of TRAP1/TRPV1 by some ingredients in foods could reduce symptom severity and provide new therapeutic strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000514204DOI Listing
February 2021

Is asthma a risk factor for coronavirus disease-2019 worse outcomes? The answer is no, but ….

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2021 Jan 28. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Divisions of Allergy-Immunology and Pulmonology, São Paulo University Hospital, Sao Paulo Internal Medicine of Salvador Municipal Hospital Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, Brazil.

Purpose Of Review: To search for evidence on whether having asthma increases the risk of poor outcomes of COVID-19 and report on recommendations on optimal asthma management in times of COVID-19.

Recent Findings: Patients with asthma are neither at greater risk of becoming infected by SARS-CoV-2 nor they are at risk of complications of COVID-19 but those requiring frequent use of oral corticosteroid may be at greater risk.

Summary: In general, patients with asthma are not at risk of COVID-19 morbidity or mortality. On the contrary, patients with asthma may be at lower risk of hospitalizations during the COVID-19 pandemic. This may be related to asthma and its treatment, to patient's behavior, to the health system, and to collective changes in activities. It is likely that reduction in respiratory infections because of social distancing, face masks, and hand washing have a role in the reduction in asthma hospitalizations. Management of asthma in times of COVID-19 must be optimized, medication have to be used regularly and exacerbations detected early. Systemic corticosteroids may be used for control of severe asthma or severe exacerbations. Patient education on an action plan is crucial, as well as facilitating communications with the healthcare team.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0000000000000734DOI Listing
January 2021

ICS/formoterol in the management of asthma in the clinical practice of pulmonologists: an international survey on GINA strategy.

Asthma Res Pract 2021 Jan 29;7(1). Epub 2021 Jan 29.

University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.

Background: The treatment with short-acting beta-2 agonists (SABA) alone is no longer recommended due to safety issues. Instead, the current Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) Report recommends the use of the combination of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) with the rapid/long-acting beta-2 agonist formoterol, although the use in steps 1 and 2 is still off-label in the EU and in many countries. It is important to understand clinicians' knowledge and opinions on the issue with the ultimate goal to encourage the implementation of the new approach in clinical practice.

Methods: We performed an international survey, directed to pulmonologists interested in the management of patients with asthma.

Results: Most participants reported that SABA alone should not be used in GINA Step 1 asthma treatment. As-needed low-dose ICS/formoterol combination to patients in step 1, and as-needed low-dose ICS/formoterol as reliever therapy in any step were found to be of current use prescribed in their real-life settings. SABA alone was still prescribed to a proportion of patients, although the pulmonologists' opinion was that it should no longer be used.

Conclusions: Most specialists are up to date and understand the relevance of the changes in GINA reports from 2019. Nevertheless, dissemination and implementation of GINA novel management strategy is still needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40733-021-00067-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7844897PMC
January 2021

Efficacy of broccoli and glucoraphanin in COVID-19: From hypothesis to proof-of-concept with three experimental clinical cases.

World Allergy Organ J 2021 Jan 9;14(1):100498. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

IMIM (Hospital del Mar Research Institute), Barcelona, Spain.

COVID-19 is described in a clinical case involving a patient who proposed the hypothesis that Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)-interacting nutrients may help to prevent severe COVID-19 symptoms. Capsules of broccoli seeds containing glucoraphanin were being taken before the onset of SARS-CoV-2 infection and were continued daily for over a month after the first COVID-19 symptoms. They were found to reduce many of the symptoms rapidly and for a duration of 6-12 h by repeated dosing. When the patient was stable but still suffering from cough and nasal obstruction when not taking the broccoli capsules, a double-blind induced cough challenge confirmed the speed of onset of the capsules (less than 10 min). A second clinical case with lower broccoli doses carried out during the cytokine storm confirmed the clinical benefits already observed. A third clinical case showed similar effects at the onset of symptoms. In the first clinical trial, we used a dose of under 600 μmol per day of glucoraphanin. However, such a high dose may induce pharmacologic effects that require careful examination before the performance of any study. It is likely that the fast onset of action is mediated through the TRPA1 channel. These experimental clinical cases represent a proof-of-concept confirming the hypothesis that Nrf2-interacting nutrients are effective in COVID-19. However, this cannot be used in practice before the availability of further safety data, and confirmation is necessary through proper trials on efficacy and safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.waojou.2020.100498DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7770975PMC
January 2021

Spices to Control COVID-19 Symptoms: Yes, but Not Only….

Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2020 Dec 22:1-7. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

IMIM (Hospital del Mar Research Institute), Barcelona, Spain.

There are large country variations in COVID-19 death rates that may be partly explained by diet. Many countries with low COVID-19 death rates have a common feature of eating large quantities of fermented vegetables such as cabbage and, in some continents, various spices. Fermented vegetables and spices are agonists of the antioxidant transcription factor nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), and spices are transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 and vanillin 1 (TRPA1/V1) agonists. These mechanisms may explain many COVID-19 symptoms and severity. It appears that there is a synergy between Nrf2 and TRPA1/V1 foods that may explain the role of diet in COVID-19. One of the mechanisms of COVID-19 appears to be an oxygen species (ROS)-mediated process in synergy with TRP channels, modulated by Nrf2 pathways. Spicy foods are likely to desensitize TRP channels and act in synergy with exogenous antioxidants that activate the Nrf2 pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000513538DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7900475PMC
December 2020

Corticosteroid Use and Periodontal Disease: A Systematic Review.

Eur J Dent 2020 Jul 1;14(3):496-501. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Postgraduate Program in Medicine and Health, School of Medicine, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

Periodontitis affects the teeth supporting structures, such as periodontal tissues. We aimed to evaluate the association between periodontal disease and corticosteroid use. We searched in MEDLINE, Web of Sciences, SCOPUS, LILACS, and Cochrane databases, using the descriptors "Periodontal diseases" AND ("adrenal cortex hormones" OR "adrenal cortex hormones" OR ("adrenal" AND "cortex" AND "hormones") OR "adrenal cortex hormones" OR "corticosteroid"). We selected the summaries of observational studies, addressing periodontal disease in patients using corticosteroids. The search resulted in 403 articles. After applying the selection criteria, eight studies remained; being two retrospective cohorts and six cross-sectional studies. There are few studies with appropriate methodology to produce sound evidence about the causal relationship between the use of corticosteroids and periodontitis. However, two retrospective cohorts confirmed that chronic corticosteroid use is associated with the incidence of periodontal disease. Dental staff must be aware of this association for better management of periodontal disease therapy in patients using corticosteroids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1713954DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7440954PMC
July 2020

ARIA-EAACI statement on asthma and COVID-19 (June 2, 2020).

Authors:
Jean Bousquet Marek Jutel Cezmi A Akdis Ludger Klimek Oliver Pfaar Kari C Nadeau Thomas Eiwegger Anna Bedbrook Ignacio J Ansotegui Josep M Anto Claus Bachert Eric D Bateman Kazi S Bennoor Elena Camelia Berghea Karl-Christian Bergmann Hubert Blain Mateo Bonini Sinthia Bosnic-Anticevich Louis-Philippe Boulet Luisa Brussino Roland Buhl Paulo Camargos Giorgio Walter Canonica Victoria Cardona Thomas Casale Sharon Chinthrajah Mübeccel Akdis Tomas Chivato George Christoff Alvaro A Cruz Wienczyslawa Czarlewski Stefano Del Giacco Hui Du Yehia El-Gamal Wytske J Fokkens Joao A Fonseca Yadong Gao Mina Gaga Bilun Gemicioglu Maia Gotua Tari Haahtela David Halpin Eckard Hamelmann Karin Hoffmann-Sommergruber Marc Humbert Nataliya Ilina Juan-Carlos Ivancevich Guy Joos Musa Khaitov Bruce Kirenga Edward F Knol Fanny W Ko Seppo Koskinen Marek L Kowalski Helga Kraxner Dmitry Kudlay Piotr Kuna Maciej Kupczyk Violeta Kvedariene Amir H Abdul Latiff Lan T Le Michael Levin Desiree Larenas-Linnemann Renaud Louis Mohammad R Masjedi Erik Melén Florin Mihaltan Branislava Milenkovic Yousser Mohammad Mario Morais-Almeida Joaquim Mullol Leyla Namazova Hugo Neffen Elisabete Nunes Paul O'Byrne Robyn O'Hehir Liam O'Mahony Ken Ohta Yoshitaka Okamoto Gabrielle L Onorato Petr Panzner Nikos G Papadopoulos Gianni Passalacqua Vincenzo Patella Ruby Pawankar Nhân Pham-Thi Bernard Pigearias Todor A Popov Francesca Puggioni Frederico S Regateiro Giovanni Rolla Menachem Rottem Boleslaw Samolinski Joaquin Sastre Jurgen Schwarze Aziz Sheikh Nicola Scichilone Manuel Soto-Quiros Manuel Soto-Martinez Milan Sova Stefania Nicola Rafael Stelmach Charlotte Suppli-Ulrik Luis Taborda-Barata Teresa To Peter-Valentin Tomazic Sanna Toppila-Salmi Ioanna Tsiligianni Omar Usmani Arunas Valiulis Maria Teresa Ventura Giovanni Viegi Theodor Vontetsianos De Yun Wang Sian Williams Gary W K Wong Arzu Yorgancioglu Mario Zernotti Mihaela Zidarn Torsten Zuberbier Ioana Agache

Allergy 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Transylvania University Brasov, Brasov, Romania.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/all.14471DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7361514PMC
June 2020

ARIA digital anamorphosis: Digital transformation of health and care in airway diseases from research to practice.

Authors:
Jean Bousquet Josep M Anto Claus Bachert Tari Haahtela Torsten Zuberbier Wienczyslawa Czarlewski Anna Bedbrook Sinthia Bosnic-Anticevich G Walter Canonica Victoria Cardona Elisio Costa Alvaro A Cruz Marina Erhola Wytske J Fokkens Joao A Fonseca Maddalena Illario Juan-Carlos Ivancevich Marek Jutel Ludger Klimek Piotr Kuna Violeta Kvedariene Ltt Le Désirée E Larenas-Linnemann Daniel Laune Olga M Lourenço Erik Melén Joaquim Mullol Marek Niedoszytko Mikaëla Odemyr Yoshitaka Okamoto Nikos G Papadopoulos Vincenzo Patella Oliver Pfaar Nhân Pham-Thi Christine Rolland Boleslaw Samolinski Aziz Sheikh Mikhail Sofiev Charlotte Suppli Ulrik Ana Todo-Bom Peter-Valentin Tomazic Sanna Toppila-Salmi Ioanna Tsiligianni Arunas Valiulis Erkka Valovirta Maria-Teresa Ventura Samantha Walker Sian Williams Arzu Yorgancioglu Ioana Agache Cezmi A Akdis Rute Almeida Ignacio J Ansotegui Isabella Annesi-Maesano Sylvie Arnavielhe Xavier Basagaña Eric D Bateman Annabelle Bédard Martin Bedolla-Barajas Sven Becker Kazi S Bennoor Samuel Benveniste Karl C Bergmann Michael Bewick Slawomir Bialek Nils E Billo Carsten Bindslev-Jensen Leif Bjermer Hubert Blain Matteo Bonini Philippe Bonniaud Isabelle Bosse Jacques Bouchard Louis-Philippe Boulet Rodolphe Bourret Koen Boussery Fluvio Braido Vitalis Briedis Andrew Briggs Christopher E Brightling Jan Brozek Guy Brusselle Luisa Brussino Roland Buhl Roland Buonaiuto Moises A Calderon Paulo Camargos Thierry Camuzat Luis Caraballo Ana-Maria Carriazo Warner Carr Christine Cartier Thomas Casale Lorenzo Cecchi Alfonso M Cepeda Sarabia Niels H Chavannes Ekaterine Chkhartishvili Derek K Chu Cemal Cingi Jaime Correia de Sousa David J Costa Anne-Lise Courbis Adnan Custovic Biljana Cvetkosvki Gennaro D'Amato Jane da Silva Carina Dantas Dejan Dokic Yves Dauvilliers Giulia De Feo Govert De Vries Philippe Devillier Stefania Di Capua Gerard Dray Ruta Dubakiene Stephen R Durham Mark Dykewicz Motohiro Ebisawa Mina Gaga Yehia El-Gamal Enrico Heffler Regina Emuzyte John Farrell Jean-Luc Fauquert Alessandro Fiocchi Antje Fink-Wagner Jean-François Fontaine José M Fuentes Perez Bilun Gemicioğlu Amiran Gamkrelidze Judith Garcia-Aymerich Philippe Gevaert René Maximiliano Gomez Sandra González Diaz Maia Gotua Nick A Guldemond Maria-Antonieta Guzmán Jawad Hajjam Yunuen R Huerta Villalobos Marc Humbert Guido Iaccarino Despo Ierodiakonou Tomohisa Iinuma Ewa Jassem Guy Joos Ki-Suck Jung Igor Kaidashev Omer Kalayci Przemyslaw Kardas Thomas Keil Musa Khaitov Nikolai Khaltaev Jorg Kleine-Tebbe Rostislav Kouznetsov Marek L Kowalski Vicky Kritikos Inger Kull Stefania La Grutta Lisa Leonardini Henrik Ljungberg Philip Lieberman Brian Lipworth Karin C Lodrup Carlsen Catarina Lopes-Pereira Claudia C Loureiro Renaud Louis Alpana Mair Bassam Mahboub Michaël Makris Joao Malva Patrick Manning Gailen D Marshall Mohamed R Masjedi Jorge F Maspero Pedro Carreiro-Martins Mika Makela Eve Mathieu-Dupas Marcus Maurer Esteban De Manuel Keenoy Elisabete Melo-Gomes Eli O Meltzer Enrica Menditto Jacques Mercier Yann Micheli Neven Miculinic Florin Mihaltan Branislava Milenkovic Dimitirios I Mitsias Giuliana Moda Maria-Dolores Mogica-Martinez Yousser Mohammad Steve Montefort Ricardo Monti Mario Morais-Almeida Ralph Mösges Lars Münter Antonella Muraro Ruth Murray Robert Naclerio Luigi Napoli Leyla Namazova-Baranova Hugo Neffen Kristoff Nekam Angelo Neou Björn Nordlund Ettore Novellino Dieudonné Nyembue Robyn O'Hehir Ken Ohta Kimi Okubo Gabrielle L Onorato Valentina Orlando Solange Ouedraogo Julia Palamarchuk Isabella Pali-Schöll Peter Panzner Hae-Sim Park Gianni Passalacqua Jean-Louis Pépin Ema Paulino Ruby Pawankar Jim Phillips Robert Picard Hilary Pinnock Davor Plavec Todor A Popov Fabienne Portejoie David Price Emmanuel P Prokopakis Fotis Psarros Benoit Pugin Francesca Puggioni Pablo Quinones-Delgado Filip Raciborski Rojin Rajabian-Söderlund Frederico S Regateiro Sietze Reitsma Daniela Rivero-Yeverino Graham Roberts Nicolas Roche Erendira Rodriguez-Zagal Christine Rolland Regina E Roller-Wirnsberger Nelson Rosario Antonino Romano Menachem Rottem Dermot Ryan Johanna Salimäki Mario M Sanchez-Borges Joaquin Sastre Glenis K Scadding Sophie Scheire Peter Schmid-Grendelmeier Holger J Schünemann Faradiba Sarquis Serpa Mohamed Shamji Juan-Carlos Sisul Mikhail Sofiev Dirceu Solé David Somekh Talant Sooronbaev Milan Sova François Spertini Otto Spranger Cristiana Stellato Rafael Stelmach Michel Thibaudon Teresa To Mondher Toumi Omar Usmani Antonio A Valero Rudolph Valenta Marylin Valentin-Rostan Marilyn Urrutia Pereira Rianne van der Kleij Michiel Van Eerd Olivier Vandenplas Tuula Vasankari Antonio Vaz Carneiro Giorgio Vezzani Frédéric Viart Giovanni Viegi Dana Wallace Martin Wagenmann De Yun Wang Susan Waserman Magnus Wickman Dennis M Williams Gary Wong Piotr Wroczynski Panayiotis K Yiallouros Osman M Yusuf Heather J Zar Stéphane Zeng Mario E Zernotti Luo Zhang Nan Shan Zhong Mihaela Zidarn

Allergy 2021 01 23;76(1):168-190. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

University Clinic of Respiratory and Allergic Diseases, Golnik, Slovenia.

Digital anamorphosis is used to define a distorted image of health and care that may be viewed correctly using digital tools and strategies. MASK digital anamorphosis represents the process used by MASK to develop the digital transformation of health and care in rhinitis. It strengthens the ARIA change management strategy in the prevention and management of airway disease. The MASK strategy is based on validated digital tools. Using the MASK digital tool and the CARAT online enhanced clinical framework, solutions for practical steps of digital enhancement of care are proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/all.14422DOI Listing
January 2021

Is diet partly responsible for differences in COVID-19 death rates between and within countries?

Clin Transl Allergy 2020 27;10:16. Epub 2020 May 27.

Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Reported COVID-19 deaths in Germany are relatively low as compared to many European countries. Among the several explanations proposed, an early and large testing of the population was put forward. Most current debates on COVID-19 focus on the differences among countries, but little attention has been given to regional differences and diet. The low-death rate European countries (e.g. Austria, Baltic States, Czech Republic, Finland, Norway, Poland, Slovakia) have used different quarantine and/or confinement times and methods and none have performed as many early tests as Germany. Among other factors that may be significant are the dietary habits. It seems that some foods largely used in these countries may reduce angiotensin-converting enzyme activity or are anti-oxidants. Among the many possible areas of research, it might be important to understand diet and angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) levels in populations with different COVID-19 death rates since dietary interventions may be of great benefit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13601-020-00323-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7250534PMC
May 2020

Factors that affect blood eosinophil counts in a non-asthmatic population: Post hoc analysis of data from Brazil.

World Allergy Organ J 2020 May 16;13(5):100119. Epub 2020 May 16.

ProAR, Federal University of Bahia, Bahia, Brazil.

Background: Improved understanding of the normal range of blood eosinophil counts (BEC) and conditions that influence them in non-asthmatic individuals should allow more accurate estimation of the threshold at which eosinophilic disease should be considered, diagnosed, and treated. This analysis investigated the impact of atopy, smoking, and parasitic infection on BEC.

Methods: This was a post hoc analysis of non-asthmatic subjects from a case-control study (CONEP 450/10) conducted at the Program for Control of Asthma in Bahia (ProAR). Participant BECs were measured at baseline; correlations between predefined risk factors and BEC were assessed via univariate and stratified analysis.

Results: Of the 454 participants included, 3% were helminth parasite-positive, 18% were non-helminth parasite-positive; and 450 had BEC data. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) BEC was 152 (96, 252) cells/μL. Any positive skin prick test, elevated total immunoglobulin E, allergic rhinitis, and being a current smoker were all individually associated with higher BEC (p < 0.05) compared with BEC in participants without these factors, but having a non-helminthic parasitic infection was not. Participants with all 4 risk factors that were associated with higher BEC had a median (IQR) BEC of 192 cells/μL (94, 416) versus 106 cells/μL (70, 164) for those with no risk factors.

Conclusions: In non-asthmatic subjects, atopy, allergic rhinitis, and current smoking status were associated with higher BEC compared with subjects without these factors, but BEC values were well below the threshold commonly accepted as normal. Therefore, BEC should be interpreted in the context of an individual's medical conditions and other BEC-influencing factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.waojou.2020.100119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7232113PMC
May 2020

A hybrid of two major Blomia tropicalis allergens as an allergy vaccine candidate.

Clin Exp Allergy 2020 07 13;50(7):835-847. Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of Biosciences, University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria.

Introduction: Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) represents a curative approach for treating allergies. In the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, Blomia tropicalis (Blo t 5 and Blo t 21) is the likely dominant source of indoor allergens.

Aim: To generate a hypoallergenic Blo t 5/Blo t 21 hybrid molecule that can treat allergies caused by B tropicalis.

Methods: Using in silico design of B tropicalis hybrid proteins, we chose two hybrid proteins for heterologous expression. Wild-type Blo t 5/Blo t 21 hybrid molecule and a hypoallergenic version, termed BTH1 and BTH2, respectively, were purified by ion exchange and size exclusion chromatography and characterized by physicochemical, as well as in vitro and in vivo immunological, experiments.

Results: BTH1, BTH2 and the parental allergens were purified to homogeneity and characterized in detail. BTH2 displayed the lowest IgE reactivity that induced basophil degranulation using sera from allergic rhinitis and asthmatic patients. BTH2 essentially presented the same endolysosomal degradation pattern as the shortened rBlo t 5 and showed a higher resistance towards degradation than the full-length Blo t 5. In vivo immunization of mice with BTH2 led to the production of IgG antibodies that competed with human IgE for allergen binding. Stimulation of splenocytes from BTH2-immunized mice produced higher levels of IL-10 and decreased secretion of IL-4 and IL-5. In addition, BTH2 stimulated T-cell proliferation in PBMCs isolated from allergic patients, with secretion of higher levels of IL-10 and lower levels of IL-5 and IL-13, when compared to parental allergens.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: BTH2 is a promising hybrid vaccine candidate for immunotherapy of Blomia allergy. However, further pre-clinical studies addressing its efficacy and safety are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cea.13611DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7384089PMC
July 2020

Severe asthma and eligibility for biologics in a Brazilian cohort.

J Asthma 2020 Apr 9:1-9. Epub 2020 Apr 9.

ProAR Foundation and Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, Brazil.

This study aims to describe the eligibility for biologic therapies for severe asthma (SA) in a cohort of patients attending the Program for Control of Asthma (ProAR) in Bahia, Brazil. Data from SA patients (≥18 years old) attending the ProAR, that were included in a case-control study conducted from 2013 to 2015, were used to reassess patients according to a modified ERS/ATS 2014 SA criteria. Patients were then classified according to the eligibility for SA biological therapy based on current prescription labels. From 544 patients in the cohort, 531 (97.6%) were included and 172 (32.4%) were identified as SA patients according to the ERS/ATS 2014 modified criteria. Of these 172 patients, 69 (40.1%) were ineligible for any of the biologicals approved for asthma (omalizumab, mepolizumab, reslizumab and benralizumab), 60 (34.9%) patients were eligible for one of the biological therapies, and 10 (5.8%) patients were eligible for all biological therapies. More than half of patients with SA were eligible for biologic therapy in our study, but none of them received this form of treatment. Almost half of them were not eligible to any of the approved biologics, however. The variability and overlap in patients' eligibility highlight the importance of evaluating each patient individually for a more personalized treatment approach. While there is a need to increase access for some of those eligible that may really need a biologic treatment, continuous efforts are required to develop alternatives to those who are not eligible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02770903.2020.1748049DOI Listing
April 2020

Provision of inhaled corticosteroids is associated with decrease in hospital admissions in Brazil: A longitudinal nationwide study.

Respir Med 2020 05 30;166:105950. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

ProAR - Faculdade de Medicina da Bahia, Federal University of Bahia, Brazil. Electronic address:

Objective: To describe trends of hospital admissions due to asthma from 2008 to 2015 and to evaluate their relationship with trends of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) provision by the government in Brazil.

Methods: We used Brazilian Government data to calculate hospital admission rates due to asthma, number of physicians, number of hospital beds, number of subjects that received ICS per 100,000 inhabitants in Brazil and in each of its municipalities for each year of the study. We performed Poisson Multilevel Regression Analyses to evaluate the relationship between the trends of hospital admission rates due to asthma with the trends of the number of subjects that had been receiving ICS during the study period. The analyses were adjusted for the number of physicians and hospital beds.

Findings: The number of patients who received ICS/100,000 inhabitants increased from 2008 to 2015 (943.9-1988.5). Hospital admissions/100,000 inhabitants decreased in patients aged 5-14 years (148.3-110.9) and in patients aged 15-39 years (59.9-32.3); the reduction was greater in municipalities in which ICS provision increased. The number of physicians/100,000 inhabitants increased and the number of hospital beds/100,000 inhabitants decreased in the study period. The increase in the number of physicians and in the number of subjects that received ICS were associated with reduction in hospital admissions.

Conclusion: We found that provision of ICS by the Brazilian Government was associated with a decrease of hospital admissions for asthma in the municipalities and country levels from 2008 to 2015.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rmed.2020.105950DOI Listing
May 2020

Correlation between work impairment, scores of rhinitis severity and asthma using the MASK-air App.

Allergy 2020 07 22;75(7):1672-1688. Epub 2020 Mar 22.

ISGlobal, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: In allergic rhinitis, a relevant outcome providing information on the effectiveness of interventions is needed. In MASK-air (Mobile Airways Sentinel Network), a visual analogue scale (VAS) for work is used as a relevant outcome. This study aimed to assess the performance of the work VAS work by comparing VAS work with other VAS measurements and symptom-medication scores obtained concurrently.

Methods: All consecutive MASK-air users in 23 countries from 1 June 2016 to 31 October 2018 were included (14 189 users; 205 904 days). Geolocalized users self-assessed daily symptom control using the touchscreen functionality on their smart phone to click on VAS scores (ranging from 0 to 100) for overall symptoms (global), nose, eyes, asthma and work. Two symptom-medication scores were used: the modified EAACI CSMS score and the MASK control score for rhinitis. To assess data quality, the intra-individual response variability (IRV) index was calculated.

Results: A strong correlation was observed between VAS work and other VAS. The highest levels for correlation with VAS work and variance explained in VAS work were found with VAS global, followed by VAS nose, eye and asthma. In comparison with VAS global, the mCSMS and MASK control score showed a lower correlation with VAS work. Results are unlikely to be explained by a low quality of data arising from repeated VAS measures.

Conclusions: VAS work correlates with other outcomes (VAS global, nose, eye and asthma) but less well with a symptom-medication score. VAS work should be considered as a potentially useful AR outcome in intervention studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/all.14204DOI Listing
July 2020

Effects of PACK guide training on the management of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by primary care clinicians: a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial in Florianópolis, Brazil.

BMJ Glob Health 2019 16;4(6):e001921. Epub 2019 Dec 16.

Knowledge Translation Unit, University of Cape Town Lung Institute, Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa.

Introduction: The Practical Approach to Care Kit (PACK) guide was localised for Brazil, where primary care doctors and nurses were trained to use it.

Methods: Twenty-four municipal clinics in Florianópolis were randomly allocated to receive outreach training and the guide, and 24 were allocated to receive only the guide. 6666 adult patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were enrolled, and trial outcomes were measured over 12 months, using electronic medical records. The primary outcomes were composite scores of treatment changes and spirometry, and new asthma and COPD diagnosis rates.

Results: Asthma scores in 2437 intervention group participants were higher (74.8%, 20.4% and 4.8% with scores of 0, 1 and 2, respectively) than in 2633 control group participants (80.0%, 16.8% and 3.2%) (OR for higher score 1.32, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.61, p=0.006). Adjusted for asthma scores recorded in each clinic before training started, the OR was 1.24 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.50, p=0.022). COPD scores in 1371 intervention group participants (77.7%, 17.9% and 4.3% with scores of 0, 1 and 2) did not differ from those in 1181 control group participants (80.5%, 15.8% and 3.7%) (OR 1.21, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.55, p=0.142). Rates of new asthma and COPD diagnoses, and hospital admission, and indicators of investigation, diagnosis and treatment of comorbid cardiovascular disease, diabetes and depression, and tobacco cessation did not differ between trial arms.

Conclusion: PACK training increased guideline-based treatment and spirometry for asthma but did not affect COPD or comorbid conditions, or diagnosis rates.

Trial Registration: NCT02786030 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2019-001921DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6936566PMC
December 2019

Toxoplasma gondii protects from IgE sensitization and induces Th1/Th2 immune profile.

Parasite Immunol 2020 03 25;42(3):e12694. Epub 2020 Jan 25.

Instituto de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Brazil.

Toxoplasma gondii (T gondii) infection has been associated with protection against allergy and autoimmune diseases. We investigated the effects of T gondii infection on cytokine and antibody responses in atopic and nonatopic Brazilian subjects. We have measured in whole-blood cultures, Th1 (IFN-γ and IL-12), Th2 (IL-5) and regulatory cytokine IL-10 in blood cells unstimulated and stimulated with pokeweed mitogen or T gondii soluble tachyzoites antigen (STAg) or Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus antigen. A significant negative association was found between high levels of anti-dust mite IgE and T gondii seropositivity (OR = 0.46; 95%CI = 0.25-0.85). STAg stimulation induced a mixed profile of Th1 and Th2 cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-12 and IL-5) in Tg-positive atopic individuals compared with Tg-negative atopic individuals (P < .0001, P = .033 and P = .003, respectively). In contrast, IL-10 production was not different between these groups. No association was found between T gondii infection and asthma. We hypothesized that the protective effect on atopy might be related to the strong Th1 immune response to T gondii found on the seropositive subjects. From our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the association between atopy and T gondii infection in Brazilian subjects, analysing the cellular immune responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pim.12694DOI Listing
March 2020

Asthma similarities across ProAR (Brazil) and U-BIOPRED (Europe) adult cohorts of contrasting locations, ethnicity and socioeconomic status.

Respir Med 2020 01 26;161:105817. Epub 2019 Nov 26.

National Heart & Lung Institute, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Asthma prevalence is 339 million globally. 'Severe asthma' (SA) comprises subjects with uncontrolled asthma despite proper management.

Objectives: To compare asthma from diverse ethnicities and environments.

Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of two adult cohorts, a Brazilian (ProAR) and a European (U-BIOPRED). U-BIOPRED comprised of 311 non-smoking with Severe Asthma (SAn), 110 smokers or ex-smokers with SA (SAs) and 88 mild to moderate asthmatics (MMA) while ProAR included 544 SA and 452 MMA. Although these projects were independent, there were similarities in objectives and methodology, with ProAR adopting operating procedures of U-BIOPRED.

Results: Among SA subjects, age, weight, proportion of former smokers and FEV pre-bronchodilator were similar. The proportion of SA with a positive skin prick tests (SPT) to aeroallergens, the scores of sino-nasal symptoms and quality of life were comparable. In addition, blood eosinophil counts (EOS) and the % of subjects with EOS > 300 cells/μl were not different. The Europeans with SA however, were more severe with a greater proportion of continuous oral corticosteroids (OCS), worse symptoms and more frequent exacerbations. FEV/FVC pre- and post-bronchodilator were lower among the Europeans. The MMA cohorts were less comparable in control and treatment, but similar in the proportion of allergic rhinitis, gastroesophageal reflux disease and EOS >3%.

Conclusions: ProAR and U-BIOPRED cohorts, with varying severity, ethnicity and environment have similarities, which provide the basis for global external validation of asthma phenotypes. This should stimulate collaboration between asthma consortia with the aim of understanding SA, which will lead to better management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rmed.2019.105817DOI Listing
January 2020

Next-generation care pathways for allergic rhinitis and asthma multimorbidity: a model for multimorbid non-communicable diseases-Meeting Report (Part 2).

J Thorac Dis 2019 Sep;11(9):4072-4084

Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Uniersität zu Berlin and Berlin Institute of Health, Comprehensive Allergy-Centre, Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Member of GA2LEN, Berlin, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd.2019.09.38DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6790426PMC
September 2019

Next-generation Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) guidelines for allergic rhinitis based on Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) and real-world evidence.

Authors:
Jean Bousquet Holger J Schünemann Akdis Togias Claus Bachert Martina Erhola Peter W Hellings Ludger Klimek Oliver Pfaar Dana Wallace Ignacio Ansotegui Ioana Agache Anna Bedbrook Karl-Christian Bergmann Mike Bewick Philippe Bonniaud Sinthia Bosnic-Anticevich Isabelle Bossé Jacques Bouchard Louis-Philippe Boulet Jan Brozek Guy Brusselle Moises A Calderon Walter G Canonica Luis Caraballo Vicky Cardona Thomas Casale Lorenzo Cecchi Derek K Chu Elisio M Costa Alvaro A Cruz Wienczyslawa Czarlewski Gennaro D'Amato Philippe Devillier Mark Dykewicz Motohiro Ebisawa Jean-Louis Fauquert Wytske J Fokkens Joao A Fonseca Jean-François Fontaine Bilun Gemicioglu Roy Gerth van Wijk Tari Haahtela Susanne Halken Despo Ierodiakonou Tomohisa Iinuma Juan-Carlos Ivancevich Marek Jutel Igor Kaidashev Musa Khaitov Omer Kalayci Jorg Kleine Tebbe Marek L Kowalski Piotr Kuna Violeta Kvedariene Stefania La Grutta Désirée Larenas-Linnemann Susanne Lau Daniel Laune Lan Le Philipp Lieberman Karin C Lodrup Carlsen Olga Lourenço Gert Marien Pedro Carreiro-Martins Erik Melén Enrica Menditto Hugo Neffen Gregoire Mercier Ralph Mosgues Joaquim Mullol Antonella Muraro Leyla Namazova Ettore Novellino Robyn O'Hehir Yoshitaka Okamoto Ken Ohta Hae Sim Park Petr Panzner Giovanni Passalacqua Nhan Pham-Thi David Price Graham Roberts Nicolas Roche Christine Rolland Nelson Rosario Dermot Ryan Boleslaw Samolinski Mario Sanchez-Borges Glenis K Scadding Mohamed H Shamji Aziz Sheikh Ana-Maria Todo Bom Sanna Toppila-Salmi Ioana Tsiligianni Marylin Valentin-Rostan Arunas Valiulis Erkka Valovirta Maria-Teresa Ventura Samantha Walker Susan Waserman Arzu Yorgancioglu Torsten Zuberbier

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2020 01 15;145(1):70-80.e3. Epub 2019 Oct 15.

Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Uniersität zu Berlin and Berlin Institute of Health, Comprehensive Allergy-Centre, Department of Dermatology and Allergy, member of GA(2)LEN, Berlin, Germany.

The selection of pharmacotherapy for patients with allergic rhinitis aims to control the disease and depends on many factors. Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines have considerably improved the treatment of allergic rhinitis. However, there is an increasing trend toward use of real-world evidence to inform clinical practice, especially because randomized controlled trials are often limited with regard to the applicability of results. The Contre les Maladies Chroniques pour un Vieillissement Actif (MACVIA) algorithm has proposed an allergic rhinitis treatment by a consensus group. This simple algorithm can be used to step up or step down allergic rhinitis treatment. Next-generation guidelines for the pharmacologic treatment of allergic rhinitis were developed by using existing GRADE-based guidelines for the disease, real-world evidence provided by mobile technology, and additive studies (allergen chamber studies) to refine the MACVIA algorithm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2019.06.049DOI Listing
January 2020

Next-generation care pathways for allergic rhinitis and asthma multimorbidity: a model for multimorbid non-communicable diseases-Meeting Report (Part 1).

J Thorac Dis 2019 Aug;11(8):3633-3642

Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Uniersität zu Berlin and Berlin Institute of Health, Comprehensive Allergy-Centre, Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Member of GA2LEN, Berlin, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd.2019.08.64DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6753463PMC
August 2019

Next-generation ARIA care pathways for rhinitis and asthma: a model for multimorbid chronic diseases.

Authors:
J Jean Bousquet Holger J Schünemann Alkis Togias Marina Erhola Peter W Hellings Torsten Zuberbier Ioana Agache Ignacio J Ansotegui Josep M Anto Claus Bachert Sven Becker Martin Bedolla-Barajas Michael Bewick Sinthia Bosnic-Anticevich Isabelle Bosse Louis P Boulet Jean Marc Bourrez Guy Brusselle Niels Chavannes Elisio Costa Alvaro A Cruz Wienczyslawa Czarlewski Wytske J Fokkens Joao A Fonseca Mina Gaga Tari Haahtela Maddalena Illario Ludger Klimek Piotr Kuna Violeta Kvedariene L T T Le Desiree Larenas-Linnemann Daniel Laune Olga M Lourenço Enrica Menditto Joaquin Mullol Yashitaka Okamoto Nikos Papadopoulos Nhân Pham-Thi Robert Picard Hilary Pinnock Nicolas Roche Regina E Roller-Wirnsberger Christine Rolland Boleslaw Samolinski Aziz Sheikh Sanna Toppila-Salmi Ioanna Tsiligianni Arunas Valiulis Erkka Valovirta Tuula Vasankari Maria-Teresa Ventura Samantha Walker Sian Williams Cezmi A Akdis Isabella Annesi-Maesano Sylvie Arnavielhe Xavier Basagana Eric Bateman Anna Bedbrook K S Bennoor Samuel Benveniste Karl C Bergmann Slawomir Bialek Nils Billo Carsten Bindslev-Jensen Leif Bjermer Hubert Blain Mateo Bonini Philippe Bonniaud Jacques Bouchard Vitalis Briedis Christofer E Brightling Jan Brozek Roland Buhl Roland Buonaiuto Giorgo W Canonica Victoria Cardona Ana M Carriazo Warner Carr Christine Cartier Thomas Casale Lorenzo Cecchi Alfonso M Cepeda Sarabia Eka Chkhartishvili Derek K Chu Cemal Cingi Elaine Colgan Jaime Correia de Sousa Anne Lise Courbis Adnan Custovic Biljana Cvetkosvki Gennaro D'Amato Jane da Silva Carina Dantas Dejand Dokic Yves Dauvilliers Antoni Dedeu Giulia De Feo Philippe Devillier Stefania Di Capua Marc Dykewickz Ruta Dubakiene Motohiro Ebisawa Yaya El-Gamal Esben Eller Regina Emuzyte John Farrell Antjie Fink-Wagner Alessandro Fiocchi Jean F Fontaine Bilun Gemicioğlu Peter Schmid-Grendelmeir Amiran Gamkrelidze Judith Garcia-Aymerich Maximiliano Gomez Sandra González Diaz Maia Gotua Nick A Guldemond Maria-Antonieta Guzmán Jawad Hajjam John O'B Hourihane Marc Humbert Guido Iaccarino Despo Ierodiakonou Maddalena Illario Juan C Ivancevich Guy Joos Ki-Suck Jung Marek Jutel Igor Kaidashev Omer Kalayci Przemyslaw Kardas Thomas Keil Mussa Khaitov Nikolai Khaltaev Jorg Kleine-Tebbe Marek L Kowalski Vicky Kritikos Inger Kull Lisa Leonardini Philip Lieberman Brian Lipworth Karin C Lodrup Carlsen Claudia C Loureiro Renaud Louis Alpana Mair Gert Marien Bassam Mahboub Joao Malva Patrick Manning Esteban De Manuel Keenoy Gailen D Marshall Mohamed R Masjedi Jorge F Maspero Eve Mathieu-Dupas Poalo M Matricardi Eric Melén Elisabete Melo-Gomes Eli O Meltzer Enrica Menditto Jacques Mercier Neven Miculinic Florin Mihaltan Branislava Milenkovic Giuliana Moda Maria-Dolores Mogica-Martinez Yousser Mohammad Steve Montefort Ricardo Monti Mario Morais-Almeida Ralf Mösges Lars Münter Antonella Muraro Ruth Murray Robert Naclerio Luigi Napoli Leila Namazova-Baranova Hugo Neffen Kristoff Nekam Angelo Neou Enrico Novellino Dieudonné Nyembue Robin O'Hehir Ken Ohta Kimi Okubo Gabrielle Onorato Solange Ouedraogo Isabella Pali-Schöll Susanna Palkonen Peter Panzner Hae-Sim Park Jean-Louis Pépin Ana-Maria Pereira Oliver Pfaar Ema Paulino Jim Phillips Robert Picard Davor Plavec Ted A Popov Fabienne Portejoie David Price Emmanuel P Prokopakis Benoit Pugin Filip Raciborski Rojin Rajabian-Söderlund Sietze Reitsma Xavier Rodo Antonino Romano Nelson Rosario Menahenm Rottem Dermot Ryan Johanna Salimäki Mario M Sanchez-Borges Juan-Carlos Sisul Dirceu Solé David Somekh Talant Sooronbaev Milan Sova Otto Spranger Cristina Stellato Rafael Stelmach Charlotte Suppli Ulrik Michel Thibaudon Teresa To Ana Todo-Bom Peter V Tomazic Antonio A Valero Rudolph Valenta Marylin Valentin-Rostan Rianne van der Kleij Olivier Vandenplas Giorgio Vezzani Frédéric Viart Giovanni Viegi Dana Wallace Martin Wagenmann De Y Wang Susan Waserman Magnus Wickman Dennis M Williams Gary Wong Piotr Wroczynski Panayiotis K Yiallouros Arzu Yorgancioglu Osman M Yusuf Heahter J Zar Stéphane Zeng Mario Zernotti Luo Zhang Nan S Zhong Mihaela Zidarn

Clin Transl Allergy 2019 9;9:44. Epub 2019 Sep 9.

260University Clinic of Respiratory and Allergic Diseases, Golnik, Slovenia.

Background: In all societies, the burden and cost of allergic and chronic respiratory diseases are increasing rapidly. Most economies are struggling to deliver modern health care effectively. There is a need to support the transformation of the health care system into integrated care with organizational health literacy.

Main Body: As an example for chronic disease care, MASK (Mobile Airways Sentinel NetworK), a new project of the ARIA (Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma) initiative, and POLLAR (Impact of Air POLLution on Asthma and Rhinitis, EIT Health), in collaboration with professional and patient organizations in the field of allergy and airway diseases, are proposing real-life ICPs centred around the patient with rhinitis, and using mHealth to monitor environmental exposure. Three aspects of care pathways are being developed: (i) Patient participation, health literacy and self-care through technology-assisted "patient activation", (ii) Implementation of care pathways by pharmacists and (iii) Next-generation guidelines assessing the recommendations of GRADE guidelines in rhinitis and asthma using real-world evidence (RWE) obtained through mobile technology. The EU and global political agendas are of great importance in supporting the digital transformation of health and care, and MASK has been recognized by DG Santé as a Good Practice in the field of digitally-enabled, integrated, person-centred care.

Conclusion: In 20 years, ARIA has considerably evolved from the first multimorbidity guideline in respiratory diseases to the digital transformation of health and care with a strong political involvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13601-019-0279-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6734297PMC
September 2019

Mobile Technology in Allergic Rhinitis: Evolution in Management or Revolution in Health and Care?

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2019 Nov - Dec;7(8):2511-2523. Epub 2019 Aug 21.

Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany; Corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Uniersität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Comprehensive Allergy-Centre, Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Berlin, Germany; Member of GA(2)LEN, Berlin, Germany.

Smart devices and Internet-based applications (apps) are largely used in allergic rhinitis and may help to address some unmet needs. However, these new tools need to first of all be tested for privacy rules, acceptability, usability, and cost-effectiveness. Second, they should be evaluated in the frame of the digital transformation of health, their impact on health care delivery, and health outcomes. This review (1) summarizes some existing mobile health apps for allergic rhinitis and reviews those in which testing has been published, (2) discusses apps that include risk factors of allergic rhinitis, (3) examines the impact of mobile health apps in phenotype discovery, (4) provides real-world evidence for care pathways, and finally (5) discusses mobile health tools enabling the digital transformation of health and care, empowering citizens, and building a healthier society.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2019.07.044DOI Listing
October 2020

Prevotella intermedia and periodontitis are associated with severe asthma.

J Periodontol 2020 01 16;91(1):46-54. Epub 2019 Aug 16.

Post-Graduation Program, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, Brazil.

Background: Periodontitis, an inflammatory disease of multibacterial etiology that affects the protective and supporting tissues surrounding teeth, can influence the course of respiratory diseases, such as asthma, due to epithelial alterations arising from inflammatory and immunological processes, bronchial remodeling, or by the aspiration of pathogenic colonizers found in periodontal pockets. This study evaluated the levels of periodontal pathogens Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in the subgingival biofilm of individuals with and without severe asthma.

Methods: A case-control study enrolling 457 individuals (220 with asthma and 237 without asthma) was conducted at the Program for Control of Asthma in Bahia (ProAR) Clinic located in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain data on sociodemographic, health status, and lifestyle habits. A clinical periodontal assessment was performed, including bleeding on probing, probing depth, and clinical attachment level. Subgingival biofilm was collected at the deepest site of each sextant, and bacterial DNA was extracted. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis was performed to detect and relatively quantify periodontopathogens in the biofilm.

Results: Statistically significant positive associations were found between periodontitis and severe asthma, (odds ratio [OR] : 4.00; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.26 to 7.10). High levels of P. intermedia were found in association with the presence of severe asthma (OR : 2.64; 95% CI: 1.62 to 4.39; P < 0.01).

Conclusions: The present results suggest that periodontitis and P. intermedia are associated with severe asthma. However, the functional consequences of this dysbiosis upon asthma susceptibility and its phenotypes remain unclear.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/JPER.19-0065DOI Listing
January 2020

Rural to urban migration contributes to the high burden of asthma in the urban area.

Clin Respir J 2019 Sep 14;13(9):560-566. Epub 2019 Aug 14.

Núcleo de Excelência em Asma, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Brazil.

Introduction: It is unknown whether rural-urban migration contributes to worse the burden of asthma in the cities.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether subjects with asthma that migrated from rural areas to a large urban center in Brazil have more severe disease than asthmatic subjects that was born and always lived in the urban area.

Methods: This is a case-control study. We enrolled two groups of subjects with asthma currently living in a large urban center in Brazil: 486 subjects with moderate-severe asthma and 432 subjects with mild asthma.

Results: Rural-urban migrants had higher odds of moderate-severe asthma [adjusted OR 1.57, 95% CI (1.18-2.01)] and uncontrolled symptoms of asthma [adjusted OR 1.80, 95% CI (1.16-2.76)] than urban-born subjects.

Conclusions: Rural-urban migrants in Brazil have more severe asthma than urban-born subjects. Our results suggest that rural-urban migration is associated with the high burden of asthma in the urban area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/crj.13058DOI Listing
September 2019

Helminths and Asthma: Risk and Protection.

Immunol Allergy Clin North Am 2019 08 7;39(3):417-427. Epub 2019 May 7.

ProAR - Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Electronic address:

Helminth infections may inhibit the development of allergic diseases, including asthma. On the other hand, some helminth species may induce or worsen symptoms of asthma. This article discusses the impact of helminth infections on asthma as well as the potencial of helminth-derived molecules with regulatory characteristics in the prevention or treatment of this disease. The ability to induce regulation has been observed in animal models of asthma or cells of asthmatic individuals in vitro. Potential future clinical applications of helminth antigens or infection for prevention of asthma merit further translational research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.iac.2019.03.009DOI Listing
August 2019