Publications by authors named "Altaf Khan"

52 Publications

Functional outcome of robotic-assisted intracorporeal versus extracorporeal neobladder following radical cystectomy: Initial experience.

Urol Ann 2021 Jan-Mar;13(1):9-13. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Department of Urology, Yenepoya Medical College, Mangaluru, India.

Introduction: Worldwide, the seventh most commonly diagnosed cancer in the male population is Bladder cancer (BC), while it drops to eleventh when both genders are considered. Radical cystectomy is the surgical treatment of choice for patients with all muscle-invasive and some nonmuscle invasive BCs. An orthotopic continent diversion (neobladder) is preferred whenever possible to achieve a better postoperative quality of life. We attempt to study the functional outcomes of intracorporeal neobladder (ICNB) versus extracorporeal neobladder (ECNB) (ICNB vs. ECNB).

Materials And Methods: Forty patients who underwent robot-assisted radical cystectomy with neobladder in our institute during the period of March 2016-March 2018 were included in the study. An orthotopic neobladder (Studer method) was created in all our patients. Our main outcomes of interest were peak flow rates, residual urine, attainment of continence, and Pdet at qmax of the neobladder.

Results: The mean age of patients in our study group was 54 ± 6 years. The mean body mass index was 23 ± 2 kg/m. The mean follow-up period was 24 ± 5 months. Twenty patients underwent ICNB and 20 patients underwent ECNB. The urodynamic assessment was done 1-year postprocedure. The same parameters applied to an intact bladder are used, and results analyzed by comparing it with other studies. Common in the initial postoperative period was incontinence which reduced substantially over time. After 1-year, 75% of patients did not require pads in the daytime, and a meager, <10% used more than one pad per day. There was no difference in outcome between both the groups, which was statistically significant.

Conclusion: Both ICNB and ECNB groups achieved urodynamically proven values of adequate bladder capacity and compliance. Daytime continence was excellent, and night time continence was good in both groups. Furthermore, there was no significant difference between both the groups as regards to urodynamic parameters. However, continence is attained little earlier in the ICNB group. There is no perceived superiority of ICNB over ECNB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/UA.UA_132_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8052906PMC
January 2021

Protective effect of chrysin, a flavonoid, on the genotoxic activity of carboplatin in mice.

Drug Chem Toxicol 2021 Apr 8:1-7. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Carboplatin is amongst the most commonly used anticancer drugs for the management of several human malignancies. However, it has displayed genotoxic properties against normal cells. Evaluation of natural products for their protective effects against chemotherapeutic drug induced toxicity has been growing in recent years. A naturally occurring flavonoid, chrysin, has strong antioxidant abilities and protects against DNA impairment. This study used multiple assays to evaluate the levels of damage to DNA in normal cells and to examine any possible protective role of chrysin against such damage. Male BALB/c mice were administered chrysin orally in two doses of 20 and 40 mg/kg for 10 consecutive days and then a single injection of carboplatin [90 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)] was administered intraperitoneally to induce carboplatin toxicity. 24 h after the carboplatin injection, mice were sacrificed. DNA damage was evaluated using several genotoxicity tests (8-Hydroxydeoxy-guanosine marker, comet assay, micronucleus test, and chromosomal aberration assay) to identify diverse types of damage to the DNA. The results suggest that pretreatment with chrysin significantly decreased the level of DNA damage caused by carboplatin probably due to its potent antioxidant traits. Therefore, chrysin can be considered to be developed as a chemoprotective agent against chemotherapy associated side-effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01480545.2021.1908752DOI Listing
April 2021

Assessment of normal reference values for thyroid uptake of technetium-99m pertechnetate in a Saudi population.

Ann Saudi Med 2021 Mar-Apr;41(2):86-90. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

From the Department of Medicine, National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Thyrotoxicosis is a common medical problem. Thyroid nuclear imaging with either I or technetium-99m (Tc-99m) pertechnetate are used to determine the cause. Although I has been the standard technique, Tc-99m pertechnetate is now commonly used, acceptable and easier to perform. The commonly used normal value of Tc-99m pertechnetate is 1-4%, but lower normal values have been reported in different populations.

Objective: Determine normal reference range of Tc-99m pertechne-tate thyroid uptake for thyroid scintigraphy in Saudi Arabia.

Design: Retrospective, cross-sectional.

Setting: Nuclear medicine service at tertiary care center in Riyadh.

Patients And Methods: We used data from biochemically euthyroid patients who underwent a thyroid Tc-99m pertechnetate scan while having parathyroid scintigraphy for hyperparathyroidism between April 2009 to April 2019. Medical records and biochemical thyroid function tests were reviewed and Tc-99m pertechnetate thyroid uptake values were determined for each patient.

Main Outcome Measures: Thyroid uptake of Tc-99m pertechne-tate in euthyroid patients.

Sample Size: 167 RESULTS: The mean and median uptake of Tc-99m pertechnetate in euthyroid patients were 0.86% and 1.0%, respectively, and the inter-quartile range was 0.0-1.0%. The normal reference range in the study population was 0.2-2%. Thyroid uptake inversely correlated with age in females (r=-0.37, <.001), males (r=-0.46, =.001), and for all patients (r=?0.39, <.0001).

Conclusion: The range for normal thyroid Tc-99m pertechnetate was lower than the standard 1-4% range. Moreover, uptake decreased with age. Further studies are needed to establish the normal age-adjusted uptake for the thyroid Tc-99m pertechnetate scan.

Limitations: Single center and retrospective.

Conflict Of Interest: None.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5144/0256-4947.2021.86DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8020644PMC
April 2021

Temporomandibular joint involvement in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: A single tertiary-center experience.

Saudi Med J 2021 Apr;42(4):399-404

From King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences (Alqanatish, Alrewaithi, Alsewairi, Alsalman, Alrasheed); from King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (Alqanatish, Alsewairi, Khan, Alsalman, Alrasheed); from King Abdullah Specialist Children's Hospital (Alqanatish, Alsewairi, Alrasheed); and from King Abdulaziz Medical City (Alsalman), Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Objectives: To describe the clinical and laboratory characteristic, state the treatment and outcome of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis JIA, and describe temporomandibular joint TMJ involvement as observed in a large tertiary center.

Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study of children diagnosed with JIA was assessed at King Abdullah Specialist Children's Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (2015-2019), which included a descriptive analysis of children who had TMJ involvement among our study group. Subjects diagnosed with the TMJ arthritis were based either on clinical musculoskeletal examination or using contrast-enhanced MRI.

Results: We reviewed 123 cases with different JIA subtypes (57% females). The most frequent subtype is the oligoarticular (36%). TMJ involvement was found in 16% (n=20/123) of the patients, of whom 45% had Polyarticular JIA. The rheumatoid factor was positive in 25%; antinuclear antibody (ANA) in 45% and none showed positivity to HLAB27. Treatment resulted in complete resolution in 95% of cases, while Micrognathia and obstructive sleep apnea were the complications reported in 5% of cases.

Conclusion: TMJ involvement in JIA is not uncommon. Females with polyarticular disease were more frequently affected with TMJ arthritis. Positive ANA could be a risk factor for TMJ involvement, while positive HLAB27 might have some protective effects. Early treatment for TMJ arthritis is essential to avoid possible complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15537/smj.2021.42.4.20200470DOI Listing
April 2021

Quinoline yellow dye stimulates whey protein fibrillation via electrostatic and hydrophobic interaction: A biophysical study.

J Dairy Sci 2021 May 6;104(5):5141-5151. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Central Laboratory, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, 2460, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Amyloid fibril formation of proteins is associated with a number of neurodegenerative diseases. Several small molecules can accelerate the amyloid fibril formation in vitro and in vivo. However, the molecular mechanism of amyloid fibrillation is still unclear. In this study, we investigated how the food dye quinoline yellow (QY) induces amyloid fibrillation in α-lactalbumin (α-LA), a major whey protein, at pH 2.0. We used several spectroscopy techniques and a microscopy technique to explore how QY provokes amyloid fibrillation in α-LA. From turbidity and Rayleigh light scattering experiments, we found that QY promotes α-LA aggregation in a concentration-dependent manner; the optimal concentration for α-LA aggregation was 0.15 to 10.00 mM. Below 0.1 mM, no aggregation occurred. Quinoline yellow-induced aggregation was a rapid process that escaped the lag phase, but it depended on the concentrations of both α-LA and QY. We also demonstrated that aggregation switched the secondary structure of α-LA from α-helices to cross-β-sheets. We then confirmed the amyloid-like structure of aggregated α-LA by transmission electron microscopy measurements. Molecular docking and simulation confirmed the stability of the α-LA-QY complex due to the formation of 1 hydrogen bond with Lys99 and 2 electrostatic interactions with Arg70 and Lys99, along with hydrophobic interactions with Leu59 and Tyr103. This study will aid in our understanding of how small molecules induce aggregation of proteins inside the stomach (low pH) and affect the digestive process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2020-19766DOI Listing
May 2021

Microwave-Assisted Rapid Green Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Seed Extract of : ROS Mediated Biofilm Inhibition and Anticancer Activity.

Biomolecules 2021 01 30;11(2). Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Department of Community Health Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, 2460, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Green synthesis of metal nanoparticles using plant extracts as capping and reducing agents for the biomedical applications has received considerable attention. Moreover, emergence and spread of multidrug resistance among bacterial pathogens has become a major health concern and lookout for novel alternative effective drugs has gained momentum. In current study, we synthesized gold nanoparticles using the seed extract of (TA-AuNPs), assessed its efficacy against drug resistant biofilms of and , and evaluated its anticancer potential against HepG2 cancer cell lines. Microwave-assisted green synthesis of gold nanoparticles was carried out and characterization was done using UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Most nanoparticles were observed as spherical and spheroidal with few anisotropies with an average crystalline size of 16.63 nm. Synthesized TA-AuNPs demonstrated significant biofilm inhibitory activity against (73%) as well as (81%). Exopolysaccharide (EPS), motility, and CSH, key elements that facilitate the formation and maintenance of biofilm were also inhibited significantly at the tested sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs). Further, TA-AuNPs effectively obliterated preformed mature biofilms of and by 64% and 58%, respectively. Induction of intracellular ROS production in TA-AuNPs treated bacterial cells could be the plausible mechanism for the reduced biofilm formation in test pathogens. Administration of TA-AuNPs resulted in the arrest of cellular proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. TA-AuNPs decrease the intracellular GSH in HepG2 cancer cell lines, cells become more prone to ROS generation, hence induce apoptosis. Thus, this work proposes a new eco-friendly and rapid approach for fabricating NPs which can be exploited for multifarious biomedical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom11020197DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7911733PMC
January 2021

Obesity and COVID-19: what makes obese host so vulnerable?

Immun Ageing 2021 Jan 4;18(1). Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Experimental Medicine Department, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center/King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences-MNGHA, Riyadh, 11426, Saudi Arabia.

The disease (COVID-19) novel coronavirus pandemic has so far infected millions resulting in the death of over a million people as of Oct 2020. More than 90% of those infected with COVID-19 show mild or no symptoms but the rest of the infected cases show severe symptoms resulting in significant mortality. Age has emerged as a major factor to predict the severity of the disease and mortality rates are significantly higher in elderly patients. Besides, patients with underlying conditions like Type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, and cancer have an increased risk of severe disease and death due to COVID-19 infection. Obesity has emerged as a novel risk factor for hospitalization and death due to COVID-19. Several independent studies have observed that people with obesity are at a greater risk of severe disease and death due to COVID-19. Here we review the published data related to obesity and overweight to assess the possible risk and outcome in Covid-19 patients based on their body weight. Besides, we explore how the obese host provides a unique microenvironment for disease pathogenesis, resulting in increased severity of the disease and poor outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12979-020-00212-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7779330PMC
January 2021

Phyto-Mediated Synthesis of Porous Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles From Root Extract: Broad-Spectrum Attenuation of Biofilm and Cytotoxic Properties Against HepG2 Cell Lines.

Front Microbiol 2020 28;11:1680. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

There is grave necessity to counter the menace of drug-resistant biofilms of pathogens using nanomaterials. Moreover, we need to produce nanoparticles (NPs) using inexpensive clean biological approaches that demonstrate broad-spectrum inhibition of microbial biofilms and cytotoxicity against HepG2 cell lines. In the current research work, titanium dioxide (TiO) NPs were fabricated through an environmentally friendly green process using the root extract of as the stabilizing and reducing agent to examine its antibiofilm and anticancer potential. Further, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron micrograph (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) techniques were used for determining the crystallinity, functional groups involved, shape, size, thermal behavior, surface area, and porosity measurement, respectively, of the synthesized TiO NPs. Antimicrobial potential of the TiO NPs was determined by evaluating the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against , , methicillin-resistant , , , and . Furthermore, at levels below the MIC (0.5 × MIC), TiO NPs demonstrated significant inhibition of biofilm formation (43-71%) and mature biofilms (24-64%) in all test pathogens. Cell death due to enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production could be responsible for the impaired biofilm production in TiO NP-treated pathogens. The synthesized NPs induced considerable reduction in the viability of HepG2 and could prove effective in controlling liver cancer. In summary, the green synthesized TiO NPs demonstrate multifarious biological properties and could be used as an anti-infective agent to treat biofilm-based infections and cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.01680DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7399045PMC
July 2020

Brainstem hemorrhage is uncommon and is associated with high morbidity, mortality, and prolonged hospitalization.

Neurosciences (Riyadh) 2020 Apr;25(2):91-96

Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Objective: To determine the frequency, risk factors, and outcomes of patients with brainstem hemorrhage in stroke center at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh.

Methods: A retrospective, observational cohort study including all patients with brainstem hemorrhage from January 2014 to December 2017. The clinical presentation, location of hemorrhage, complications and clinical outcomes were analyzed.

Results: Of 1921 stroke patients, 219 had hemorrhagic stroke (11.4%), of whom only 10 (4.6%) had brainstem hemorrhage, comprising 0.5% of all stroke patients. All patients were men; mean age was 58.5 years. Most frequent presenting symptoms were headache (70%), unilateral weakness (60%), and loss of consciousness (50%). All patients had hemorrhage in pons, 5 had concomitant cerebellar hemorrhage (50%), one had medullary hemorrhage, and one midbrain hemorrhage (10% each). Mean ICU stay was 17 days; mean hospital stay was 58 days. At the time of discharge, three (30%) had mRS of 0-2, 5 (50%) had mRS of 3-5, whereas 2 (20%) had died. Glasgow coma scale (GCS) of >8 at presentation was associated with a good outcome at three months (p=0.03). Presentation within six hours of symptom onset (p=0.233), hypertension on presentation (p=0.233), and age less than 60 years (p=0.065) did not affect discharge outcomes.

Conclusion: Brainstem hemorrhage occurred in 0.5% of all stroke patients. It was associated with high morbidity and mortality. Low Glasgow Coma Scale at presentation was associated with poor outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17712/nsj.2020.2.20190102DOI Listing
April 2020

Food color 'Azorubine' interferes with quorum sensing regulated functions and obliterates biofilm formed by food associated bacteria: An and approach.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Apr 16;27(4):1080-1090. Epub 2020 Jan 16.

Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, 2460, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Quorum sensing (QS) plays a crucial role in different stages of biofilm development, virulence production, and subsequently to the growth of bacteria in food environments. Biofilm mediated spoilage of food is one of the ongoing challenge faced by the food industry worldwide as it incurs substantial economic losses and leads to various health issues. In the present investigation, we studied the interference of quorum sensing, its regulated virulence functions, and biofilm in food-associated bacteria by colorant azorubine. bioassays demonstrated significant inhibition of QS and its coordinated virulence functions in 12472 (violacein) and PAO1 (elastase, protease, pyocyanin, and alginate). Further, the decrease in the production EPS (49-63%) and swarming motility (61-83%) of the pathogens was also recorded at sub-MICs. Azorubine demonstrated broad-spectrum biofilm inhibitory potency (50-65%) against , , O157:H7, and . ROS generation due to the interaction between bacteria and azorubine could be responsible for the biofilm inhibitory action of the food colorant. Findings of the studies were well supported by molecular docking and simulation analysis of azorubine and QS virulence proteins. Azorubine showed strong binding to PqsA as compared to other virulent proteins (LasR, Vfr, and QscR). Thus, it is concluded that azorubine is a promising candidate to ensure food safety by curbing the menace of bacterial QS and biofilm-based spoilage of food and reduce economic losses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.01.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7105693PMC
April 2020

Frequency, risk factors, and outcomes in patients with significant carotid artery disease admitted to King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh with Ischemic Stroke.

Neurosciences (Riyadh) 2019 Oct;24(4):264-268

King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Objective: To determine the frequency, risk factors, and outcomes of significant carotid artery disease (CAD) in patients with ischemic stroke.

Methods: The frequency of significant CAD in patients admitted to the Stroke Unit between January 2014 and December 2015 was determined from radiological data. Outcomes were determined clinically and radiologically.

Results: Among 435 patients, 273 were men (62.8%), with a mean age of 57.4+/-12.2 years. Significant CAD was found in 48 vessels in 40 (9.2%) patients, of which 30 patients were symptomatic. Nine of these patients were treated with carotid artery stenting, one underwent carotid endarterectomy, and 3 underwent an urgent thrombectomy, without stenting. Seventeen symptomatic patients were not treated for the following reasons: patient/family refusal (n=2), contraindications (n=5), and complete occlusion (n=10). One (7.7%) of the 13 treated patients had an ipsilateral stroke on follow up, one (7.7%) had contralateral transient ischemic attack (TIA), 9 (69.2%) had no recurrence, and no clinical data were available for 2 patients. Among the 17 untreated patients, one (5.9%) had an ipsilateral stroke, 7 (41.2%) had no recurrence, and 9 (52.9%) were lost to follow up.

Conclusion: Significant carotid artery disease is uncommon in our cohort found in less than 10% of patients. Vascular risk factors are more or less similar between patients with or without CAD except obesity which appears to have inverse relation with CAD. A small number of patients received carotid intervention with no recurrence of stroke at limited follow up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17712/nsj.2019.4.20190046DOI Listing
October 2019

Impact of Cardiopulmonary Bypass and Aorta Cross Clamp Time on the Length of Mechanical Ventilation after Cardiac Surgery among Children: A Saudi Arabian Experience.

Cureus 2019 Aug 7;11(8):e5333. Epub 2019 Aug 7.

Surgery, Jinnah Sindh Medical University, Karachi, PAK.

Aim Several factors determine the perioperative outcome besides the nature of the congenital heart defect. Prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV) is a major factor that determines mortality, length of stay (LOS), residual disability, and other functional outcomes. We aim to determine the clinical variables predicting PMV and LOS in hospital, and specifically the impact from the duration of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and aortic cross-clamp (ACC). Method We conducted a retrospective review of the medical records of 413 children consecutively admitted to the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Unit (PCICU) in one year at a single center. We collected demographic information (e.g., age, gender, and weight), perioperative variables, clinical outcomes, length of mechanical ventilation, high-frequency ventilator use, and mortality. We used logistic regression to analyze the data. PMV was defined as mechanical ventilation for longer than seven days. Results A total of 410 records were included in our study. We found no statistically significant association between CPB time and mechanical ventilation days. Forty-seven children had PMV, 362 did not have PMV. We found no statistically significant association between CPB time and mechanical ventilation days after adjusting for covariates. Reanalyzing the data with PMV defined as longer than four days produced the same results. Using a regression model to assess the variables via the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator for feature selection, we found no statistically significant association between ACC time and mechanical ventilation days after adjusting for covariates. Conclusion According to our results, CPB and ACC time are not associated with PMV or prolonged hospital LOS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.5333DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6778048PMC
August 2019

Cisplatin bioconjugated enzymatic GNPs amplify the effect of cisplatin with acquiescence.

Sci Rep 2019 09 25;9(1):13826. Epub 2019 Sep 25.

Nanomedicine & Nanobiotechnology Lab, Department of Biosciences, Integral University, Lucknow, India.

Enzymatic gold nanoparticles (B-GNPs) have been synthesized using a natural anticancer agent bromelain (a cysteine protease) and these nanoparticles were used to bioconjugate Cisplatin (highly effective against osteosarcoma and lung cancer). Cisplatin bioconjugated bromelain encapsulated gold nanoparticles (B-C-GNPs) were found profoundly potent against same cancers at much lower concentration with minimum side effects due to the synergistic effect of bromelain. The B-C-GNPs have been observed to inhibit the proliferation of osteosarcoma cell lines Saos-2 and MG-63 with IC estimation of 4.51 µg/ml and 3.21 µg/ml, respectively, and against small lung cancer cell line A-549 with IC 2.5 µg/ml which is lower than IC of cisplatin against same cell lines. The B-GNPs/B-C-GNPs were characterized by TEM, UV-Visible spectroscopy, Zeta potential and DLS to confirm the production, purity, crystalline nature, stability of nanoemulsion, size and shape distribution. The change in 2D and 3D conformation of bromelain after encapsulation was studied by Circular Dichroism and Fluorometry, respectively. It was found that after encapsulation, a 19.4% loss in secondary structure was observed, but tertiary structure was not altered significantly and this loss improved the anticancer activity. The confirmation of bioconjugation of cisplatin with B-GNPs was done by UV-Visible spectroscopy, TEM, FTIR, 2D H NMR DOSY and ICP-MS. Further, it was found that almost ~4 cisplatin molecules bound with each B-GNPs nanoparticle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-50215-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6761153PMC
September 2019

Metabolite profile and elemental determination of camel follicular fluid by GC-MS and ICP-MS.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2019 Nov 13;51(8):2447-2454. Epub 2019 Jun 13.

Kayyali Chair for Pharmaceutical Industries, Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2457, Riyadh, 11451, Saudi Arabia.

The objective of present study was to determine metabolite profile and inorganic elements of camel follicular fluids (FF) using "gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)," respectively. Various metabolites were detected in camel FF by the proposed GC-MS technique. The major compounds detected were lactic acid (62.37%), linolenic acid (5.95%), myo-inositol (3.37%), hexadecanoic acid (3.19%), N-ethyl-N-vinylacetamide (3.15%), acetamide (2.89%), tetradecanoic acid (2.64%), and D-xylofuranose (2.25%). The proposed ICP-MS technique was validated in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy, and sensitivity. All quality control validation parameters were found to be satisfactory for the analysis of elements in camel FF. The proposed ICP-MS technique showed the presence of sixteen different elements (out of eighteen standards) in camel FF. Some elements such as Na, K, Ca, and Mg were obtained in higher amounts in camel FF. Overall, the results of this study indicated that the proposed GC-MS and ICP-MS techniques can be successfully applied for metabolite profile and element determination of biological fluids such as FF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-019-01920-3DOI Listing
November 2019

Beetroot juice alleviates isoproterenol-induced myocardial damage by reducing oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in rats.

3 Biotech 2019 Apr 23;9(4):147. Epub 2019 Mar 23.

6Department Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, 11451 Saudi Arabia.

Beetroot ( L.) juice (BRJ) is a good source of betalain (betacyanins and betaxanthin) pigments and exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and chemo-preventive activities in vitro and in vivo. The current study was performed to determine the cardioprotective effect of BRJ on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant defense, functional impairment, and histopathology in rats with isoproterenol (ISP)-induced myocardial injury. Myocardial ischemia was induced by ISP (85 mg/kg) s.c. injection at 24 h intervals, followed by oral administration of BRJ for 28 days at doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg. ISP-induced myocardial damage was confirmed by an increase in heart weight to body weight ratio, % infarction size, serum cardiac indices (AST, ALT, GGT, ALP, LDH and CK-MB), and histological alterations in the myocardium. Pretreatment with BRJ (150 and 300 mg/kg) followed by ISP induction reduced oxidative/nitrosative stress and restored the cardiac endogenous antioxidants in rats. ISP augmented cardiac inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10), myeloperoxidase activity, NF-κB DNA binding and protein expression of NF-κB (p65), and the hyperlipidemia level was significantly reduced by the BRJ pretreatment. Furthermore, the BRJ pretreatment significantly reduced caspase-3, Bax, and MMP-9 protein expression, enhanced the Bcl-2 antiapoptotic protein expression, alleviated the extent of histological damage, myonecrosis, and edema, and maintained the architecture of cardiomyocytes. These findings suggest that BRJ pretreatment mitigates cardiac dysfunction and structural damages by decreasing oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in cardiac tissues. These results further support the use of BRJ in traditional medicine against cardiovascular diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13205-019-1677-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6430824PMC
April 2019

Effects of sinapic acid on hepatic cytochrome P450 3A2, 2C11, and intestinal P-glycoprotein on the pharmacokinetics of oral carbamazepine in rats: Potential food/herb-drug interaction.

Epilepsy Res 2019 07 22;153:14-18. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Quality Assurance Unit, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Dietary supplements, herbal medicines, and other foods may affect the pharmacokinetics and/or pharmacodynamics of carbamazepine (CBZ), which may possibly lead to potential drug-drug/herb-drug interactions, as CBZ has a narrow therapeutic window. Sinapic acid (SA) is a bioactive phytoconstituent used as a dietary supplement for the treatment of epilepsy. This study determined the effects of SA on the pharmacokinetics of CBZ and proposed a possible interaction mechanism in twenty-four male wistar rats (180-210 g). A single CBZ dose (80 mg/kg) was administered orally to rats with or without SA pretreatment (20 mg/kg p.o. per day for 7 days, n = 6). The CBZ concentration in plasma samples was determined by using a sensitive reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography assay. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by using non-compartmental analysis. Significance was determined through Dunnett's multiple comparison test or one-way analysis of variance as appropriate; p < 0.05 were considered significant. The change in the pharmacokinetic parameters (C, T, AUC, AUC, T, and k) of CBZ was evaluated after the administration of CBZ alone or after CBZ co-administration with SA pretreatment. The plasma concentration of CBZ was higher after SA pretreatment than that without pretreatment. The pharmacokinetics of orally administered CBZ were found to be significantly altered (p < 0.05) in rats pretreated with SA compared to those in rats administered CBZ alone. The increases in the C, AUC, T, and MRT of CBZ were 29.79%, 57.18%, 77.18%, and 58.31%, respectively, whereas the k and apparent oral CL/F were significantly reduced (p < 0.05) in rats pretreated with SA compared to those in rats not pretreated with SA (43.87% and 42.50%, respectively). However, no significant change was observed in the T of CBZ in rats pretreated with SA compared to that in rats that did not receive pretreatment. The enhancement in Cmax, AUC, T and MRT and the reduction in K and CL/F values resulted from the significant inhibition of CYP3 A2, the CYP2C11-mediated metabolism of CBZ in the liver, and the inhibition of intestinal P-glycoprotein/MDR1, which enhanced the rate of CBZ absorption. Further studies are required to determine the clinical relevance of these observations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2019.03.012DOI Listing
July 2019

Effect of sinapic acid on aripiprazole pharmacokinetics in rats: Possible food drug interaction.

J Food Drug Anal 2019 01 3;27(1):332-338. Epub 2018 Jul 3.

Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Dietary supplements and foods can interact with various drugs, leading to possible clinical concerns. This study aimed to investigate the effect of orally administered sinapic acid (SA) on the pharmacokinetics of aripiprazole (APZ) in rats and its possible modulatory effects on hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP3A2 and CYP2D6) expression in the liver tissues. Single dose and multiple dose parallel groups of wistar rats were categorized into six groups (n = 6 each) which abstained from food for 12 h prior to the experiment, while water was allowed ad libitum. The investigation was carried out for single dose: Group I was treated with normal saline orally for 15 days (normal control). Group II was administered normal saline orally for 15 days and received APZ (3 mg/kg p.o.) on day 15. Group III received SA (20 mg/kg p.o.) for 15 days and received APZ (3 mg/kg p.o.) on day 15. Group IV was treated with SA (20 mg/kg p.o.) for 15 days. For the multiple dose study, Group I was treated with normal saline orally for 15 days (normal control); Group II received APZ (3 mg/kg p.o.) daily for 15 days; Group III was administered with SA (20 mg/kg p.o.) and APZ (3 mg/kg p.o.) for 15 days and Group IV received SA (20 mg/kg p.o.) for 15 days. The group I and IV were kept common in single and multiple dose groups. After last APZ dose, plasma samples were collected and APZ concentrations were determined using an UPLC-MS/MS technique. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using a non-compartmental analysis. The concomitant administration of APZ with SA (as single or multiple dose) resulted in an increase in APZ absorption and a decrease on its systemic clearance. This was associated with a reduction in CYP3A2 and CYP2D6 protein expressions by 33-43% and -71-68% after the single and multiple co-administration, which are two enzymes responsible of the metabolism of APZ. Therefore, a reduction in the metabolic clearance appears to be the mechanism underlying the drug interaction of dietary supplement containing SA with APZ. Therefore, the concomitant administration of SA and APZ should be carefully viewed. Further investigations are required to assess the clinical significance of such observations in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfda.2018.06.002DOI Listing
January 2019

Biogenic pentagonal silver nanoparticles for safer and more effective antibacterial therapeutics.

Int J Nanomedicine 2018 21;13:7789-7799. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Nanomedicine & Nanobiotechnology Lab, Department of Biosciences, Integral University, Dasauli, Lucknow, India,

Background: Biological synthesis of nanomaterials possesses unprecedented potential in the production of nanomaterials due to their ability to produce nanomaterials with improved biocompatibility in addition to eco-friendly synthetic procedures.

Methods: This article reports the isolation of an air-borne fungus from the campus of Integral University, Lucknow, with an exceptional ability to withstand very high concentrations of silver salt. The fungus was found to produce pentagonal silver nanoparticles (AgPgNps) when silver ions were reduced from silver nitrate. Molecular analysis and biochemical characterization techniques based on 18-seconds rRNA identified the fungus to belong to the sp. with the NCBI accession no KF913249. Material characterization techniques including ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and zeta potential analysis were used to satisfactorily characterize the as-synthesized AgPgNps.

Results: The AgPgNps synthesized by the fungus sp. exhibit an absorption that is maximum centered at about 416 nm, with a standard particle size of 23.22±2 nm. These AgPgNps exhibited broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities against an array of bacterial pathogens with remarkable minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values: (ATCC 25923) - 9.230 µg/mL, sp. (ATCC 14593) - 12.781 µg/mL, (ATCC 25922) - 5.063 µg/mL, and (ATCC 13883) - 5.426 µg/mL. In vitro cytotoxicity analysis of biosynthesized AgPgNps showed a dose-response activity against human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa) and adenocarcinoma cells (A549) with MIC values of 0.038 µg/mL and 0.044 µg/mL, respectively.

Conclusion: These findings are very crucial to evaluate the biosynthetic process for the synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) with unique properties. These NPs may find potential applications in sensing, medicine, and antimicrobial and anticancer therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S168224DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6257132PMC
January 2019

Sinapic acid ameliorates bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in rats.

Biomed Pharmacother 2018 Dec 13;108:224-231. Epub 2018 Sep 13.

Quality Research Unit, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Pulmonary fibrosis is a multifaceted disease with high mortality and morbidity, and it is commonly nonresponsive to conventional therapy.

Purpose: We explore the possible discourse of sinapic acid (SA) against the prevention of bleomycin (BLM)-instigated lung fibrosis in rats through modulation of Nrf2/HO-1 and NF-κB signaling pathways.

Design/methods: Lung fibrosis was persuaded in Sprague-Dawley rats by a single intratracheal BLM (6.5 U/kg) injection. Then, these rats were treated with SA (10 and 20 mg/kg, p.o.) for 28 days. The normal control rats provided saline as a substitute of BLM. The lung function and biochemical, histopathological, and molecular alterations were studied in serum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and the lungs tissues.

Results: SA treatment significantly restored BLM-induced alterations in body weight index and serum biomarkers [lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)]. SA (10 and 20 mg/kg) treatment appeared to show a pneumoprotective effect through upregulation of antioxidant status, downregulation of inflammatory cytokines and MMP-7 expression, and reduction of collagen accumulation (hydroxyproline). Nrf2, HO-1, and TGF-β expression was downregulated in BLM-induced fibrosis model, while the reduced expression levels were significantly and dose-dependently upregulated by SA (10 and 20 mg/kg) treatment. We demonstrated that SA ameliorates BLM-induced lung injuries through inhibition of apoptosis and induction of Nrf2/HO-1-mediated antioxidant enzymes via NF-κB inhibition. The histopathological findings also revealed that SA treatment (10 and 20 mg/kg) significantly ameliorated BLM-induced lung injury.

Conclusion: The present results showed the ability of SA to restore the antioxidant system and to inhibit oxidative stress, proinflammatory cytokines, extracellular matrix, and TGF-β. This is first report demonstrating that SA amoleriates BLM induced lung injuries through inhibition of apoptosis and induction of Nrf2 and HO-1 mediated antioxidant enzyme via NF-κB inhibition. The histopathological finding reveals that SA treatment (10 and 20 mg/kg) significantly ameliorates BLM induced lung injuries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2018.09.032DOI Listing
December 2018

Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of PM over Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP), adjoining regions and Indo-Himalayan Range (IHR) during a winter 2014 campaign.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Sep 5;25(26):26279-26296. Epub 2018 Jul 5.

Environmental Sciences and Biomedical Metrology Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K S Krishnan Road, New Delhi, 110012, India.

For source identification, a field campaign involving simultaneous sampling of particulate matter (PM) was conducted at eight sampling sites in the Indian mainland during winter 2014. The sampling sites include Delhi (upper IGP), Lucknow (middle IGP), and Kolkata (lower IGP) in the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP); Mohal-Kullu and Darjeeling in the Indo-Himalayan Range (IHR). In addition, Ajmer, located upwind of the IGP in NW-India and Giridih and Bhubaneswar, in the downwind to the IGP has also been chosen. To characterize the sources of the ambient PM, stable isotope ratios of carbon (δC) and nitrogen (δN) for the total carbon (TC) and total nitrogen (TN) fractions have been considered. Ancillary chemical parameters, such as organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and water-soluble ionic components (WSIC) mass concentrations are also presented in this paper. There was very small variation in the daily average δC ratios (- 24.8 to - 25.9‰) among the sites. Comparison with end-member stable C isotopic signatures of major typical sources suggests that the PM at the sites was mainly from fossil fuel and biofuel and biomass combustion. Daily average δN ratios were not observed to vary much between sites either (8.3 to 11.0‰), and the low δN levels also indicate substantial contributions from biofuel and biomass burning of primarily C3 andC4 plant matter. Graphical abstract Scatter plot of the average (± 1 standard deviation (SD)) δC (‰) compared to δN (‰) at the sampling sites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-2567-0DOI Listing
September 2018

Inhibitory effects of polysaccharide extracts on TNF-α production in -stimulated mouse.

3 Biotech 2018 Jun 4;8(6):286. Epub 2018 Jun 4.

5Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, 11451 Saudi Arabia.

The present study was designed to study the quantitative effects of extraction time, temperature and solvent to sample ratio on the yield of polysaccharides (LSP) using a Box-Behnken design. The activities of the optimized LSP extract were then tested in an in vivo experimental system of ()-induced endotoxin shock. The optimal polysaccharide extraction conditions were established by the equation of regression and evaluation of the response surface contour plots: extraction time 5.2 h; temperature 95 °C and ratio of water to raw material 31.89 mL/g. Subsequently, an in vivo endotoxin shock was induced in mice with a single i.p. injection. Septic mice showed a substantial raise in the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in plasma, whereas mice treated with LSP after injection showed considerable lower plasma levels of TNF-α ( < 0.05). These results suggest that LSP have beneficial effects when administered to mice with endotoxin shock by diminishing the pro-inflammatory response. The systemic activity of LSP indicated that the extract has a significant inhibitory effect against -induced inflammation by reducing the circulating levels of TNF-α. Further studies are warranted to explore the clinical implications of such observations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13205-018-1309-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5986665PMC
June 2018

Patterns of Physical Activity and the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: A Pilot Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 04 17;15(4). Epub 2018 Apr 17.

Biostatistics Section, King Abdulla International Medical Research Center, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh 11426, Saudi Arabia.

: In the current study, we investigated the effect of physical activity (PA) on the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). : In total, 146 cases of CHD and 157 matched controls were included in the study. Data on sociodemographics, lifestyle, and medical history factors were collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. A standard World Health Organization (WHO)-based lifestyle questionnaire was used to assess PA. The risk of CHD was analyzed in relation to PA patterns using logistic regression. : Vigorous-intensity leisure PA was not associated with a lower risk of CHD. Subjects in the highest tertile of moderate occupational PA had a significantly lower risk of CHD compared to the lowest tertile (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.31, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.17–0.56). Subjects in the highest tertile of walking hasd an adjusted OR of 0.37 (95% CI 0.20–0.70). Subjects in the medium and highest tertiles of sedentary behavior had adjusted ORs of 2.01 (95% CI 1.06–3.79) and 3.88 (95% CI 2.14–7.02), respectively (-value for trend < 0.001). : The current results showed that both moderate occupational PA and walking protected against CHD. Sedentary behavior increased the risk of CHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040778DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5923820PMC
April 2018

Momordica charantia polysaccharides ameliorate oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in ethanol-induced gastritis in mucosa through NF-kB signaling pathway inhibition.

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 May 4;111:193-199. Epub 2018 Jan 4.

Quality Assurance Unit, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

This study investigated the therapeutic role of polysaccharides from M. charantia and their mechanism of action against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Their effects were determined through macroscopic evaluation of the gastric cavity (gastric ulcer index [GUI]), changes in PGE, lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde), antioxidant systems (catalase and reduced glutathione), inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α], interleukin-6 [IL-6], and myeloperoxidase [MPO]), apoptotic markers (caspase 3, Bax, and Bcl-2), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB [p65]), and histopathological staining (H&E and PAS). Pretreatment with MCP (300mg/kg p.o.) attenuated the severity of ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage, reductions in GUI, histopathologic aberrations, and neutrophil invasion, and PGE upregulation. These actions were similar to those of omeprazole, a reference anti-ulcer drug. MCP repressed gastric inflammation through the reduction of MPO, TNF-α, and IL-6, and prevented gastric oxidative stress through the inhibition of lipid peroxides with the concomitant enhancement of glutathione and catalase activity. Apoptotic markers indicated that MCP suppressed Bax and caspase-3 activity and enhanced the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, which favored cell survival. MCP downregulated NF-κB and upregulated IκBα. Our study results suggested that the prophylactic administration of MCP reduced ethanol-induced gastric injury in rats through the suppression of gastric inflammation and oxidative stress, predominantly via NF-κB inhibition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.01.008DOI Listing
May 2018

Splenectomy vs. rituximab as a second-line therapy in immune thrombocytopenic purpura: a single center experience.

Int J Hematol 2018 Jan 11;107(1):69-74. Epub 2017 Sep 11.

King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is a common hematological disease treated primarily by corticosteroids. The aim of the present study was to compare response rate between patients, underwent splenectomy vs. rituximab as second-line therapy. Adult patients diagnosed with ITP who did not respond to corticosteroids or relapsed during the period 1990-2014 were included in a quasi-experimental study. Categorical variables were compared using Fisher exact test. Response to treatment was compared using logistic regression. Data were analyzed using SAS V9.2. One-hundred and forty-three patients with ITP were identified through medical records. Of 62 patients treated, 30 (48.38%) required second-line therapy. 19 (63%) patients received rituximab, and 11 (37%) underwent splenectomy. Platelets at diagnosis were not different between study groups (p = 0.062). Splenectomy group patients were younger (p = 0.011). Response to second-line therapy showed no significant difference between two groups (OR 2.03, 95% CI (0.21-22.09), p = 0.549). Results did not show a statistically significant difference in platelet counts over time between treatment groups (p = 0.101). When used exclusively as a second-line therapy for steroid-refractory ITP, the response rate was not statistically different between rituximab and splenectomy. However, further large studies are needed to assess the response rates for these treatment modalities as a second-line therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-017-2325-yDOI Listing
January 2018

Novel technique of laparoscopic extravesical ureteric reimplantation in primary obstructive megaureter.

Urol Ann 2017 Apr-Jun;9(2):150-152

Department of Urology, Yenepoya Medical College, Mangalore, Karnataka, India.

Objective: This study aims to demonstrate a novel laparoscopic technique of tapering megaureter without disrupting the blood supply and disconnecting the ureter.

Materials And Methods: Eight cases of primary obstructive megaureter in the age group of 14-22 years underwent laparoscopic extravesical ureteric reimplantation between August 2011 and July 2015 using our novel technique. Five patients had obstruction on left side and three on right side. Follow-up ultrasonography at 1 month and 3 months, voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) at 3 months and intravenous urogram (IVU) at 6 months was obtained to assess the development of reflux and to look for adequate drainage of the obstructive ureter.

Results: Average age of the patients at the time of surgery was 18.5 years. Mean operating time was 95 min. Mean blood loss of 20 ml. VCUG done after 3 months showed no reflux in all cases. IVU done after six months showed no obstruction and complete drainage of dye.

Conclusion: Our technique of tapering obstructed megaureter over a preplaced ureteral dilator is time saving and also helps in preserving blood supply to lower ureter. As a result, ureteric anastomotic stricture rate is very low. It is easily reproducible in the open as well as by robotic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0974-7796.204182DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5405658PMC
May 2017

Indoor air pollution and its association with poor lung function, microalbuminuria and variations in blood pressure among kitchen workers in India: a cross-sectional study.

Environ Health 2017 04 4;16(1):33. Epub 2017 Apr 4.

Environmental Monitoring Laboratory, Environmental Toxicology Group, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (CSIR-IITR), Vishvigyan Bhavan, 31, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow, 226001, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Background: The present study is an attempt to explore the association between kitchen indoor air pollutants and physiological profiles in kitchen workers with microalbuminuria (MAU) in north India (Lucknow) and south India (Coimbatore).

Methods: The subjects comprised 145 control subjects, 233 kitchen workers from north India and 186 kitchen workers from south India. Information related to the personal and occupational history and health of the subjects at both locations were collected using a custom-made questionnaire. Worker lung function was measured using a spirometer. Blood pressure was monitored using a sphygmomanometer. Urinary MAU was measured using a urine analyzer. Indoor air monitoring in kitchens for particulate matter (PM), total volatile organic compounds (TVOC), carbon dioxide (CO) and carbon monoxide (CO) was conducted using indoor air quality monitors. The size and shape of PM in indoor air was assessed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to detect organic or inorganic compounds in the air samples.

Results: Particulate matter concentrations (PM and PM) were significantly higher in both north and south Indian kitchens than in non-kitchen areas. The concentrations of TVOC, CO and CO were higher in the kitchens of north and south India than in the control locations (non-kitchen areas). Coarse, fine and ultrafine particles and several elements were also detected in kitchens in both locations by SEM and elemental analysis. The FTIR spectra of kitchen indoor air at both locations show the presence of organic chemicals. Significant declines in systolic blood pressure and lung function were observed in the kitchen workers with MAU at both locations compared to those of the control subjects. A higher prevalence of obstruction cases with MAU was observed among the workers in the southern region than in the controls (p < 0.01).

Conclusions: Kitchen workers in south India have lower lung capacities and a greater risk of obstructive and restrictive abnormalities than their north Indian counterparts. The study showed that occupational exposure to multiple kitchen indoor air pollutants (ultrafine particles, PM, PM, TVOC, CO, CO) and FTIR-derived compounds can be associated with a decline in lung function (restrictive and obstructive patterns) in kitchen workers with microalbuminuria. Further studies in different geographical locations in India among kitchen workers on a wider scale are required to validate the present findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12940-017-0243-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5379539PMC
April 2017

Faba bean drought responsive gene identification and validation.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2017 Jan 25;24(1):80-89. Epub 2016 May 25.

Legume Research Group, Plant Production Department, Faculty of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2460, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

This study was carried out to identify drought-responsive genes in a drought tolerant faba bean variety (Hassawi 2) using a suppressive subtraction hybridization approach (SSH). A total of 913 differentially expressed clones were sequenced from a differential cDNA library that resulted in a total of 225 differentially expressed ESTs. The genes of mitochondrial and chloroplast origin were removed, and the remaining 137 EST sequences were submitted to the gene bank EST database (LIBEST_028448). A sequence analysis identified 35 potentially drought stress-related ESTs that regulate ion channels, kinases, and energy production and utilization and transcription factors. Quantitative PCR on Hassawi 2 genotype confirmed that more than 65% of selected drought-responsive genes were drought-related. Among these induced genes, the expression levels of eight highly up-regulated unigenes were further analyzed across 38 selected faba bean genotypes that differ in their drought tolerance levels. These unigenes included ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (rbcL) gene, non-LTR retroelement reverse related, probable cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel, polyubiquitin, potassium channel, calcium-dependent protein kinase and putative respiratory burst oxidase-like protein C and a novel unigene. The expression patterns of these unigenes were variable across 38 genotypes however, it was found to be very high in tolerant genotype. The up-regulation of these unigenes in majority of tolerant genotypes suggests their possible role in drought tolerance. The identification of possible drought responsive candidate genes in reported here is an important step toward the development of drought-tolerant genotypes that can cope with arid environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2016.05.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5199002PMC
January 2017

Metabolomics and Trace Element Analysis of Camel Tear by GC-MS and ICP-MS.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2017 Jun 11;177(2):251-257. Epub 2016 Nov 11.

Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2457, Riyadh, 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Camel tear metabolomics and elemental analysis are useful in getting the information regarding the components responsible for maintaining the protective system that allows living in the desert and dry regions. The aim of this study was to correlate that the camel tears can be used as artificial tears for the evaluation of dryness in the eye. Eye biomarkers of camel tears were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The major compounds detected in camel tears by GC-MS were alanine, valine, leucine, norvaline, glycine, cadaverine, urea, ribitol, sugars, and higher fatty acids like octadecanoic acid and hexadecanoic acid. GC-MS analysis of camel tears also finds several products of metabolites and its associated metabolic participants. ICP-MS analysis showed the presence of different concentration of elemental composition in the camel tears.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-016-0889-7DOI Listing
June 2017

Scattering and Diffraction of Elastodynamic Waves in a Concentric Cylindrical Phantom for MR Elastography.

IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2016 11 11;63(11):2308-2316. Epub 2016 Feb 11.

Aim: The focus of this paper is to report on the design and construction of a multiply connected phantom for use in magnetic resonance elastography (MRE)-an imaging technique that allows for the noninvasive visualization of the displacement field throughout an object from externally driven harmonic motion-as well as its inverse modeling with a closed-form analytic solution which is derived herein from first principles.

Methods: Mathematically, the phantom is described as two infinite concentric circular cylinders with unequal complex shear moduli, harmonically vibrated at the exterior surface in a direction along their common axis. Each concentric cylinder is made of a hydrocolloid with its own specific solute concentration. They are assembled in a multistep process for which custom scaffolding was designed and built. A customized spin-echo-based MR elastography sequence with a sinusoidal motion-sensitizing gradient was used for data acquisition on a 9.4 T Agilent small-animal MR scanner. Complex moduli obtained from the inverse model are used to solve the forward problem with a finite-element method.

Results: Both complex shear moduli show a significant frequency dependence (p 0.001) in keeping with previous work.

Conclusion: The novel multiply connected phantom and mathematical model are validated as a viable tool for MRE studies.

Significance: On a small enough scale much of physiology can be mathematically modeled with basic geometric shapes, e.g., a cylinder representing a blood vessel. This study demonstrates the possibility of elegant mathematical analysis of phantoms specifically designed and carefully constructed for biomedical MRE studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TBME.2016.2527825DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5097039PMC
November 2016