Publications by authors named "Allyson Lee"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Teaching Children with Autism Abduction-Prevention Skills May Result in Overgeneralization of the Target Response.

Behav Modif 2021 May 24;45(3):438-461. Epub 2019 Aug 24.

The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA.

We replicated previous research using behavioral skills training (BST) to teach four children with autism to engage in a safety response following lures from civilian strangers. This study extends previous research by (a) employing abduction lures incorporating highly preferred tangible items; (b) assessing for maintenance and generalization across settings and caregivers; and (c) probing for overgeneralization of the safety response. A multiple baseline across participants design demonstrated target behavior acquisition and generalization to novel settings and caregivers. However, children who complied with directions from police officers during baseline emitted the safety response (e.g., running away) when approached by police officers following BST. Overgeneralization of the targeted safety response was corrected with discrimination training procedures. Maintenance of appropriate responses to civilians and officers was inconsistent and booster sessions were required for two participants. Results suggest practitioners should incorporate discrimination training and program for maintenance when teaching abduction-prevention skills to children with autism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0145445519865165DOI Listing
May 2021

Chinese Herbal Medicine Effectively Prolongs the Overall Survival of Pancreatic Cancer Patients: A Case Series.

Integr Cancer Ther 2019 Jan-Dec;18:1534735419828836

1 The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin New Town, Hong Kong.

Background And Aims: Pancreatic cancer has the lowest survival rate of all cancers (4%), and it accounts for 1.9% of new cancer cases in Hong Kong. Combined treatment with Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) and Western medicine has yielded promising results, leading to improved prognosis and overall survival. This retrospective case series aimed to illustrate the improved survival and quality of life outcomes of pancreatic cancer patients administered CHM based on traditional Chinese medicine theory.

Methods: To investigate the effectiveness of CHM in prolonging overall survival, 182 patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer who received CHM treatment were observed from 2005 to 2015.

Results: One hundred eighty-two pancreatic cancer patients were treated with CHM; 21 patients died. The mean and median survival of these patients were 29.6 and 15.2 months, respectively; the 1-year survival rate was 76% (range = 4 months to 9 years). These results are better than those reported in patients treated with Western medicine, suggesting the need for further study of CHM.

Conclusion: A superior clinical outcome may be obtained with CHM treatment. The case series illustrates the potential benefits and safety issues of CHM in pancreatic cancer patients that could be relevant for developing strategies to increase individualization of pancreatic cancer treatment and improve survival. This study may facilitate interprofessional communication and improved clinical management of pancreatic cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1534735419828836DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6432679PMC
December 2019

Behavioral Skills Training to Improve the Abduction-Prevention Skills of Children with Autism.

Behav Anal Pract 2016 Sep 3;9(3):266-70. Epub 2016 May 3.

University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX USA.

A concurrent multiple baseline across participants design evaluated the effects of behavioral skills training (BST) on abduction-prevention skills of four children with autism. Across phases, confederates presented four types of abduction lures: (a) simple requests, (b) appeals to authority, (c) assistance requests, and (d) incentives. During baseline, lures resulted in children leaving with confederate strangers. During intervention, BST targeted a three-step response (i.e., refuse, move away, and report) and the abduction-prevention skills of all participants improved. Improvements generalized to novel settings and confederates and were maintained at 4 weeks. There is currently limited research on abduction-prevention pertaining to individuals with ASD. BST can be used to teach abduction-prevention skills to individuals with ASD. BST can be effective at teaching appropriate responses to multiple types of abduction lures. The effects of BST on multiple responses to multiple types of lures can generalize across settings and people and maintain over time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40617-016-0128-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4999365PMC
September 2016

Effects of script training on the peer-to-peer communication of children with autism spectrum disorder.

J Appl Behav Anal 2015 Dec 24;48(4):785-99. Epub 2015 Aug 24.

UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN AND THE MEADOWS CENTER FOR PREVENTING EDUCATIONAL RISK.

A multiple baseline design across participants was used to demonstrate the effects of a script-training procedure on the peer-to-peer communication of 3 children with autism spectrum disorder during group play with peers. Both scripted and unscripted initiations as well as responses to peers increased for all 3 participants. Stimulus generalization across novel toys, settings, and peers was observed. Novel unscripted initiations, responses, and appropriate changes in topics during peer-to-peer exchanges were analyzed by considering the cumulative frequency of these behaviors across phases of the study. Treatment gains were maintained during 4-week follow-up sessions. Results are discussed in terms of recommendations for practitioners, response variability, and potential future avenues of research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jaba.240DOI Listing
December 2015

Comparison of therapist implemented and iPad-assisted interventions for children with autism.

Dev Neurorehabil 2015 Apr 2;18(2):97-103. Epub 2013 Oct 2.

Department of Curriculum and Instruction, Clinic for Autism Research Evaluation and Support, Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas, USA .

Objective: This study compares intervention delivered by a therapist to intervention delivered using an iPad for two children with autism. Further, this study evaluates the influence of choice between the conditions.

Methods: Time on-task, challenging behaviour, session duration and correct responses were compared across conditions in an alternating treatment design. The effect of choice was evaluated in an ABAB design.

Results: The iPad was associated with shorter intervention sessions, more time on-task and less challenging behaviour for one participant. There was no difference between conditions for the second participant. Both participants selected the iPad when given the choice and, although the effect of choice was modest, choosing was associated with more time on-task and less challenging behaviour.

Conclusions: These data suggest that iPad-assisted intervention can be as effective as therapist-implemented intervention. Further, even for children for whom no differences between the interventions exist, offering a choice may be beneficial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/17518423.2013.830231DOI Listing
April 2015

An analysis of the generalization and maintenance of eye contact taught during play.

Dev Neurorehabil 2013 Oct;16(5):301-7

Clinic for Autism Research, Evaluation and Support, Texas State University , San Marcos, TX 78666 , USA.

Purpose: Differential reinforcement and most-to-least prompting were implemented within the context of developmentally appropriate play activities in an effort to improve the eye contact between a 4-year-old boy with pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) and his three therapists.

Methods: A multiple baseline design across therapists was used to examine the eye contact of a 4-year-old boy with PDD-NOS. Maintenance data were collected at 1, 2 and 3 months post intervention.

Results: The intervention was effective and improvements in eye contact were maintained for at least 3 months post intervention. However, eye contact did not readily generalize across communication partners.

Conclusions: Results suggest that eye contact may not generalize to communication partners who are not directly involved in intervention. Results are discussed in terms of implications for practitioners and directions for future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/17518423.2012.730557DOI Listing
October 2013

Corticotropin-releasing factor receptor-dependent effects of repeated stress on tau phosphorylation, solubility, and aggregation.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2012 Apr 26;109(16):6277-82. Epub 2012 Mar 26.

Department of Neurosciences, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0624, USA.

Exposure and/or sensitivity to stress have been implicated as conferring risk for development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although the basis for such a link remains unclear, we previously reported differential involvement of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor (CRFR) 1 and 2 in acute stress-induced tau phosphorylation (tau-P) and solubility in the hippocampus. Here we examined the role of CRFRs in tau-P induced by repeated stress and the structural manifestations of altered tau solubility. Robust tau-P responses were seen in WT and CRFR2 null mice exposed to repeated stress, which were sustained at even 24 h after the final stress exposure. A portion of phosphorylated tau in these mice was sequestered in detergent-soluble cellular fractions. In contrast, CRFR1 and CRFR double-KO mice did not exhibit repeated stress-induced alterations in tau-P or solubility. Similarly, treatment with CRFR1 antagonist attenuated repeated stress-induced tau-P. Using histochemical approaches in a transgenic CRFR1 reporter mouse line, we found substantial overlap between hippocampal CRFR1 expression and cells positive for phosphorylated tau after exposure to repeated stress. Ultrastructural analysis of negatively stained extracts from WT and CRFR2 null mice identified globular aggregates that displayed positive immunogold labeling for tau-P, as well as conformational changes in tau (MC1) seen in early AD. Given that repeated stress exposure results in chronic increases in hippocampal tau-P and its sequestration in an insoluble (and potentially prepathogenic) form, our data may define a link between stress and an AD-related pathogenic mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1203140109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3341026PMC
April 2012