Publications by authors named "Allena Ji"

14 Publications

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2020 White Paper on Recent Issues in Bioanalysis: BMV of Hybrid Assays, Acoustic MS, HRMS, Data Integrity, Endogenous Compounds, Microsampling and Microbiome ( - Recommendations on Industry/Regulators Consensus on BMV of Biotherapeutics by LCMS, Advanced Application in Hybrid Assays, Regulatory Challenges in Mass Spec, Innovation in Small Molecules, Peptides and Oligos).

Bioanalysis 2021 Feb 20;13(4):203-238. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Bristol-Myers Squibb, Pennington, NJ, USA.

The 14 edition of the Workshop on Recent Issues in Bioanalysis (14 WRIB) was held virtually on June 15-29, 2020 with an attendance of over 1000 representatives from pharmaceutical/biopharmaceutical companies, biotechnology companies, contract research organizations, and regulatory agencies worldwide. The 14 WRIB included three Main Workshops, seven Specialized Workshops that together spanned 11 days in order to allow exhaustive and thorough coverage of all major issues in bioanalysis, biomarkers, immunogenicity, gene therapy, cell therapy and vaccine. Moreover, a comprehensive vaccine assays track; an enhanced cytometry track and updated Industry/Regulators consensus on BMV of biotherapeutics by Mass Spectrometry (hybrid assays, LCMS and HRMS) were special features in 2020. As in previous years, this year's WRIB continued to gather a wide diversity of international industry opinion leaders and regulatory authority experts working on both small and large molecules to facilitate sharing and discussions focused on improving quality, increasing regulatory compliance and achieving scientific excellence on bioanalytical issues. This 2020 White Paper encompasses recommendations emerging from the extensive discussions held during the workshop and is aimed to provide the Global Bioanalytical Community with key information and practical solutions on topics and issues addressed, in an effort to enable advances in scientific excellence, improved quality and better regulatory compliance. Due to its length, the 2020 edition of this comprehensive White Paper has been divided into three parts for editorial reasons. This publication covers the recommendations on (Part 1) Hybrid Assays, Innovation in Small Molecules, & Regulated Bioanalysis. Part 2A (BAV, PK LBA, Flow Cytometry Validation and Cytometry Innovation), Part 2B (Regulatory Input) and Part 3 (Vaccine, Gene/Cell Therapy, NAb Harmonization and Immunogenicity) are published in volume 13 of Bioanalysis, issues 5, and 6 (2021), respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio-2020-0324DOI Listing
February 2021

Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, Safety, and Tolerability of Oral Venglustat in Healthy Volunteers.

Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev 2021 Jan 26;10(1):86-98. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

PPD Development, LLC, Austin, Texas, USA.

Venglustat is a small-molecule glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) inhibitor designed to reduce the production of glucosylceramide (GL-1) and thus is expected to substantially reduce formation of glucosylceramide-based glycosphingolipids. Because of its effect on glycosphingolipid formation, GCS inhibition has therapeutic potential across many disorders affecting glycosphingolipid metabolism. Therefore, venglustat is under development for substrate reduction therapy in multiple diseases, including Gaucher disease type 3, Parkinson's disease associated with GBA mutations, Fabry disease, GM2 gangliosidosis, and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Phase 1 studies were conducted in healthy volunteers to determine venglustat pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, safety, and tolerability and to assess food effects on pharmacokinetics (single-dose and food-effect studies: NCT01674036; repeated-dose study: NCT01710826). Following a single oral dose of venglustat l-malate (2, 5, 15, 25, 50, 100, or 150 mg), venglustat demonstrated linear pharmacokinetics, rapid absorption (median t , 3.00-5.50 hours), systemic exposure unaffected by food, low apparent total body clearance (mean CL/F, 5.18-6.43 L/h), and pooled geometric mean t of 28.9 hours. Following repeated once-daily oral doses of venglustat l-malate (5, 10, or 20 mg) for 14 days, apparent steady state occurred within 5 days of repeated dosing, with pooled accumulation ratios of 2.10 for C and 2.22 for AUC , and no statistically significant effect of dose or sex on accumulation. The mean fraction of dose excreted unchanged in urine (fe ) was 26.3% to 33.1%. Plasma GL-1 and GM3 decreased time- and dose-dependently. Venglustat demonstrated a favorable safety and tolerability profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpdd.865DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7818513PMC
January 2021

Long-term efficacy of olipudase alfa in adults with acid sphingomyelinase deficiency (ASMD): Further clearance of hepatic sphingomyelin is associated with additional improvements in pro- and anti-atherogenic lipid profiles after 42 months of treatment.

Mol Genet Metab 2020 Sep - Oct;131(1-2):245-252. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Clinical Development, Sanofi Genzyme, Cambridge, MA, United States of America.

The liver is a major site of lipoprotein synthesis and metabolism. Liver manifestations of chronic visceral ASMD include hepatomegaly, fibrosis, elevated liver enzymes and a pro-atherogenic lipid profile. Measurements of sphingomyelin (SM) levels in liver biopsies and lyso-SM in plasma were used as pharmacodynamic biomarkers. Five adult patients with chronic visceral ASMD were enrolled in a 26-week phase 1b trial of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with olipudase alfa (NCT01722526) followed by an ongoing long-term extension study (NCT02004704). We compare the changes in hepatic SM levels, plasma lyso-SM, and lipoprotein profiles after 42 months of treatment. Progressive clearance of histologic SM storage was observed throughout the trial, along with similar reductions in plasma lyso-SM. Improvements in liver enzymes were observed at 6 months and remained stable at 42 months. Progressive reductions from baseline in pro-atherogenic lipid profiles (total cholesterol, LDL-C, VLDL-C, triglycerides) were observed at month 6 and 42. Conversely, there were progressive increases in anti-atherogenic markers, HDL-C and apolipoprotein A-I, with HDL-C increases up to 200% over baseline levels after 42 months of treatment. These data demonstrate that hepatic clearance of SM during olipudase alfa treatment over 42 months is associated with overall improvements in the lipid profiles of ASMD patients. The clinical relevance of these findings needs to be determined in the future, but we speculate that these improvements may reduce the risk for liver cirrhosis and cardiovascular disease. Trial registration: Clintrials.gov trial registration # NCT01722526.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgme.2020.06.010DOI Listing
June 2020

2019 White Paper on Recent Issues in Bioanalysis: FDA Immunogenicity Guidance, Gene Therapy, Critical Reagents, Biomarkers and Flow Cytometry Validation (Part 3 - Recommendations on 2019 FDA Immunogenicity Guidance, Gene Therapy Bioanalytical Challenges, Strategies for Critical Reagent Management, Biomarker Assay Validation, Flow Cytometry Validation & CLSI H62).

Bioanalysis 2019 Dec 10;11(24):2207-2244. Epub 2019 Dec 10.

US FDA, Silver Spring, MD, USA.

The 2019 13 Workshop on Recent Issues in Bioanalysis (WRIB) took place in New Orleans, LA, USA on April 1-5, 2019 with an attendance of over 1000 representatives from pharmaceutical/biopharmaceutical companies, biotechnology companies, contract research organizations and regulatory agencies worldwide. WRIB was once again a 5-day, week-long event - a full immersion week of bioanalysis, biomarkers, immunogenicity and gene therapy. As usual, it was specifically designed to facilitate sharing, reviewing, discussing and agreeing on approaches to address the most current issues of interest including both small- and large-molecule bioanalysis involving LCMS, hybrid LBA/LCMS, LBA cell-based/flow cytometry assays and qPCR approaches. This 2019 White Paper encompasses recommendations emerging from the extensive discussions held during the workshop and is aimed to provide the bioanalytical community with key information and practical solutions on topics and issues addressed, in an effort to enable advances in scientific excellence, improved quality and better regulatory compliance. Due to its length, the 2019 edition of this comprehensive White Paper has been divided into three parts for editorial reasons. This publication (Part 3) covers New Insights in Biomarker Assay Validation, Current & Effective Strategies for Critical Reagent Management, Flow Cytometry Validation in Drug Discovery & Development & CLSI H62, Interpretation of the 2019 FDA Immunogenicity Guidance and Gene Therapy Bioanalytical Challenges. Part 1 (Innovation in Small Molecules and Oligonucleotides & Mass Spectrometry Method Development Strategies for Large Molecule Bioanalysis) and Part 2 (Recommendations on the 2018 FDA BMV Guidance, 2019 ICH M10 BMV Draft Guideline and regulatory agencies' input on bioanalysis, biomarkers, immunogenicity and gene therapy) are published in volume 11 of , issues 22 and 23 (2019), respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio-2019-0271DOI Listing
December 2019

2018 White Paper on Recent Issues in Bioanalysis: 'A global bioanalytical community perspective on last decade of incurred samples reanalysis (ISR)' (Part 1 - small molecule regulated bioanalysis, small molecule biomarkers, peptides & oligonucleotide bioanalysis).

Bioanalysis 2018 Nov 29;10(22):1781-1801. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

US FDA, Silver Spring, MD, USA.

The 2018 12 Workshop on Recent Issues in Bioanalysis (12th WRIB) took place in Philadelphia, PA, USA on April 9-13, 2018 with an attendance of over 900 representatives from pharmaceutical/biopharmaceutical companies, biotechnology companies, contract research organizations and regulatory agencies worldwide. WRIB was once again a 5-day full immersion in bioanalysis, biomarkers and immunogenicity. As usual, it was specifically designed to facilitate sharing, reviewing, discussing and agreeing on approaches to address the most current issues of interest including both small- and large-molecule bioanalysis involving LC-MS, hybrid ligand binding assay (LBA)/LC-MS and LBA/cell-based assays approaches. This 2018 White Paper encompasses recommendations emerging from the extensive discussions held during the workshop, and is aimed to provide the bioanalytical community with key information and practical solutions on topics and issues addressed, in an effort to enable advances in scientific excellence, improved quality and better regulatory compliance. Due to its length, the 2018 edition of this comprehensive White Paper has been divided into three parts for editorial reasons. This publication (Part 1) covers the recommendations for LC-MS for small molecules, peptides, oligonucleotides and small molecule biomarkers. Part 2 (hybrid LBA/LC-MS for biotherapeutics and regulatory agencies' inputs) and Part 3 (large molecule bioanalysis, biomarkers and immunogenicity using LBA and cell-based assays) are published in volume 10 of Bioanalysis, issues 23 and 24 (2018), respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio-2018-0268DOI Listing
November 2018

Olipudase alfa for treatment of acid sphingomyelinase deficiency (ASMD): safety and efficacy in adults treated for 30 months.

J Inherit Metab Dis 2018 09 5;41(5):829-838. Epub 2018 Jan 5.

Clinical Development, Rare Diseases, Sanofi Genzyme, 1, Avenue Pierre Brossolette, 91385, Chilly-Mazarin, France.

Olipudase alfa, a recombinant human acid sphingomyelinase (ASM), is an enzyme replacement therapy for the treatment of nonneurologic manifestations of acid sphingomyelinase deficiency (ASMD). This ongoing, open-label, long-term study (NCT02004704) assessed safety and efficacy of olipudase alfa following 30 months of treatment in five adult patients with ASMD. There were no deaths, serious or severe events, or discontinuations during 30 months of treatment. The majority of adverse events were mild and included headache, nausea, and abdominal pain. No patient developed anti-drug antibodies and there were no clinically significant adverse changes in vital signs, hematology, or cardiac safety parameters. Statistically significant reductions in liver (31%) and spleen (39%) volumes were maintained through 30 months of treatment. There was a mean increase in lung diffusing capacity of 35%, and clinically relevant improvements in infiltrative lung disease parameters. Lipid profiles improved in all patients. Improvements in bone mineral density of the spine were observed in some patients. Chitotriosidase in serum and lyso-sphingomyelin in dried blood spots decreased with olipudase alfa treatment, suggesting utility as biomarkers for monitoring treatment efficacy. Olipudase alfa is the first etiology-specific treatment in development for ASMD. This study demonstrates that treatment with olipudase alfa for 30 months is well-tolerated and associated with life-transforming sustained improvements in relevant disease clinical measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10545-017-0123-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6133173PMC
September 2018

Enhancement of human plasma glucosylceramide assay sensitivity using delipidized plasma.

Mol Genet Metab Rep 2016 Sep 7;8:77-9. Epub 2016 Aug 7.

Clinical Laboratory Science, Sanofi, Framingham, MA 01701, USA.

Glucosylceramide (GL-1) level in human has been considered as a surrogate biomarker for enzyme replacement and substrate reduction therapies (ERT and SRT) for Gaucher and Fabry patients. Due to the high endogenous level of GL-1 in human plasma, it is difficult to achieve the analytical sensitivity of plasma GL-1 below the normal endogenous level (1.7 μg/mL to 6.6 μg/mL) when using the standard addition method and regular plasma matrix for standard curve. A high sensitivity plasma GL-1 assay with LLOQ at 0.1 μg/mL was developed and validated using delipidized plasma so that patient plasma concentrations that are below normal reference range can be measured accurately. The normal reference range was established from 120 healthy donors using this developed new method. Twenty-three Fabry patient plasma samples including baseline and post-investigation drug treatment samples were measured. All post-treatment samples showed GL-1 concentration below 2.0 μg/mL, indicating the utility of the reported high sensitivity assay using delipidized plasma for monitoring the plasma GL-1 biomarker level in patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgmr.2016.07.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4978213PMC
September 2016

A novel approach for quantitation of glucosylceramide in human dried blood spot using LC-MS/MS.

Bioanalysis 2015 ;7(12):1483-96

Clinical Specialty Laboratory, DSAR, Sanofi, 1 The Mountain Road, Framingham, MA 01701, USA.

Background: Glucosylceramide, an efficacy biomarker for Gaucher Type 1 disease, exhibits poor solubility in polar solvents and whole blood which makes it difficult to prepare a homogenous blood standard.

Results: We developed a novel method using standard addition approach by spiking a small volume of analyte solution on the surface of prespotted dried blood spot. The whole spots were punched out for subsequent extraction and LC-MS/MS analysis. The assay performance met all validation acceptance criteria. Glucosylceramide concentrations in 50 paired plasma and dry blood spot samples obtained from Gaucher Type 1 patients were tested and the results demonstrated the feasibility of using the DBS method for clinical biomarker monitoring.

Conclusion: The new approach greatly improves assay precision and accuracy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio.15.77DOI Listing
April 2016

Reassessment of tigecycline bone concentrations in volunteers undergoing elective orthopedic procedures.

J Clin Pharmacol 2014 01 24;54(1):70-4. Epub 2013 Oct 24.

Specific departments, Pfizer Inc., Cambridge, MA, USA.

The goal of the this study was to re-evaluate tigecycline bone concentrations in subjects undergoing elective orthopedic surgery, using multiple doses and a more robust bone assay than was used in a previous study. Each subject received three intravenous doses of tigecycline (one 100-mg infusion followed by two 50-mg infusions, each administered over 30 minutes). A single bone sample was collected from each subject at one of the following times: 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 12 hours after the third dose. Four blood samples were collected from each subject: before the first dose, before and after the third dose, and within 15 minutes of the collection time of the bone sample. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis serum and bone area under the curve for the given dose interval (AUCτ ) values were 2,402 ng h/mL and 11,465 ng h/g, and maximum concentration (Cmax ) values were 974 ng/mL and 2,262 ng/g, respectively. The bone to serum ratio calculated using the AUCτ values was 4.77, confirming tigecycline penetration into bone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcph.201DOI Listing
January 2014

Ultrasensitive and automated 1 pg/ml fluticasone propionate assay in human plasma using LC-MS/MS.

Bioanalysis 2013 Feb;5(4):423-35

Bioanalytical Services, XenoBiotic Laboratories, 107 Morgan Lane, Plainsboro, NJ 08536, USA.

Background: To develop and validate an ultrasensitive bioanalytical assay for quantitation of fluticasone propionate in human plasma, aliquots of 0.6 ml of K(3)EDTA human plasma were treated with zinc sulfate solution and loaded onto a preconditioned SPE plate. The sample solutions were washed, eluted, dried and reconstituted. The extracted sample was injected onto a LC-MS/MS system and separated by a reverse-phase HPLC column with a 5 min gradient program, and detected by MS/MS for fluticasone propionate quantitation.

Results: Linearity was from 1 to 200 pg/ml. The intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision of the assay met validation acceptance criteria. Various stabilities were established and interference drug assessment was evaluated. The assay has been used for clinical studies.

Conclusion: This ultrasensitive method has been successfully validated using LC-MS/MS for determination of fluticasone propionate in human plasma at low pg/ml level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio.12.338DOI Listing
February 2013

Challenges in urine bioanalytical assays: overcoming nonspecific binding.

Bioanalysis 2010 Sep;2(9):1573-86

Bioanalytical Services, XenoBiotic Laboratories, Inc., 107 Morgan Lane, Plainsboro, NJ 08536, USA.

Dr Allena Ji is the Director of Bioanalytical Services, XenoBiotic Laboratories, Inc., NJ, USA. She has worked in the bioanalytical field for many years and accumulated rich experience in LC-MS/MS method development, method validation and sample analysis under GLP compliance in large pharmaceutical company and contract laboratory settings. In the past 10 years, Allena worked at Pfizer (Legacy of Wyeth) and investigated many small-molecule drug candidates for their nonspecific binding in urine assays. Nonspecific binding of compounds results in a severe underestimation of the compounds' concentrations and poor precision and accuracy in urine bioanalytical assays. To overcome nonspecific binding in urine assays, Allena and her colleagues developed a series of practical approaches for urine method development. By adding an appropriate anti-adsorptive agent at its optimum concentration to the urine collection containers, the nonspecific binding can be blocked. Urine assays have much higher hurdles than plasma assays due to nonspecific binding and variability of urine pH, salt concentration, volume and solubility of drug(s) in urine. A simple and systematic approach for urine method development is emphasized in this paper. Nonspecific binding is a very serious issue in bioanalytical urine assays where a compound(s) adsorbs to the container wall. The adsorption happens frequently in urine assays because urine lacks proteins and lipids that can bind to the analytes or solubilize lipophilic analytes. Therefore, urine bioanalytical assays tend to suffer from analyte losses more often than plasma assays. In the past decade, there have been many methods described to overcome nonspecific adsorption in urine assays based on individual analyte characteristics. However, a common and simple method development approach for various analytes has not been discussed and summarized. In this article we demonstrate, discuss and summarize a common approach to urine method development with a focus on overcoming adsorption issues. The advantages and limitations of commonly used anti-adsorptive agents, such as bovine serum albumin, zwitterionic detergents such as CHAPS, sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate, β-cyclodextrin, Tween 80 and Tween 20 are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio.10.114DOI Listing
September 2010

A sensitive human bone assay for quantitation of tigecycline using LC/MS/MS.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2008 Nov 6;48(3):866-75. Epub 2008 Jul 6.

Bioanalytical R & D, Wyeth Research, 401 North Middletown Road, Pearl River, NY 10965, USA.

Tigecycline (Tygacil,Wyeth) is a first-in-class, broad spectrum antibiotic with activity against multiple-resistant organisms. In order to address the unexpectedly low tigecycline concentrations in human bone samples analyzed using a LC/MS/MS method developed elsewhere, we have developed and validated a new and sensitive human bone assay for the quantitation of tigecycline using LC/MS/MS. The new method utilizes the addition of a stabilizing agent to the human bone sample, homogenization of human bone in a strong acidic-methanol extraction solvent, centrifugation of the bone suspension, separation by liquid chromatography, and detection of tigecycline by mass spectrometry. Linearity was demonstrated over the concentration range from 50 to 20,000 ng/g using a 0.1g human bone sample. The intra- and inter-day accuracy of the assay was within 100+/-15%, and the corresponding precision (CV) was <15%. The stability of tigecycline was evaluated and shown to be acceptable under the assay conditions. The extraction recovery of tigecycline with the current method was 79% when using radio-labeled rat bone samples as a substitute for human bone samples. Twenty-four human bone samples collected previously from volunteers without infections who had elective orthopedic surgery after receiving a single dose of tigecycline were re-analyzed using the current validated method. Tigecycline concentrations in these samples ranged from 238 to 794 ng/g with a mean value 9 times higher than the mean concentration previously reported. The data demonstrated that the current method has significantly higher extraction efficiency than the previously reported method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2008.06.020DOI Listing
November 2008

A novel antibiotic bone assay by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry for quantitation of tigecycline in rat bone.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2007 Aug 20;44(4):970-9. Epub 2007 Apr 20.

Bioanalytical R & D, Wyeth Research, 401 North Middletown Road, Pearl River, NY 10965, USA.

Tigecycline (Tygacil) is a first-in-class, broad spectrum antibiotic with activity against antibiotic-resistant organisms. In rats and humans, tigecycline readily distributes to bone tissue but its accuracy of quantitation via liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) is hindered by a low extraction recovery when using a conventional plasma extraction method. To overcome this issue, we have identified an effective extraction solvent for quantitation of tigecycline in rat bone. The current LC/MS/MS bone assay is novel, simple, and sensitive, and has a wide linear range of 50-10,000 ng/g. The assay requires homogenization of the rat bone in a strong acidic-methanol extraction solvent, centrifugation of the bone suspension, separation of the supernatant with liquid chromatography, and detection of tigecycline with tandem mass spectrometry. The incurred pooled rat bone samples obtained from rats given 3mg/kg/day of [(14)C]-tigecycline and non-radio-labeled tigecycline were analyzed with the current method. The absolute extraction recovery of the bone assay for tigecycline was 77.1%. The intra-day accuracy ranged from 91.7 to 106% with precision (CV) of 1.9-10.7%, and inter-day accuracy ranged from 96.1 to 100% with a precision of 6.3-8.7%. In addition, biological activity was demonstrated for the tigecycline extracted from incurred rat bone. This bone assay provides an important analytical tool for the determination of drug concentrations (especially, antimicrobials) in rodent bone tissues and has served as the foundation of development and validation of a similar bone assay for tigecycline in human bone tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2007.04.017DOI Listing
August 2007

Evaluation of PAI-039 [{1-benzyl-5-[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl]-1H-indol-3-yl}(oxo)acetic acid], a novel plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 inhibitor, in a canine model of coronary artery thrombosis.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2005 Aug 28;314(2):710-6. Epub 2005 Apr 28.

Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease, Wyeth Research, N2252A, P.O. Box 42528, Philadelphia, PA 19101, USA.

We tested a novel, orally active inhibitor of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in a canine model of electrolytic injury. Dogs received by oral gavage either vehicle (control) or the PAI-1 inhibitor PAI-039 [{1-benzyl-5-[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl]-1H-indol-3-yl}(oxo)acetic acid] (1, 3, and 10 mg/kg) and were subjected to electrolytic injury of the coronary artery. PAI-039 caused prolongation in time to coronary occlusion (control, 31.7 +/- 6.3 min; 3 mg/kg PAI-039, 66.0 +/- 6.4 min; 10 mg/kg, 56.7 +/- 7.4 min; n = 5-6; p < 0.05) and a reduced thrombus weight (control, 7.6 +/- 1.5 mg; 10 mg/kg PAI-039, 3.6 +/- 1.0 mg; p < 0.05). Although occlusive thrombosis was observed across all groups based upon the absence of measurable blood flow, a high incidence (>60%) of spontaneous reperfusion occurred only in those groups receiving PAI-039. Spontaneous reperfusion in the 10 mg/kg PAI-039 group accounted for total blood flow (area under the curve of coronary blood flow) of 99.6 +/- 11.7 ml after initial thrombotic occlusion (p < 0.05 compared with control). Plasma PAI-1 activity was reduced in all drug-treated groups (percentage of reduction in activity p < 0.05; 10 mg/kg PAI-039), whereas ADP-, 9,11-dideoxy-11alpha,9alpha-epoxymethanoprostaglandin F(2alpha) (U46619)-, and collagen-induced platelet aggregation, as well as template bleeding and prothrombin time, remained unaffected by PAI-039. Ex vivo clot lysis analysis revealed normal clot formation but accelerated clot lysis in PAI-039-treated groups. The pharmacokinetic profile of PAI-039 indicated an oral bioavailability of 43 +/- 15.3% and a plasma half-life of 6.2 +/- 1.3 h. In conclusion, PAI-039 is an orally active prothrombolytic drug that inhibits PAI-1 and accelerates fibrinolysis while maintaining normal coagulation in a model of coronary occlusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.105.084129DOI Listing
August 2005