Publications by authors named "Allan J Aho"

14 Publications

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Morphological and mechanical characterization of composite bone cement containing polymethylmethacrylate matrix functionalized with trimethoxysilyl and bioactive glass.

J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2016 06 21;59:11-20. Epub 2015 Dec 21.

Institute of Dentistry, Department of Biomaterials Science and Turku Clinical Biomaterials Centre (TCBC) and BioCity Turku Biomaterials Research Program, Itäinen Pitkäkatu 4 B, 20520 Turku, Finland; Welfare Division, Turku, Finland.

Medical polymers of biostable nature (e.g. polymethylmetacrylate, PMMA) are widely used in various clinical applications. In this study, novel PMMA-based composite bone cement was prepared. Bioactive glass (BAG) particulate filler (30wt%) was added to enhance potentially the integration of bone to the cement. The polymer matrix was functionalized with trimethoxysilyl to achieve an interfacial bond between the matrix and the fillers of BAG. The amount of trimethoxysilyl in the monomer system varied from 0 to 75wt%. The effects of dry and wet (simulated body fluid, SBF at +37°C for 5 weeks) conditions were investigated. In total, 20 groups of specimens were prepared. The specimens were subjected to a destructive mechanical test in compression. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) were used to study the surface and the three-dimensional morphology of the specimens. The results of the study indicated that the addition of trimethoxysilyl groups led to the formation of a hybrid polymer matrix which, in lower amounts (<10wt% of total weight), did not significantly affect the compression properties. However, when the specimens stored in dry and wet conditions were compared, the water sorption increased the compression strength (~5-10MPa per test group). At the same time, the water sorption also caused an evident porous structure formation for the specimens containing BAG and siloxane formation in the hybrid polymer matrix.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmbbm.2015.12.016DOI Listing
June 2016

[Biomaterials in bone repair].

Duodecim 2013 ;129(5):489-96

Turun yliopisto, TCBC.

In orthopedics, traumatology, and craniofacial surgery, biomaterials should meet the clinical demands of bone that include shape, size and anatomical location of the defect, as well as the physiological load-bearing stresses. Biomaterials are metals, ceramics, plastics or materials of biological origin. In the treatment of large defects, metallic endoprostheses or bone grafts are employed, whereas ceramics in the case of small defects. Plastics are employed on the artificial joint surfaces, in the treatment of vertebral compression fractures, and as biodegradable screws and plates. Porosity, bioactivity, and identical biomechanics to bone are fundamental for achieving a durable, well-bonded, interface between biomaterial and bone. In the case of severe bone treatments, biomaterials should also imply an option to add biologically active substances.
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June 2013

Comparison of the osteoconductive properties of three particulate bone fillers in a rabbit model: allograft, calcium carbonate (Biocoral®) and S53P4 bioactive glass.

Acta Odontol Scand 2013 Sep 7;71(5):1238-42. Epub 2013 Jan 7.

University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the osteoconductivity and suitability of three biomaterials used as particulate fillers; S53P4 bioactive glass, allogeneic fresh frozen bone and coral-derived calcium carbonate.

Materials And Methods: Materials were implanted into drill-holes in the femoral condyles of adult rabbits. Follow-ups were performed at 3, 6, 12 and 24 weeks. Host-response, osteoconductivity, bonding and filler-effect were evaluated by SEM, EDXA and histology and histomorphometry to evaluate.

Results: All three materials were found to be biocompatible and osteoconductive. Defects filled with allograft seemed to have more bone at 24 weeks, although no statistically significant difference in new bone growth was found. In earlier time points, coral, however, was observed to degrade more quickly, leaving more empty space in the defects, thus making it a less suitable filler for cavitary defects.

Conclusion: At all time points there was less filler material (i.e. biomaterial and new bone) in coral-filled defects than in BAG or allograft filled defects (p < 0.05).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00016357.2012.757642DOI Listing
September 2013

Bioactive glass granules: a suitable bone substitute material in the operative treatment of depressed lateral tibial plateau fractures: a prospective, randomized 1 year follow-up study.

J Mater Sci Mater Med 2011 Apr 23;22(4):1073-80. Epub 2011 Mar 23.

Sports Clinic Mehiläinen, Turku, Finland.

Purpose of this study was to compare bioactive glass and autogenous bone as a bone substitute material in tibial plateau fractures. We designed a prospective, randomized study consisting of 25 consecutive operatively treated patients with depressed unilateral tibial comminuted plateau fracture (AO classification 41 B2 and B3).14 patients (7 females, 7 males, mean age 57 years, range 25-82) were randomized in the bioglass group (BG) and 11 patients (6 females, 5 males, mean age 50 years, range 31-82) served as autogenous bone control group (AB). Clinical examination of the patients was performed at 3 and 12 months, patients' subjective and functional results were evaluated at 12 months. Radiological analysis was performed preoperatively, immediately postoperatively and at 3 and 12 months. The postoperative redepression for both studied groups was 1 mm until 3 months and remained unchanged at 12 months. No differences were identified in the subjective evaluation, functional tests and clinical examination between the two groups during 1 year follow-up. We conclude that bioactive glass granules can be clinically used as filler material instead of autogenous bone in the lateral tibial plateau compression fractures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10856-011-4272-0DOI Listing
April 2011

A prospective randomized 14-year follow-up study of bioactive glass and autogenous bone as bone graft substitutes in benign bone tumors.

J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2010 Jul;94(1):157-64

Helsinki University Central Hospital, Department of Orthopedic and Hand Surgery, Helsinki University, Helsinki, Finland.

A prospective randomized long-term follow-up study of bioactive glass (BG)-S53P4 and autogenous bone (AB) used as bone graft substitutes in benign bone tumor surgery during 1993-1997 was conducted. Twenty-one patients (11 in the BG group, 10 in the AB group) participated in a 14-year follow-up. X-rays and MRI scans were obtained, and in the BG group, CT scans were also performed. In the BG group, the filled cavity had a dense appearance on X-ray. MRI showed a mainly or partly fatty bone marrow, and in the large bone tumor group, remnants of glass granules were also observed. Increased cortical thickness was seen in nonossifying fibromas and enchondromas. BG-S53P4 is a safe and well-tolerated bone substitute with good long-term results. BG-S53P4 does not disturb the growth of bone in children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.b.31636DOI Listing
July 2010

Bioactive glass and autogenous bone as bone graft substitutes in benign bone tumors.

J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2009 Jul;90(1):131-6

Department of Orthopedic and Hand Surgery, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki University, Helsinki, Finland.

In a prospective randomized study, 25 patients with benign bone tumors were surgically treated with either bioactive glass S53P4 (BG) or autogenous bone (AB) as bone graft material. X-rays were taken preoperatively and postoperatively at 2 weeks and at 3, 8, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months. In addition, for most of the patients, CT scans were performed at the same time-points. No infections or material-related adverse reactions occurred in any patient. The filled cavity was replaced faster by new bone in the AB group than in the BG group (p = 0.0001). However, at 36 months, no statistical difference in cavity volume between the two groups was observed on X-rays (p = 0.7881) or on CT scans (p = 0.9117). In the BG group at 3 years, the filled cavity appeared, however, dense on X-rays, and glass granules on CT scans were observed. During the follow-up period, the cortical thickness seemed to increase more in the BG group than in the AB group (p < 0.0001).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.b.31263DOI Listing
July 2009

Repair of bone segment defects with surface porous fiber-reinforced polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) composite prosthesis: histomorphometric incorporation model and characterization by SEM.

Acta Orthop 2008 Aug;79(4):555-64

Department of Prosthetic Dentistry and Biomaterials Science, Institute of Dentistry, University of Turku, Finland.

Background And Purpose: Polymer technology has provided solutions for filling of bone defects in situations where there may be technical or biological complications with autografts, allografts, and metal prostheses. We present an experimental study on segmental bone defect reconstruction using a polymethylmethacrylate-(PMMA-) based bulk polymer implant prosthesis. We concentrated on osteoconductivity and surface characteristics.

Material And Methods: A critical size segment defect of the rabbit tibia in 19 animals aged 18-24 weeks was reconstructed with a surface porous glass fiber-reinforced (SPF) prosthesis made of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). The biomechanical properties of SPF implant material were previously adjusted technically to mimic the properties of normal cortical bone. A plain PMMA implant with no porosity or fiber reinforcement was used as a control. Radiology, histomorphometry, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used for analysis of bone growth into the prosthesis during incorporation.

Results: The radiographic and histological incorporation model showed good host bone contact, and strong formation of new bone as double cortex. Histomorphometric evaluation showed that the bone contact index (BCI) at the posterior surface interface was higher with the SPF implant than for the control. The total appositional bone growth over the posterior surface (area %) was also stronger for the SPF implant than for controls. Both bone growth into the porous surface and the BCI results were related to the quality, coverage, and regularity of the microstructure of the porous surface.

Interpretation: Porous surface structure enhanced appositional bone growth onto the SPF implant. Under load-bearing conditions the implant appears to function like an osteoconductive prosthesis, which enables direct mobilization and rapid return to full weight bearing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17453670710015571DOI Listing
August 2008

Long-term microscopic and tissue analytical findings for 2 frontal sinus obliteration materials.

J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2008 Aug;66(8):1699-707

Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joms.2007.11.020DOI Listing
August 2008

Natural composite of wood as replacement material for ostechondral bone defects.

J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2007 Oct;83(1):64-71

Department of Prosthetic Dentistry and Biomaterials Science, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

Deciduous wood, birch, pretreated by a technique combining heat and water vapor was applied for the reconstruction of bone defects in the knee joint of rabbits. It was observed that wood showed characteristic properties to be incorporated by the host bone during observation time of 4, 8, and 20 weeks. The natural channel structure of wood served as a porous scaffold, allowing host bone growth as small islets into the wood implants. The other properties of heat-treated wood, such as bioactivity, good handling properties, and sufficient biomechanical properties, might be additional favorable factors for the application of wood as a natural composite material for bone and cartilage repair. At the interface of the surfaces of wood and living bone, bonding occurred. The Chemical Interface Model for bonding bone to wood consists of the reactive ions, such as hydroxyl groups --OH, and covalent bonding as well as hydrogen bonding, which originate from both wood and bone. The bone tissue trauma, with its reactive Ca(2+) and PO(4) (3-) ions, proteins, and collagen, available for interaction at ionic and nanolevel, are associated with the complicated chemistry in the cellular response of the early bone healing process. It was concluded that heat-treated wood acted like a porous biomaterial scaffold, allowing ongrowth and ingrowth of bone and cartilage differentiation on its surface, and demonstrating osteoconductive contact, bonding at the interface.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.b.30767DOI Listing
October 2007

Exothermal characteristics and release of residual monomers from fiber-reinforced oligomer-modified acrylic bone cement.

J Biomater Appl 2005 Jul;20(1):51-64

Department of Prosthetic Dentistry & Biomaterials Research, Institute of Dentistry, University of Turku, Finland.

The aim of this study is to determine the peak temperature of polymerization, the setting time and the release of residual monomers of a modified acrylic bone cement. Palacos R, a commercial bone cement, is used as the main component. The cement is modified by adding short glass fibers and resorbable oligomer fillers, and an additional cross-linking monomer. The test specimens are classified according to the composition of the bone cement matrix (i.e., oligomer-filler, glass-fiber reinforcement, and/or cross-linking monomer). The exothermal characteristics during autopolymerization are analyzed using a transducer connected with a computer. The quantities of residual monomers were analyzed from different test groups using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The DeltaT value for the oligomer filler and the glass-fiber-containing acrylic bone cement is lower than that for the unmodified bone cement (2.1 +/- 0.8 vs. 23.5 +/- 4.2 degrees C). The addition of a cross-linking monomer, EGDMA, shortens the setting time of the autopolymerization of the unmodified bone cement (7.1 +/- 0.9 min vs. 3.3 +/- 0.3 min). The quantity of the residual monomers released is higher in the modified bone cement than that in the unmodified cement. The cement that contains glass fibers and oligomer fillers has a considerably lower exothermal peak, whereas the total quantity of residual monomers released is increased.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0885328205048647DOI Listing
July 2005

Injectable bioactive glass/biodegradable polymer composite for bone and cartilage reconstruction: concept and experimental outcome with thermoplastic composites of poly(epsilon-caprolactone-co-D,L-lactide) and bioactive glass S53P4.

J Mater Sci Mater Med 2004 Oct;15(10):1165-73

Department of Surgery, Turku University Central Hospital, Finland and Biomaterials Research, Institute of Dentistry, University of Turku, Finland.

Injectable composites (Glepron) of particulate bioactive glass S53P4 (BAG) and Poly(epsilon-caprolactone-co-D,L-lactide) as thermoplastic carrier matrix were investigated as bone fillers in cancellous and cartilagineous subchondral bone defects in rabbits. Composites were injected as viscous liquid or mouldable paste. The glass granules of the composites resulted in good osteoconductivity and bone bonding that occurred initially at the interface between the glass and the host bone. The bone bioactivity index (BBI) indicating bone contacts between BAG and bone, as well as the bone coverage index (BCI) indicating bone ongrowth, correlated with the amount of glass in the composites. The indices were highest with 70 wt % of BAG, granule size 90-315 microm and did not improve by the addition of sucrose as in situ porosity creating agent in the composite or by using smaller (<45 microm) glass granules. The percentage of new bone ingrowth into the composite with 70 wt % of BAG was 6-8% at 23 weeks. At the articular surface cartilage regeneration with chondroblasts and mature chondrocytes was often evident. The composites were osteoconductive and easy to handle with short setting time. They were biocompatible with low foreign body cellular reaction. Results indicate a suitable working concept as a filler bone substitute for subchondral cancellous bone defects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:JMSM.0000046401.50406.9bDOI Listing
October 2004

Flexural properties of crosslinked and oligomer-modified glass-fibre reinforced acrylic bone cement.

J Mater Sci Mater Med 2004 Sep;15(9):1037-43

Department of Prosthetic Dentistry and Biomaterials Research, Institute of Dentistry, University of Turku, FIN-20520 Turku, Finland.

The flexural properties of oligomer-modified bone cement with various quantities of crosslinking monomer with or without glass fibre reinforcement were studied. The flexural strength and modulus of acrylic bone cement-based test specimens (N=6), including crosslinked and oligomer-modified structures with or without glass fibres, were measured in dry conditions and after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for seven days (analysis with ANOVA). One test specimen from the acrylic bone cement group containing 30 wt % crosslinking monomer of its total monomer content was examined with scanning electron microscope (SEM) to evaluate signs of the semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN). The highest dry mean flexural strength (130 MPa) was achieved with the bone cement/crosslinking monomer/glass fibre combination containing 5 wt % crosslinking monomer of its monomer content. The highest flexural modulus (11.5 GPa) was achieved with the bone cement/crosslinking monomer/glass fibre combination containing 30 wt % crosslinking monomer of its monomer content. SBF storage decreased the flexural properties of the test specimens, as did the addition of the oligomer filler. Nevertheless, the addition of crosslinking monomer and chopped glass fibres improves considerably the mechanical properties of oligomer-modified (i.e. porosity-producing filler containing) acrylic bone cement. In addition, some signs of the semi-IPN structure were observed by SEM examination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:JMSM.0000042690.93328.e5DOI Listing
September 2004

30 years of bone banking at Turku bone bank.

Cell Tissue Bank 2003 ;4(1):43-8

Department of Surgery, Turku University Central Hospital, Turku, 20520, Finland (e-mail:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1026343707575DOI Listing
January 2003