Publications by authors named "Allah Ditta"

25 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Determinants and implications of environmental practices for waste management and the minimization in the construction industry: a case study of Pakistan.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Environmental Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan.

The construction projects and activities generate waste materials, which impose negative impacts on the environment and contribute towards environmental degradation. In this regard, the implementation of environmental practices (EPs) can play a vital role in reducing the environmental risks associated with waste materials from construction projects. Based on this hypothesis, the present survey study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of different EPs in reducing environmental risks associated with waste materials from construction firms (n = 159) operating in Pakistan. Organizational and government support, regulatory pressure, and economic and environmental performance were among the main determinants of EPs studied in the present study. The partial least squares technique was used for the data collection, assessment, and prediction of the results based on the hypothesis testing for a range of determinants. Compose reliability analysis of determinants showed that all items gave a value of 0.7, which is a clear indication of the reliability of each determinant in the formation of the hypothesis. From all eight hypotheses, H (0.475), H (0.217), H (0.114), H (0.210), and H (0.149) hypotheses with size effect in parentheses were acceptable due to their positive construction with EPs, while H, H, and H hypothesis did not show the significant effect with size effect values lower than 0.1. The study demonstrated that current environmental regulations and governing bodies in Pakistan are not sufficiently effective and strict to implement environmental regulations. In this regard, regulatory pressure is necessary to promote EPs along with increasing stakeholders' awareness. Overall, the implementation of EPs not only prepares construction firms to deal with the pressure exerted by regulations and customers but also enhances the environmental and economic performance of construction firms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14739-zDOI Listing
June 2021

Correction to: Bacillus subtilis Y16 and biogas slurry enhanced potassium to sodium ratio and physiology of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) to mitigate salt stress.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture by Ministry of Agriculture of China, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, People's Republic of China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14344-0DOI Listing
May 2021

Exploring potential of copper and silver nano particles to establish efficient callogenesis and regeneration system for wheat ( L.).

GM Crops Food 2021 May 3:1-22. Epub 2021 May 3.

Institute of Cotton Research of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences / Research Base, Zhengzhou University, State Key Laboratory of Cotton Biology / Key Laboratory for Cotton Genetic Improvement, MOA, Anyang, Henan, China.

recalcitrance of wheat to regeneration is the major bottleneck for its improvement through callus-based genetic transformation. Nanotechnology is one of the most dynamic areas of research, which can transform agriculture and biotechnology to ensure food security on sustainable basis. Present study was designed to investigate effects of CuSO, AgNO and their nanoparticles on tissue culture responses of mature embryo culture of wheat genotypes (AS-2002 and Wafaq-2001). Initially, MS-based callus induction and regeneration medium were optimized for both genotypes using various concentrations of auxin (2,4-D, IAA) and cytokinins (BAP, kinetin). The genotypes differed for embryogenic callus induction and regeneration potential. Genotype AS-2002 yielded maximum embryogenic calli in response to 3.0 mg/l 2,4-D, whereas Wafaq-2001 offered the highest embryogenic calli against 3.5 mg/l 2,4-D supplemented in the induction medium. Genotype AS-2002 showed maximum regeneration (59.33%) in response to regeneration protocol comprising 0.5 mg/l IAA, 0.3 mg/l BAP and 1.0 mg/l Kin, while Wafaq-2001 performed best in response to 0.5 mg/l IAA, 0.3 mg/l BAP and 1.5 mg/l Kin with 55.33% regeneration efficiency. The same optimized basal induction and regeneration medium for both genotypes were further used to study effects of CuSO, AgNO and their nano-particles employing independent experiments. The optimized induction medium fortified with various concentrations of CuSO or CuNPs confirmed significant effects on frequency of embryogenic callus. Addition of either 0.020 mg/l or 0.025 mg/l CuSO, or 0.015 mg/l CNPs showed comparable results for embryogenic callus induction and were statistically at par with embryogenic callus induction of 74.00%, 75.67% and 76.83%, respectively. Significantly higher regeneration was achieved from MS-based regeneration medium supplemented with 0.015 mg/l or 0.020 mg/l CuNPs than standard 0.025 mg/l CuSO. In another study, the basal induction and regeneration medium were fortified with AgNO or AgNPs ranging from 1 to 7 mg/l along with basal regeneration media devoid of AgNO or AgNPs (control). The maximum embryogenic calli were witnessed from medium fortified with 3.0 mg/l or 4.0 mg/l AgNPs compared with control and rest of the treatments. The standardized regeneration medium fortified with 5.0 mg/l AgNO or 3.0 mg/l AgNPs showed pronounced effect on regeneration of wheat genotypes and offered maximum regeneration compared with control. The individual and combined effect of Cu and Ag nanoparticles along with control (basal regeneration media of each genotype) was also tested. Surprisingly, co-application of metallic NPs showed a significant increase in embryogenic callus formation of genotypes. Induction medium supplemented with 0.015 mg/l CuNPs + 4.0 mg/l AgNPs or 0.020 mg/l CuNPs + 2.0 mg/l AgNPs showed splendid results compared to control and other combination of Cu and Ag nanoparticles. The maximum regeneration was achieved by co-application of 0.015 mg/l CuNP and 4.0 mg/l AgNPs with 21% increment of regeneration over control. It is revealed that CuNPs and AgNPs are potential candidate to augment somatic embryogenesis and regeneration of mature embryo explants of wheat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645698.2021.1917975DOI Listing
May 2021

Processed animal manure improves morpho-physiological and biochemical characteristics of Brassica napus L. under nickel and salinity stress.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Hainan Key Laboratory for Sustainable Utilization of Tropical Bioresource, College of Tropical Crops, Hainan University, Haikou, 570228, Hainan, China.

Soil contamination with readily soluble salts and heavy metals is a major challenge concerning sustainable crop production. The use of organic wastes in agriculture not only helps in waste reduction but also acts as a soil conditioner and bio-stimulant for enhancing crop growth. In this regard, a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of raw and processed animal manure (AM) on the growth, yield, and physicochemical parameters of Brassica napus L. developed under salinity and Ni stress. The experiment comprised two salinity levels (1.05 and 8 dS m), two Ni levels (0 and 50 mg kg), and two types of AMs (raw and processed at a rate of 2% w/w). A control treatment without AM incorporation was also included. In results, the application of AM markedly increased the growth and yield of B. napus under Ni and salinity stress; at the same time, it improved the physiological and chemical parameters of the said crop. Similarly, incorporation of processed AM significantly improved nutrient uptake and decreased Na/K ratios in the shoot and grain under the different stress conditions, as compared to the control. Likewise, Ni uptake in the grain, shoot, and root samples was also significantly reduced under the AM treatment. Also, the application of AM significantly reduced the daily intake of metal (DIM) index and the health risk index (HRI) values under the different stress conditions, as compared to the control. In conclusion, the application of processed AM constitutes an effective agricultural strategy to alleviate the adverse effects of Ni and salinity stress on growth, physiology, and yield of B. napus, thus resulting in enhanced productivity, as well as reduced risks associated with human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14004-3DOI Listing
April 2021

Plant growth regulators and EDTA improve phytoremediation potential and antioxidant response of Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants in a Cd-spiked soil.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Beijing Normal University, No. 19, Xinjiekouwai Street, Haidian, Beijing, 100875, People's Republic of China.

Soil pollution due to potentially toxic elements is a worldwide challenge for health and food security. Chelate-assisted phytoextraction along with the application of plant growth regulators (PGRs) could increase the phytoremediation efficiency of metal-contaminated soils. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of different PGRs [Gibberellic acid (GA) and indole acetic acid (IAA)] and synthetic chelator (EDTA) on growth parameters and Cd phytoextraction potential of Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants grown under Cd-spiked soil. GA (10 M) and IAA (10 M) were applied four times with an interval of 10 days through a foliar spray, while EDTA (40 mg kg soil) was once added to the soil. The results showed that Cd stress significantly decreased fresh biomass, dry biomass, total water contents, and photosynthetic pigments as compared to control. Application of PGRs significantly enhanced plant growth and Cd phytoextraction. The combined application of GA and IAA with EDTA significantly increased Cd accumulation (6.72 mg pot dry biomass) and bioconcentration factor (15.21) as compared to C (Cd only). The same treatment significantly increased chlorophyll, proline, phenolic contents, and antioxidant activities (CAT, SOD, and POD) while MDA contents were reduced. In roots, Cd accumulation showed a statistically significant and positive correlation with proline, phenolics, fresh biomass, and dry biomass. Similarly, Cd accumulation showed a positive correlation with antioxidant enzyme activities in leaves. D. ambrosioides showed hyperaccumulation potential for Cd, based on bioconcentration factor (BCF) > 1. In conclusion, exogenous application of GA and IAA reduces Cd stress while EDTA application enhances Cd phytoextraction and ultimately the phytoremediation potential of D. ambrosioides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13772-2DOI Listing
April 2021

Dissection of Drought Tolerance in Upland Cotton Through Morpho-Physiological and Biochemical Traits at Seedling Stage.

Front Plant Sci 2021 12;12:627107. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Soil and Environmental Sciences Division, Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Cotton is an important fiber and cash crop. Extreme water scarceness affects the growth, quality, and productivity of cotton. Water shortage has threatened the future scenario for cotton growers, so it is imperative to devise a solution to this problem. In this research, we have tried to machinate a solution for it. 23 genotypes have been screened out against drought tolerance at the seedling stage by evaluating the morphological, physiological, and biochemical traits in a triplicate completely randomized design plot experiment with two water regimes [50 and 100% field capacity]. Genotypic differences for all the morphological and physiological traits revealed highly significant differences except transpiration rate (TR). Moreover, the interaction between genotype and water regime (G × W) was highly significant for root length (RL, 5.163), shoot length (SL, 11.751), excised leaf water loss (ELWL, 0.041), and stomatal conductance (SC, 7.406). A positively strong correlation was found in TR with relative water content (RWC; 0.510) and SC (0.584) and RWC with photosynthesis (0.452) under drought conditions. A negative correlation was found in SC with SL (-0.428) and photosynthesis (-0.446). Traits like RL, SL, SC, photosynthesis, proline, catalase, and malondialdehyde were visible indicators, which can differentiate drought-tolerant genotypes from the susceptible ones. A wide range of diversity was found in all the morpho-physiological traits with the cumulative variance of four principal components (PCs) 83.09% and three PCs 73.41% under normal and water-stressed conditions, respectively, as per the principal component analysis. Hence, selection criteria can be established on the aforementioned traits for the development of drought-tolerant cultivars. Moreover, it was found that out of 23 experimental varieties, NIAB-135, NIAB-512, and CIM-554 could be used to devise breeding strategies for improving drought tolerance in cotton.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.627107DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7994611PMC
March 2021

Identification and characterization of genes related to salt stress tolerance within segregation distortion regions of genetic map in F2 population of upland cotton.

PLoS One 2021 26;16(3):e0247593. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

State Key Laboratory of Cotton Biology, Institute of Cotton Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Anyang, Henan, P.R China.

Segregation distortion (SD) is a genetic mechanism commonly found in segregating or stable populations. The principle behind this puzzles many researchers. The F2 generation developed from wild Gossypium darwinii and G. hirsutum CCRI12 species was used to investigate the possible transcription factors within the segregation distortion regions (SDRs). The 384 out of 2763 markers were distorted in 29 SDRs on 18 chromosomes. Good collinearity was observed among genetic and physical maps of G. hirsutum and G. barbadense syntenic blocks. Total 568 genes were identified from SDRs of 18 chromosomes. Out of these genes, 128 belonged to three top-ranked salt-tolerant gene families. The DUF597 contained 8 uncharacterized genes linked to Pkinase (PF00069) gene family in the phylogenetic tree, while 15 uncharacterized genes clustered with the zinc finger gene family. Two hundred thirty four miRNAs targeted numerous genes, including ghr-miR156, ghr-miR399 and ghr-miR482, while others targeted top-ranked stress-responsive transcription factors. Moreover, these genes were involved in the regulation of numerous stress-responsive cis-regulatory elements. The RNA sequence data of fifteen upregulated genes were verified through the RT-qPCR. The expression profiles of two highly upregulated genes (Gh_D01G2015 and Gh_A01G1773) in salt-tolerant G. darwinii showed antagonistic expression in G. hirsutum. The results indicated that salt-tolerant genes have been possibly transferred from the wild G. darwinii species. A detailed functional analysis of these genes can be carried out which might be helpful in the future for gene cloning, transformation, gene editing and the development of salt-resistant cotton varieties.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0247593PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7997035PMC
March 2021

Bacillus subtilis Y16 and biogas slurry enhanced potassium to sodium ratio and physiology of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) to mitigate salt stress.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture by Ministry of Agriculture of China, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, People's Republic of China.

Salinity harms crop productivity; thereby, the management of salt-affected soils is a prerequisite to obtaining optimum crop yields and achieving UN-SDGs. The application of bio-organic amendments is an eco-friendly and cost-effective technique for the management of salt-affected soils. Therefore, this study examined the effect of salt-tolerant Bacillus subtilis strain Y16 and biogas slurry (BGS) on growth, physiology, and yield of sunflower under salt-affected soil conditions. Three levels of soil salinity (original electrical conductivity (EC): 3 dS m; induced EC: 6 dS m and 8 dS m) were evaluated against three levels of BGS (0 kg ha, 600 kg ha, and 800 kg ha) with and without bacterial inoculation. Soil salinity (EC = 8 dS m) significantly (P < 0.05) increased Na contents (86%), which significantly (P < 0.05) reduced growth (17-56%), physiology (39-53%), and yield (58%) of sunflower. However, the combined application of BGS and B. subtilis alleviated salt stress and significantly (P < 0.05) improved sunflower growth (11-179%), physiology (10-84%), and yield (106%). The correlation analysis showed the superiority of B. subtilis for inducing salt-stress tolerance in sunflower as compared to BGS through homeostasis of K/Na ratio. The tolerance indices and heat map analysis revealed an increased salt-stress tolerance in sunflower by the synergistic application of BGS and B. subtilis at original (3 dS m) and induced (6 dS m) soil salinity. Based on the results, we conclude that the combined application of B. subtilis and BGS enhanced growth and yield of sunflower by improving physiological processes and adjustment of K/Na ratio in shoot under moderate salt-stress soil conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13419-2DOI Listing
March 2021

Exogenous application of black cumin () seed extract improves maize growth under chromium (Cr) stress.

Int J Phytoremediation 2021 Feb 25:1-13. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Forestry, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan.

Accumulation of non-essential heavy metals like chromium (Cr) is among major abiotic stresses, which adversely affect crop growth. Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is the most dangerous form negatively affecting the growth and productivity of crops. This study evaluated the role of black cumin extracts (BCE) in improving growth and productivity of maize genotypes under different concentrations of Cr(VI). Two maize genotypes ("Neelum" and "P1543") were grown under 0, 4, 8 and 12 mg Cr(VI) kg concentrations. The BCE was applied as foliar spray at three concentrations (0, 10 and 20%) at 25 and 45 days after sowing. Increasing Cr(VI) concentration significantly ( < 0.05) reduced seed germination, root and allometric traits, gas exchange attributes and relative water contents of tested genotypes. Hybrid maize genotype better tolerated tested Cr(VI) concentrations than synthetic genotype with lower Cr accumulation and better allometric and gas exchange traits. Exogenous application of 20% BCE proved effective in lowering the adverse effects of Cr(VI) toxicity on maize genotypes. It is concluded that 20% BCE could be used to improve maize performance through better allometric and gas exchange traits under different Cr(VI) concentrations. Nonetheless, actual mechanisms involved in improved Cr(VI)-tolerance of maize with BCE application must be explored. Black cumin has been widely used to reduce Cr toxicity in animals. However, the role of black cumin in reducing Cr toxicity in plants has never been studied. The present study was conducted to infer the role of different concentrations of black cumin extract in improving the growth of synthetic and hybrid maize genotypes under different levels of Cr stress. It is concluded that black cumin extract could be used to lower Cr toxicity in maize grown under Cr-contaminated soils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15226514.2021.1889965DOI Listing
February 2021

Insights into conventional and recent technologies for arsenic bioremediation: A systematic review.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 14;28(15):18870-18892. Epub 2021 Feb 14.

Department of Environmental Sciences, COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad Campus, Abbottabad, 22060, Pakistan.

Arsenic (As) bioremediation has been an economical and sustainable approach, being practiced widely under several As-contaminated environments. Bioremediation of As involves the use of bacteria, fungi, yeast, plants, and genetically modified organisms for detoxification/removal of As from the contaminated site. The understanding of multi-factorial biological components involved in these approaches is complex and more and more efforts are on their way to make As bioremediation economical and efficient. In this regard, we systematically reviewed the recent literature (n=200) from the last two decades regarding As bioremediation potential of conventional and recent technologies including genetically modified plants for phytoremediation and integrated approaches. Also, the responsible mechanisms behind different approaches have been identified. From the literature, it was found that As bioremediation through biosorption, bioaccumulation, phytoextraction, and volatilization involving As-resistant microbes has proved a very successful technology. However, there are various pathways of As tolerance of which the mechanisms have not been fully understood. Recently, phytosuction separation technology has been introduced and needs further exploration. Also, integrated approaches like phytobial, constructed wetlands using As-resistant bacteria with plant growth-promoting activities have not been extensively studied. It is speculated that the integrated bioremediation approaches with practical applicability and reliability would prove most promising for As remediation. Further technological advancements would help explore the identified research gaps in different approaches and lead us toward sustainability and perfection in As bioremediation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12487-8DOI Listing
April 2021

Influence of High-Temperature Oxidation and Test Conditions on the Dynamic Mechanical Properties of 2.5D SiC/SiC Composites.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Dec 31;14(1). Epub 2020 Dec 31.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, China.

The influence of microstructure evolution on the dynamic mechanical properties, including storage modulus and internal friction, of the 2.5D SiC/SiC composites after high-temperature treatment (800 °C and 1400 °C) in the air was investigated by three-point bending vibration test. The effects of test frequency and amplitude on storage modulus and internal friction were also evaluated. The results show that as-prepared samples have maximum storage modulus and internal friction. However, the composites treated at 800 °C in the air have the minimum storage modulus due to a large number of defects produced within the composite structure, and the composites treated at 1400 °C have the minimum internal friction due to the formation of α-cristobalite in the interface between the matrix and fibers, resulting in stronger interface bonding. With regard to test conditions, the storage modulus is sensitive to amplitude but not frequency; however, the internal friction is sensitive to both frequency because of anelasticity and amplitude due to the static hysteresis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14010145DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7795653PMC
December 2020

Mitigation of Nickel Toxicity and Growth Promotion in Sesame through the Application of a Bacterial Endophyte and Zeolite in Nickel Contaminated Soil.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 11 28;17(23). Epub 2020 Nov 28.

Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Nickel (Ni) bioavailable fraction in the soil is of utmost importance because of its involvement in plant growth and environmental feedbacks. High concentrations of Ni in the soil environment, especially in the root zone, may retard plant growth that ultimately results in reduced plant biomass and yield. However, endophytic microorganisms have great potential to reduce the toxicity of Ni, especially when applied together with zeolite. The present research work was conducted to evaluate the potential effects of an endophytic bacterium sp. MN13 in combination with zeolite on the physiology, growth, quality, and yield of sesame plant under normal and Ni stressed soil conditions through possible reduction of Ni uptake. Surface sterilized sesame seeds were sown in pots filled with artificially Ni contaminated soil amended with zeolite. Results revealed that plant agronomic attributes such as shoot root dry weight, total number of pods, and 1000-grains weight were increased by 41, 45, 54, and 65%, respectively, over control treatment, with combined application of bacteria and zeolite in Ni contaminated soil. In comparison to control, the gaseous exchange parameters (CO assimilation rate, transpiration rate, stomatal- sub-stomatal conductance, chlorophyll content, and vapor pressure) were significantly enhanced by co-application of bacteria and zeolite ranging from 20 to 49% under Ni stress. Moreover, the combined utilization of bacteria and zeolite considerably improved water relations of sesame plant, in terms of relative water content (RWC) and relative membrane permeability (RMP) along with improvement in biochemical components (protein, ash, crude fiber, fat), and micronutrients in normal as well as in Ni contaminated soil. Moreover, the same treatment modulated the Ni-stress in plants through improvement in antioxidant enzymes (AEs) activities along with improved Ni concentration in the soil and different plant tissues. Correlation and principal component analysis (PCA) further revealed that combined application of metal-tolerant bacterium sp. MN13 and zeolite is the most influential strategy in alleviating Ni-induced stress and subsequent improvement in growth, yield, and physio-biochemical attributes of sesame plant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17238859DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7730600PMC
November 2020

Assessment of health and ecological risks of heavy metal contamination: a case study of agricultural soils in Thall, Dir-Kohistan.

Environ Monit Assess 2020 Nov 25;192(12):786. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Department of Environmental Sciences, COMSATS University Islamabad, Vehari-Campus, Vehari, 61100, Pakistan.

Heavy metal (HM) contamination in agricultural soils has been a significant health concern worldwide due to their persistent and non-biodegradable nature and biomagnification to higher trophic levels. The present study was conducted to assess Cd and Pb concentrations in soil samples collected from potato-growing areas in Thall, Dir-Kohistan, and to determine their associated health and ecological risks. The contamination factor calculated for Cd (0 to 1.74) and Pb (0 to 0.91) showed their moderate to low contamination in the study area. Geo-accumulation indices of Cd and Pb were less than 1, indicating moderate soil pollution of these HM in the study area. However, the ecological risk factor (Eri) of Cd was greater than 40 for only three soil samples, indicating the moderate potential of ecological risks of respective soils. The principal component analysis (PCA) and Pearson correlation suggested that the contamination in different soils was lithogenic followed by anthropogenic activities. The hazard quotient (HQ) in children and adults was found in the following order: dermal > ingestion > inhalation. Moreover, the values of HQ through various exposure routes were higher in children compared to adults, which showed that adults were at a lower level of risk associated with HM contamination. The results of the present study can serve as baseline data for government agencies related to environmental protection, which could devise policies to minimize Cd and Pb contamination in the agricultural soils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-020-08722-3DOI Listing
November 2020

Raman spectroscopy for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of solid dosage forms of Sitagliptin.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Jan 2;245:118900. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

EA 6295 Nano-médicaments and Nano-sondes, Université de Tours, Tours, France.

To demonstrate the potential of Raman spectroscopy for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of solid dosage pharmacological formulations, different concentrations of Sitagliptin, an Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) currently prescribed as an anti-diabetic drug, are characterised. Increase of the API concentrations induces changes in the Raman spectral features specifically associated with the drug and excipients. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR), were used for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the spectral responses. A PLSR model is constructed which enables the prediction of different concentrations of drug in the complex excipient matrices. During the development of the prediction model, the Root Mean Square Error of Cross Validation (RMSECV) was found to be 0.36 mg and the variability explained by the model, according to the (R) value, was found to be 0.99. Moreover, the concentration of the API in the unknown sample was determined. This concentration was predicted to be 64.28/180 mg (w/w), compared to the 65/180 mg (w/w). These findings demonstrate Raman spectroscopy coupled to PLSR analysis to be a reliable tool to verify Sitagliptin contents in the pharmaceutical samples based on calibration models prepared under laboratory conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2020.118900DOI Listing
January 2021

Cadmium mediated phytotoxic impacts in Brassica napus: Managing growth, physiological and oxidative disturbances through combined use of biochar and Enterobacter sp. MN17.

J Environ Manage 2020 Jul 7;265:110522. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science of the Ministry of Education, School of Geographical Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai, 200241, China.

Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal with unknown biological role. Interactive effect of Enterobacter sp. MN17 and biochar was studied on the growth, physiology and antioxidant defense system of Brassica napus under Cd contaminated soil. A multi-metal tolerant endophytic bacterium, Enterobacter sp. MN17, was able to grow in tryptic soy agar (TSA) medium with up to 160, 200, 300, 700, 160 and 400 μg mL of Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, Ni and Zn, respectively. Paper and pulp waste biochar was prepared at 450 °C and applied to pots (7 kg soil) at a rate of 1% (w/w), while Cd was spiked at 80 mg kg soil. Application of Enterobacter sp. MN17 and biochar, alone or combined, was found effective in the amelioration of Cd stress. Combined application of Enterobacter sp. MN17 and biochar caused the maximum appraisal in shoot and root length (52.5 and 76.5%), fresh and dry weights of shoot (77.1 and 70.7%) and root (81.2 and 57.9%), photosynthetic and transpiration rate (120.2 and 106.6%), stomatal and sub-stomatal conductance (81.3 and 75.5%), chlorophyll content and relative water content (RWC) (78.4 and 102.9%) than control. Their combined use showed a significant decrease in electrolyte leakage (EL), proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S transferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) by 39.3, 39.4, 39.5, 37.0, 39.0 42.1 and 30.8%, respectively, relative to control. Likewise, the combined application of bacterial strain MN17 and biochar reduced Cd in soil by 45.6%, thereby decreasing its uptake in root and shoot by 40.1 and 38.2%, respectively in Cd contaminated soil. The application of biochar supported the maximum colonization of strain MN17 in the rhizosphere soil, root and shoot tissues. These results reflected that inoculation with Enterobacter sp. MN17 could be an effective approach to accelerate biochar-mediated remediation of Cd contaminated soil for sustainable production of crops.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.110522DOI Listing
July 2020

Response of growth, antioxidant enzymes and root exudates production towards As stress in Pteris vittata and in Astragalus sinicus colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Jan 28;27(2):2340-2352. Epub 2019 Nov 28.

College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China.

The modern agricultural practices have led to improve the contaminated soils with a variety of heavy metals that have become a major environmental concern. The use of arbuscular mycorrihizal fungi (AMF) is considered a potential tool for the sustainable agriculture especially in contaminated sites. Moreover, recently, the use of AMF has become a fascinating and multidisciplinary subject for the scientists dealing with plant protection. The present study was carried out to evaluate the interaction among arsenic (As) species, AMF, and two plant species: Pteris vittata and Astragalus sinicus, differing in their metal tolerance. Results about A. sinicus revealed that the biomass was affected as As (III and V) accumulated in the roots of A. sinicus, and in rachis and pinnae of P. vittata. The inoculation of AMF markedly increased the biomass yield of the both plants when exposed to As species. The exposure to the As species resulted variation and non-significant results about antioxidant enzymes and non-enzymes when grown in As stress with and without AMF. The inoculation of AMF under As species improved the organic acids concentrations in both plant species. Overall, the concentration of oxalate acid was more than formic and malic acids; however, AMF inoculation improved more organic acids in A. sinicus. P. vittata exhibited more activities of antioxidant enzymes and non-enzymes under As stress with and without AMF than A. sinicus, and hence had a more efficient defense mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-06785-5DOI Listing
January 2020

Multimodal Speaker Diarization Using a Pre-Trained Audio-Visual Synchronization Model.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Nov 25;19(23). Epub 2019 Nov 25.

Division of Science & Technology, University of Education, Township, Lahore 54770, Pakistan.

Speaker diarization systems aim to find 'who spoke when?' in multi-speaker recordings. The dataset usually consists of meetings, TV/talk shows, telephone and multi-party interaction recordings. In this paper, we propose a novel multimodal speaker diarization technique, which finds the active speaker through audio-visual synchronization model for diarization. A pre-trained audio-visual synchronization model is used to find the synchronization between a visible person and the respective audio. For that purpose, short video segments comprised of face-only regions are acquired using a face detection technique and are then fed to the pre-trained model. This model is a two streamed network which matches audio frames with their respective visual input segments. On the basis of high confidence video segments inferred by the model, the respective audio frames are used to train Gaussian mixture model (GMM)-based clusters. This method helps in generating speaker specific clusters with high probability. We tested our approach on a popular subset of AMI meeting corpus consisting of 5.4 h of recordings for audio and 5.8 h of different set of multimodal recordings. A significant improvement is noticed with the proposed method in term of DER when compared to conventional and fully supervised audio based speaker diarization. The results of the proposed technique are very close to the complex state-of-the art multimodal diarization which shows significance of such simple yet effective technique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19235163DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6929047PMC
November 2019

Calcium-Enriched Animal Manure Alleviates the Adverse Effects of Salt Stress on Growth, Physiology and Nutrients Homeostasis of

Plants (Basel) 2019 Nov 7;8(11). Epub 2019 Nov 7.

National Engineering Laboratory for Improving Quality of Arable Land, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China.

Soil salinity and sodicity are among the main problems for optimum crop production in areas where rainfall is not enough for leaching of salts out of the rooting zone. Application of organic and Ca-based amendments have the potential to increase crop yield and productivity under saline-alkaline soil environments. Based on this hypothesis, the present study was conducted to evaluate the potential of compost, Ca-based fertilizer industry waste (Ca-FW), and Ca-fortified compost (Ca-FC) to increase growth and yield of maize under saline-sodic soil conditions. Saline-sodic soil conditions with electrical conductivity (EC) levels (1.6, 5, and 10 dS m) and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) = 15, were developed by spiking soil with a solution containing NaCl, NaSO, MgSO, and CaCl. Results showed that soil salinity and sodicity significantly reduced plant growth, yield, physiological, and nutrient uptake parameters. However, the application of Ca-FC caused a remarkable increase in the studied parameters of maize at EC levels of 1.6, 5, and 10 dS m as compared to the control. In addition, Ca-FC caused the maximum decrease in Na/K ratio in shoot up to 85.1%, 71.79%, and 70.37% at EC levels of 1.6, 5, and 10 dS m, respectively as compared to the control treatment. Moreover, nutrient uptake (NPK) was also significantly increased with the application of Ca-FC under normal as well as saline-sodic soil conditions. It is thus inferred that the application of Ca-FC could be an effective amendment to enhance growth, yield, physiology, and nutrient uptake in maize under saline-sodic soil conditions constituting the novelty of this work.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants8110480DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6918338PMC
November 2019

Study of the Comparative Effect of Sintering Methods and Sintering Additives on the Microstructure and Performance of SiN Ceramic.

Materials (Basel) 2019 Jul 3;12(13). Epub 2019 Jul 3.

State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

The SiN ceramics were prepared in this study by gas pressure sintering (GPS) and spark plasma sintering (SPS) techniques, using 5 wt.% YbO-2 wt.% AlO and 5 wt.% CeO-2 wt.% AlO as sintering additives. Based on the difference in sintering methods and sintering additive systems, the relative density, phase composition, phase transition rate, microstructure, mechanical properties, and thermal conductivity were comparatively investigated and analyzed. SPS proved to be more efficient than GPS, producing higher relative density, bending strength, hardness, and thermal conductivity of SiN ceramic with both additive systems; however, the phase transition rate and fracture toughness were lower. Similarly, higher bending strength, hardness, and thermal conductivity were achieved with YbO-AlO than CeO-AlO in the case of GPS and SPS, and only the relative density, fracture toughness, and phase transition rate were lower.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma12132142DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6651706PMC
July 2019

Sequential treatment of paper and pulp industrial wastewater: Prediction of water quality parameters by Mamdani Fuzzy Logic model and phytotoxicity assessment.

Chemosphere 2019 Jul 5;227:256-268. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Tabriz, 29 Bahman Boulevard, Tabriz, East Azerbaijan, Iran.

Recycling of industrial wastewater meeting quality standards for agricultural and industrial demands is a viable option. In this study, paper and pulp industrial wastewater were treated with three biological treatments viz. aerobic, anaerobic and sequential (i.e. 20 days of anaerobic followed by 20 days of aerobic cycle), associated with simulation modeling by Mamdani Fuzzy Logic (MFL) model of some selected parameters. Electric air diffuser and minimal salt medium in sealed plastic bottles at control temperature were used for aerobic and anaerobic treatments, respectively. The significant reduction in chemical (COD: 81%) and biological oxygen demand (BOD: 71%), total suspended (TSS: 65%), dissolved solids (TDS: 60%) and turbidity (68%) was recorded during sequential treatment. The treated water was irrigated to determine its phytotoxic effects on seed germination, vigor and seedling growth of mustard (Brassica campestris). Sequential treatment greatly reduced phytotoxicity of wastewater and showed the highest germination percentage (90%) compared to aerobic (60%), anaerobic (70%) treatments and untreated wastewater (30%). Regression analysis also endorsed these findings (R = 0.76-0.95 between seed germination, seedling growth and vigor). MFL technique was adopted to simulate sequential treatment process. The results support higher performance of MFL model to predict TDS, TSS, COD, and BOD based on the physico-chemical water quality parameters of raw wastewater, time of treatment and treatment type variation. Based on these findings, we conclude that the sequential treatment could be a more effective strategy for treatment of pulp and paper industrial wastewater with efficiency to be used for agricultural industry without toxic effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.04.022DOI Listing
July 2019

Role of biochar and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria to enhance soil carbon sequestration-a review.

Environ Monit Assess 2019 Mar 27;191(4):251. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Soil Environmental Health and Regulation, College of Resources and Environment, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, China.

Global climate is undergoing significant changes due to extensive release of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO and methane in the atmosphere. These gases are produced and released as a result of anthropogenic activities and fossil fuel burnings which also result in depletion of soil carbon resources. Biochar has various distinctive properties, which contribute to make it an effective, economical, and eco-friendly approach for soil carbon sequestration. The versatility in physicochemical properties of biochar provides an opportunity to optimize its efficacy to obtain desired benefits. A critical review of the literature indicates that biochar and plant growth-promoting microbes have the potential to improve soil organic carbon (SOC). Recent studies have depicted a significant role of the combined application of plant growth-promoting microbes and biochar on SOC dynamics. In future, these areas need to be explored as these have the potential to improve SOC dynamics and it could be a better strategy to sustain natural resources and ultimately mitigation of the climate change.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-019-7400-9DOI Listing
March 2019

Impact of different amendments on biochemical responses of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) plants grown in lead-cadmium contaminated soil.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2018 Nov 17;132:345-355. Epub 2018 Sep 17.

Pesticide Quality Control Laboratory, Multan, Pakistan.

Soil co-contamination with lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) is a tenacious risk to crop production globally. The current experiment observed the roles of amendments [biochar (BC), slag (SL), and ferrous manganese ore (FMO)] for enhancing Pb and Cd tolerance in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). Our results revealed that application of amendments significantly enhanced the nutrient level of sesame seedlings developed under extreme Pb and Cd conditions. The higher Pb and Cd-tolerance in sesame encouraged by amendments might be credited to its capability to restrict Pb and Cd uptake and decreased oxidative damage induced by Pb and Cd that is also demonstrated by lesser production of hydrogen peroxide (HO), malondialdehyde (MDA), and reduced electrolyte leakage (EL) in plant biomass. The added amendments relieved Pb and Cd toxicity and improved photosynthetic pigments, soluble protein, and proline content. Not only this amendments also decreased the antioxidant bulk, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) in sesame plants compared to control when exposed to Pb and Cd. Moreover, the added amendments = down-regulated the genes expression which regulate the SOD, POD, and CAT activity in sesame under Pb and Cd-stress. Furthermore, supplementation of amendments to the soil, reduced the bio accessibility (SBET), leachability (TCLP), and mobility (CaCl) of Pb and Cd. Collectively, our findings conclude that the application of amendments enhanced sesame tolerance to Pb and Cd stress by restricting Pb and Cd accumulation, maintained photosynthetic presentation and dropped oxidative loss through enhanced antioxidant system, thus signifying amendments as an operational stress regulators in modifying Pb and Cd-toxicity that is highly important economically in all crops including sesame.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.09.019DOI Listing
November 2018

Assessment of Genetic Diversity, Population Structure, and Evolutionary Relationship of Uncharacterized Genes in a Novel Germplasm Collection of Diploid and Allotetraploid Accessions Using EST and Genomic SSR Markers.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Aug 14;19(8). Epub 2018 Aug 14.

State Key Laboratory of Cotton Biology/Institute of Cotton Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Anyang 455000, Henan, China.

This study evaluated the genetic diversity and population structures in a novel cotton germplasm collection comprising 132 diploids, including and allotetraploid cotton accessions, including , , , , and , from Santa Cruz, Isabella, San Cristobal, Hawaiian, Dominican Republic, and Wake Atoll islands. A total of 111 expressed sequence tag (EST) and genomic simple sequence repeat (gSSR) markers produced 382 polymorphic loci with an average of 3.44 polymorphic alleles per SSR marker. Polymorphism information content values counted 0.08 to 0.82 with an average of 0.56. Analysis of a genetic distance matrix revealed values of 0.003 to 0.53 with an average of 0.33 in the wild cotton collection. Phylogenetic analysis supported the subgroups identified by STRUCTURE and corresponds well with the results of principal coordinate analysis with a cumulative variation of 45.65%. A total of 123 unique alleles were observed among all accessions and 31 identified only in . Analysis of molecular variance revealed highly significant variation between the six groups identified by structure analysis with 49% of the total variation and 51% of the variation was due to diversity within the groups. The highest genetic differentiation among tetraploid populations was observed between accessions from the Hawaiian and Santa Cruz regions with a pairwise F of 0.752 ( < 0.001). DUF819 containing an uncharacterized gene named yjcL linked to genomic markers has been found to be highly related to tryptophan-aspartic acid (W-D) repeats in a superfamily of genes. The RNA sequence expression data of the yjcL-linked gene Gh_A09G2500 was found to be upregulated under drought and salt stress conditions. The existence of genetic diversity, characterization of genes and variation in novel germplasm collection will be a landmark addition to the genetic study of cotton germplasm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms19082401DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6121227PMC
August 2018

Vanadium toxicity in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) grown in red soil: Effects on cell death, ROS and antioxidative systems.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2018 Aug 24;158:139-144. Epub 2018 Apr 24.

Department of Biotechnology, Chonnam National University, Chonnam 59626, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The agricultural soil contaminated with heavy metals induces toxic effects on plant growth. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of vanadium (V) on growth, HO and enzyme activities, cell death, ion leakage, and at which concentration; V induces the toxic effects in chickpea plants grown in red soil. The obtained results indicated that the biomass (fresh and dry) and lengths of roots and shoots were significantly decreased by V application, and roots accumulated more V than shoots. The enzyme activities (SOD, CAT, and POD) and ion leakage were increased linearly with increasing V concentrations. However, the protein contents, and tolerance indices were significantly declined with the increasing levels of V. The results about the cell death indicated that the cell viability was badly damaged when plants were exposed to higher V, and induction of HO might be involved in this cell death. In conclusion, all the applied V levels affected the enzymatic activities, and induced the cell death of chickpea plants. Furthermore, our results also confirmed that vanadium ≥ 130 mg kg induced detrimental effects on chickpea plants. Additional investigation is needed to clarify the mechanistic explanations of V toxicity at the molecular level and gene expression involved in plant cell death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.04.022DOI Listing
August 2018

Comparative Effects of Biochar, Slag and Ferrous-Mn Ore on Lead and Cadmium Immobilization in Soil.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2018 Feb 2;100(2):286-292. Epub 2017 Dec 2.

College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China.

A variety of remediation approaches have been applied to the heavy metals-contaminated soils, however, the immobilization of metals in co-contaminated soils still not cleared. Therefore, an incubation study was conducted to evaluate the instantaneous effects of different concentrations of biochar (BC), slag (SL) and Fe-Mn ore (FMO) on immobilization of Pb and Cd through the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) by following the the European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR), CaCl and NHNO. The sequential extraction of BCR showed decrease in acid soluble fractions, while the residual proportions of Pb and Cd were enhanced with increasing concentrations of SL and BC. Addition of BC significantly lowered the extractable fractions of both metals by TCLP, NHNO and CaCl as compared to SL and FMO. Among all amendments, BC incorporation into co-contaminated soil offered promising results for Pb and Cd immobilization. Overall, all amendments showed positive and long-term impact on the reclamation of co-contaminated soil with heavy metals and could deserve advance monitoring studies on a field scale.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-017-2222-3DOI Listing
February 2018