Publications by authors named "Alizé Lacoste Jeanson"

8 Publications

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Diaphysator: An online application for the exhaustive cartography and user-friendly statistical analysis of long bone diaphyses.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 06 5;169(2):377-384. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Laboratory of 3D Imaging and Analytical Methods, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of Anthropology and Human Genetics, Charles University, Praha, Czech Republic.

The cross-sectional geometry (CSG) of long bone diaphyses is used in bioanthropology to evaluate their resistance to biomechanical constraints and to infer life-history-related patterns such as mobility, activity specialization or intensity, sexual dimorphism, body mass and proportions. First limited by technical analytical constraints to the analysis of one or two cross sections per bone, it has evolved into the analysis of cross sections of the full length of the diaphyseal part of long bones. More recently, researchers have developed analytical tools to map the cortical thickness of entire diaphyses to evaluate locomotor signatures. However, none of these analytical tools are easy to use for scientists who are not familiar with computer programming, and some statistical procedures-such as mapping the correlation coefficients of the diaphyseal thickness with various parameters have yet to be made available. Therefore, we developed an automated and open-source application that renders those analyses (both CSG and cortical thickness) in a semiautomated and user friendly manner. This application, called "Diaphysator", is associated with another free software ("Extractor", presented in Dupej et al. (2017). American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 164, 868-876). Diaphysator can be used as an online application (https://diaphysator.shinyapps.io/maps) or as a package for R statistical software. Along with the mean maps of cortical thickness and mean CSG parameter graphs, the users can evaluate the correlations and partial correlations of both CSG parameters at every cross section along the diaphyseal length, and cortical thickness data points of the entire diaphysis, with any factor such as age, sex, stature, and body mass.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23835DOI Listing
June 2019

Architecture of the femoral and tibial diaphyses in relation to body mass and composition: Research from whole-body CT scans of adult humans.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2018 12 24;167(4):813-826. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Laboratory of 3D Imaging and Analytical Methods, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of Anthropology and Human Genetics, Charles University, Praha 2, Czech Republic.

Objectives: Recent investigations have evaluated the influence of body composition on long bones in order to overcome the limits of body mass (BM) estimation methods and eventually lead to studying nutrition in past populations. Knowing how fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) impact the skeleton would also enhance the understanding of mobility, activity, and locomotion derived from bone architecture. We investigated the relationship between BM and composition, and the architecture of the entire tibial and femoral diaphyses in an adult sample representative of a wide range of variation in age, BM, and composition.

Materials And Methods: Body composition was measured directly from 78 whole-body CT scans for which the age, sex, BM, and stature were recorded. The entire diaphyseal thickness, volume, curvature, and cross-sectional geometry parameters of both the femur and tibia were numerically extracted.

Results: FM correlates with large portions of the femoral thickness in females only. FFM correlates with the femoral diaphysis in males but not in females. FFM correlates with the tibia architecture in both sexes, while FM is correlated in males exclusively.

Discussion: BM and body components influence the architecture of the diaphysis of lower limb long bones in sex-specific patterns that are mostly reflected in their thickness and can be recorded, in some cases, for their strength, rigidity, and volume. Our results suggest that (1) long bone diaphyses should be thoroughly studied, as a whole, when possible; and (2) BM and body components should be accounted for when deriving activity, mobility, or locomotion patterns from cortical bone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23713DOI Listing
December 2018

Rich table but short life: Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis in Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) and its possible consequences.

PLoS One 2018 19;13(4):e0195920. Epub 2018 Apr 19.

PACEA-UMR 5199, University of Bordeaux, Pessac, France.

The exhumation of Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) was performed in 2010 to verify speculative views on the cause of his death. Previous analyses of skeletal and hair remains recovered from his grave refuted the presumption that he died from poisoning. These studies also outlined the possibility that he actually died from an acute illness, echoing the rather vague and inaccurate testimony of some historical records. We performed a detailed paleopathological analysis of Tycho Brahe's skeletal remains, along with a reconstruction of his diet based on carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes analysis and an estimate of his physical status (relative body fat) based on medullar and cortical dimensions of the femoral shaft. The astronomer's remains exhibit bone changes indicative of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH). The study further allows us to classify him as obese (100% reliability according to our decision tree designed from Danish males), and points out his rich diet (high input of animal protein and/or marine resources) and high social status. Comorbidities of DISH and obesity are reviewed, and their influence on health status is discussed. We further consider some conditions associated with metabolic syndrome as possible causes of Tycho Brahe's final symptoms (urinary retention, renal failure and coma), including diabetes, alcoholic ketoacidosis and benign prostatic hypertrophy. Although a definite and specific diagnosis cannot be established, our study points to today's civilization diseases often associated with DISH and metabolic syndrome as the possible cause of death of Tycho Brahe.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0195920PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5909615PMC
July 2018

Sex-specific functional adaptation of the femoral diaphysis to body composition.

Am J Hum Biol 2018 07 24;30(4):e23123. Epub 2018 Mar 24.

Department of Anthropology and Human Genetics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Charles University - Viničná 7, 128 43 Prague 2, Czech Republic.

Objectives: The human femoral diaphysis is often used to reconstruct loading histories (mobility, activity, body mass). The proximal femur is known to be differentially affected by changes in total fat-mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM), and body fat percentage (BF%), but the adaptation of the entire diaphysis to body composition has not been thoroughly characterized to date. Understanding how the femoral diaphysis adapts to body components would benefit biomechanical interpretations of the femoral variation and nutrition-related studies.

Methods: Combining various methods from clinical nutrition, biological anthropology, and geometric morphometrics, we evaluated the correlation of measures taken on the entire femoral diaphysis with estimated FM, FFM, and BF% from 61 CT scans (17 females, 44 males). The sample was predominantly composed of people with obesity.

Results: Cortical area of the cross-sections and local cortical thickness showed high correlation with BF% in particular, in females only. The curvature significantly decreased with FM and BF% in both sexes. The lowest correlations are found with FFM.

Conclusions: The observed sexual dimorphism is consistent with differing aging processes; cortical bone decreases in females through endosteal resorption while it remains almost constant in males who compensate for endosteal resorption by periosteal apposition on the diaphyseal surface. The functional adaptation to compressive forces indicates a systemic endosteal apposition of bone material with increased BF% and FM in females only. FM and BF% are linked to a straighter femur in both sexes, suggesting an optimization of the resistance to compressive loads by distributing them more linearly along the entire diaphysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23123DOI Listing
July 2018

Body mass estimation from the skeleton: An evaluation of 11 methods.

Forensic Sci Int 2017 Dec 22;281:183.e1-183.e8. Epub 2017 Nov 22.

Charles University, Laboratory of 3D Imaging and Analytical Methods, Department of Anthropology and Human Genetics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Viničná 7, 128 43 Prague 2, Czech Republic; Université de Bordeaux, PACEA, UMR 5199, CNRS - Bâtiment B8, Allée Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, CS 50023, F-33400 Talence, France.

Estimating an individual body mass (BM) from the skeleton is a challenge for forensic anthropology. However, identifying someone's BMI (Body Mass Index) category, i.e. underweight, normal, overweight or obese, could contribute to identification. Individual BM is also known to influence the age-at-death estimation from the skeleton. Several methods are regularly used by both archaeologists and forensic practitioners to estimate individual BM. The most commonly used methods are based on femoral head breadth, or stature and bi-iliac breadth. However, those methods have been created from mean population BMs and are therefore meant to estimate the average BM of a population. Being that they are based on individual BM data and estimated femoral cortical areas, the newest published methods are supposed to be more accurate. We evaluated the accuracy and reliability of the most commonly used and most recent BM estimation methods (n=11) on a sample of 64 individuals. Both sexes and all BMI categories are represented, as well as a wide range of BM. Ages in this sample range from 20 to 87 years of age. Absolute and real differences between actual BM and estimated BM were assessed; they determined the accuracy for individual BM estimation and for average BM estimation of a population, respectively. The proportion of the sample whose estimated BM falls within ±10% and ±20% of their actual BM determines the reliability of the methods in our sample for, respectively, individual BM estimation and average BM of a population. The tested methods result in an absolute difference of 11kg-26kg±10kg with regards to prediction of individuals actual BM. The real differences are very variable from method to method, ranging from -14kg to 25kg. None of the tested methods is able to estimate BM of half of the sample within ±10% of their actual BM but most of them can estimate BM of more than half of the sample within ±20% of their actual BM. The errors increase with increasing BM, demonstrating a bias in all the methods. No bone variable tested correlated with BM. BMI categories were correctly predicted for less than 50% of the sample in most cases. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the 11 methods tested are not suited for estimating individual BM or for predicting BMI categories. However, they are accurate and reliable enough for estimating the average BM of a population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2017.10.026DOI Listing
December 2017

Semiautomatic extraction of cortical thickness and diaphyseal curvature from CT scans.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2017 12 15;164(4):868-876. Epub 2017 Sep 15.

Department of Anthropology and Human Genetics, Faculty of Sciences, Charles University, Viničná 7, Praha 2, 128 43, Czech Republic.

The understanding of locomotor patterns, activity schemes, and biological variations has been enhanced by the study of the geometrical properties and cortical bone thickness of the long bones measured using CT scan cross-sections. With the development of scanning procedures, the internal architecture of the long bones can be explored along the entire diaphysis. Recently, several methods that map cortical thickness along the whole femoral diaphysis have been developed. Precise homology is vital for statistical examination of the data; however, the repeatability of these methods is unknown and some do not account for the curvature of the bones. We have designed a semiautomatic workflow that improves the morphometric analysis of cortical thickness, including robust data acquisition with minimal user interaction and considering the bone curvature. The proposed algorithm also performs automatic landmark refinement and rigid registration on the extracted morphometric maps of the cortical thickness. Because our algorithm automatically reslices the diaphysis into 100 cross-sections along the medial axis and uses an adaptive thresholding method, it is usable on CT scans that contain soft tissues as well as on bones that have not been oriented specifically prior to scanning. Our approach exhibits considerable robustness to error in user-supplied landmarks, suppresses distortion caused by the curvature of the bones, and calculates the curvature of the medial axis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23315DOI Listing
December 2017

Body composition estimation from selected slices: equations computed from a new semi-automatic thresholding method developed on whole-body CT scans.

PeerJ 2017 18;5:e3302. Epub 2017 May 18.

Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of Anthropology and Human Genetics, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.

Background: Estimating volumes and masses of total body components is important for the study and treatment monitoring of nutrition and nutrition-related disorders, cancer, joint replacement, energy-expenditure and exercise physiology. While several equations have been offered for estimating total body components from MRI slices, no reliable and tested method exists for CT scans. For the first time, body composition data was derived from 41 high-resolution whole-body CT scans. From these data, we defined equations for estimating volumes and masses of total body AT and LT from corresponding tissue areas measured in selected CT scan slices.

Methods: We present a new semi-automatic approach to defining the density cutoff between adipose tissue (AT) and lean tissue (LT) in such material. An intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to validate the method. The equations for estimating the whole-body composition volume and mass from areas measured in selected slices were modeled with ordinary least squares (OLS) linear regressions and support vector machine regression (SVMR).

Results And Discussion: The best predictive equation for total body AT volume was based on the AT area of a single slice located between the 4th and 5th lumbar vertebrae (L4-L5) and produced lower prediction errors (|PE| = 1.86 liters, %PE = 8.77) than previous equations also based on CT scans. The LT area of the mid-thigh provided the lowest prediction errors (|PE| = 2.52 liters, %PE = 7.08) for estimating whole-body LT volume. We also present equations to predict total body AT and LT masses from a slice located at L4-L5 that resulted in reduced error compared with the previously published equations based on CT scans. The multislice SVMR predictor gave the theoretical upper limit for prediction precision of volumes and cross-validated the results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.3302DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5438582PMC
May 2017

Detecting menarcheal status through dental mineralization stages?

Am J Phys Anthropol 2016 10 17;161(2):367-73. Epub 2016 Jun 17.

UMR 5199 PACEA, CNRS, University of Bordeaux, Bâtiment B8, Allée Geoffroy Saint Hilaire-CS 50023-F-33400, Talence, France.

Menarche is an indicator frequently used to study variation in growth, development, and related health conditions among members of living populations. As a life event, menarche is often associated with changes in an individual's social identity. The reproductive lifespan, which for females starts with menarche, is a paramount feature of palaeodemographic studies. Determination of menarche status from the skeletal remains of individuals of past populations can be obtained by assessing the developmental status of the iliac crest, as well as the hand and wrist bones, which are, unlike teeth, often poorly recovered in bioarchaeological contexts. The present study seeks to evaluate the link between dental mineralization and menarche in a population of known menarche status. The relationship between permanent teeth mineralization and menarche status was investigated by using data of developing permanent teeth (167 radiographs) rated in accordance with the well-known standards of Demirjian et al. and Moorrees et al. collected among 73 living French females of known menarcheal status. Using correlation ratios, GLMM and CART algorithm, menarcheal status is correlated with mineralization of the premolars. Menarcheal status is predicted correctly for 92 and 77% of radiographs of the learning and validation samples, respectively. Although promising, the results require caution prior to generalization to other populations. The age of menarche in this particular sample may simply coincide with the development of the premolars in this particular sample. Therefore, further investigation applied to populations with various mean ages of menarche is required in order to provide new evidence of variation in human growth and development from the correspondence between the mineralization of the permanent teeth and menarche.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23027DOI Listing
October 2016