Publications by authors named "Aliya F Spigelman"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Arginine-vasopressin mediates counter-regulatory glucagon release and is diminished in type 1 diabetes.

Elife 2021 11 17;10. Epub 2021 Nov 17.

Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Insulin-induced hypoglycemia is a major treatment barrier in type-1 diabetes (T1D). Accordingly, it is important that we understand the mechanisms regulating the circulating levels of glucagon. Varying glucose over the range of concentrations that occur physiologically between the fed and fuel-deprived states (8 to 4 mM) has no significant effect on glucagon secretion in the perfused mouse pancreas or in isolated mouse islets (in vitro), and yet associates with dramatic increases in plasma glucagon. The identity of the systemic factor(s) that elevates circulating glucagon remains unknown. Here, we show that arginine-vasopressin (AVP), secreted from the posterior pituitary, stimulates glucagon secretion. Alpha-cells express high levels of the vasopressin 1b receptor (V1bR) gene (). Activation of AVP neurons in vivo increased circulating copeptin (the C-terminal segment of the AVP precursor peptide) and increased blood glucose; effects blocked by pharmacological antagonism of either the glucagon receptor or V1bR. AVP also mediates the stimulatory effects of hypoglycemia produced by exogenous insulin and 2-deoxy-D-glucose on glucagon secretion. We show that the A1/C1 neurons of the medulla oblongata drive AVP neuron activation in response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. AVP injection increased cytoplasmic Ca in alpha-cells (implanted into the anterior chamber of the eye) and glucagon release. Hypoglycemia also increases circulating levels of AVP/copeptin in humans and this hormone stimulates glucagon secretion from human islets. In patients with T1D, hypoglycemia failed to increase both copeptin and glucagon. These findings suggest that AVP is a physiological systemic regulator of glucagon secretion and that this mechanism becomes impaired in T1D.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.72919DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8654374PMC
November 2021

β-Cell Knockout of SENP1 Reduces Responses to Incretins and Worsens Oral Glucose Tolerance in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice.

Diabetes 2021 11 30;70(11):2626-2638. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

SUMOylation reduces oxidative stress and preserves islet mass at the expense of robust insulin secretion. To investigate a role for the deSUMOylating enzyme sentrin-specific protease 1 (SENP1) following metabolic stress, we put pancreas/gut-specific SENP1 knockout (pSENP1-KO) mice on a high-fat diet (HFD). Male pSENP1-KO mice were more glucose intolerant following HFD than littermate controls but only in response to oral glucose. A similar phenotype was observed in females. Plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) responses were identical in pSENP1-KO and wild-type littermates, including the HFD-induced upregulation of GIP responses. Islet mass was not different, but insulin secretion and β-cell exocytotic responses to the GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 (Ex4) and GIP were impaired in islets lacking SENP1. Glucagon secretion from pSENP1-KO islets was also reduced, so we generated β-cell-specific SENP1 KO mice. These phenocopied the pSENP1-KO mice with selective impairment in oral glucose tolerance following HFD, preserved islet mass expansion, and impaired β-cell exocytosis and insulin secretion to Ex4 and GIP without changes in cAMP or Ca levels. Thus, β-cell SENP1 limits oral glucose intolerance following HFD by ensuring robust insulin secretion at a point downstream of incretin signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db20-1235DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8564408PMC
November 2021

Improved glucose tolerance with DPPIV inhibition requires β-cell SENP1 amplification of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.

Physiol Rep 2020 04;8(8):e14420

Department of Pharmacology and Alberta Diabetes Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Pancreatic islet insulin secretion is amplified by both metabolic and receptor-mediated signaling pathways. The incretin-mimetic and DPPIV inhibitor anti-diabetic drugs increase insulin secretion, but in humans this can be variable both in vitro and in vivo. We examined the correlation of GLP-1 induced insulin secretion from human islets with key donor characteristics, glucose-responsiveness, and the ability of glucose to augment exocytosis in β-cells. No clear correlation was observed between several donor or organ processing parameters and the ability of Exendin 4 to enhance insulin secretion. The ability of glucose to facilitate β-cell exocytosis was, however, significantly correlated with responses to Exendin 4. We therefore studied the effect of impaired glucose-dependent amplification of insulin exocytosis on responses to DPPIV inhibition (MK-0626) in vivo using pancreas and β-cell specific sentrin-specific protease-1 (SENP1) mice which exhibit impaired metabolic amplification of insulin exocytosis. Glucose tolerance was improved, and plasma insulin was increased, following either acute or 4 week treatment of wild-type (βSENP1 ) mice with MK-0626. This DPPIV inhibitor was ineffective in βSENP1 or βSENP1 mice. Finally, we confirm impaired exocytotic responses of β-cells and reduced insulin secretion from islets of βSENP1 mice and show that the ability of Exendin 4 to enhance exocytosis is lost in these cells. Thus, an impaired ability of glucose to amplify insulin exocytosis results in a deficient effect of DPPIV inhibition to improve in vivo insulin responses and glucose tolerance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14814/phy2.14420DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7185381PMC
April 2020

A glucose-dependent spatial patterning of exocytosis in human β-cells is disrupted in type 2 diabetes.

JCI Insight 2019 05 14;5. Epub 2019 May 14.

Alberta Diabetes Institute and Department of Pharmacology and.

Impaired insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes (T2D) is linked to reduced insulin granule docking, disorganization of the exocytotic site, and an impaired glucose-dependent facilitation of insulin exocytosis. We show in β-cells from 80 human donors that the glucose-dependent amplification of exocytosis is disrupted in T2D. Spatial analyses of granule fusion, visualized by total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy in 24 of these donors, demonstrate that these are non-random across the surface of β-cells from donors with no diabetes (ND). The compartmentalization of events occurs within regions defined by concurrent or recent membrane-resident secretory granules. This organization, and the number of membrane-associated granules, is glucose-dependent and notably impaired in T2D β-cells. Mechanistically, multi-channel Kv2.1 clusters contribute to maintaining the density of membrane-resident granules and the number of fusion 'hotspots', while SUMOylation sites at the channel N- (K145) and C-terminus (K470) determine the relative proportion of fusion events occurring within these regions. Thus, a glucose-dependent compartmentalization of fusion, regulated in part by a structural role for Kv2.1, is disrupted in β-cells from donors with type 2 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.127896DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6629118PMC
May 2019

Type 2 diabetes risk alleles in PAM impact insulin release from human pancreatic β-cells.

Nat Genet 2018 08 27;50(8):1122-1131. Epub 2018 Jul 27.

Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology & Metabolism, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

The molecular mechanisms underpinning susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes (T2D) remain poorly understood. Coding variants in peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM) are associated with both T2D risk and insulinogenic index. Here, we demonstrate that the T2D risk alleles impact negatively on overall PAM activity via defects in expression and catalytic function. PAM deficiency results in reduced insulin content and altered dynamics of insulin secretion in a human β-cell model and primary islets from cadaveric donors. Thus, our results demonstrate a role for PAM in β-cell function, and establish molecular mechanisms for T2D risk alleles at this locus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-018-0173-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6237273PMC
August 2018

Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes is caused by islet loss and inflammation.

JCI Insight 2018 04 19;3(8). Epub 2018 Apr 19.

Department of Medicine, Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Metabolism, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

Cystic fibrosis-related (CF-related) diabetes (CFRD) is an increasingly common and devastating comorbidity of CF, affecting approximately 35% of adults with CF. However, the underlying causes of CFRD are unclear. Here, we examined cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) islet expression and whether the CFTR participates in islet endocrine cell function using murine models of β cell CFTR deletion and normal and CF human pancreas and islets. Specific deletion of CFTR from murine β cells did not affect β cell function. In human islets, CFTR mRNA was minimally expressed, and CFTR protein and electrical activity were not detected. Isolated CF/CFRD islets demonstrated appropriate insulin and glucagon secretion, with few changes in key islet-regulatory transcripts. Furthermore, approximately 65% of β cell area was lost in CF donors, compounded by pancreatic remodeling and immune infiltration of the islet. These results indicate that CFRD is caused by β cell loss and intraislet inflammation in the setting of a complex pleiotropic disease and not by intrinsic islet dysfunction from CFTR mutation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.98240DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5931120PMC
April 2018

Interleukin-1 signaling contributes to acute islet compensation.

JCI Insight 2016 Apr 7;1(4):e86055. Epub 2016 Apr 7.

IL-1β is a well-established inducer of both insulin resistance and impaired pancreatic islet function. Despite this, findings examining IL-1 receptor deficiency or antagonism in in vivo animal models, as well as in clinical studies of type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients, have led to conflicting results, suggesting that the actions of IL-1β on glycemic control may be pleiotropic in nature. In the present work, we find that the ability of IL-1β to amplify glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from human islets correlates with donor BMI. Islets from obese donors are sensitized to the insulinotropic effects of this cytokine, whereas the stimulatory effects of IL-1β are lost in islets from obese T2D patients, suggesting a role for IL-1 signaling in islet compensation. Indeed, mice deficient in IL-1 receptor type I become glucose intolerant more rapidly than their WT littermates and have impaired secretory responses during the acute stages of inflammatory and metabolic stress induced by LPS and high-fat diet, respectively. IL-1β directly enhances β cell insulin secretion by increasing granule docking and soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment receptor (SNARE) complex formation at the plasma membrane. Together, our study highlights the importance of IL-1β signaling in islet compensation to metabolic and inflammatory stress.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5033842PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.86055DOI Listing
April 2016

PI3 kinases p110α and PI3K-C2β negatively regulate cAMP via PDE3/8 to control insulin secretion in mouse and human islets.

Mol Metab 2016 Jul 11;5(7):459-471. Epub 2016 May 11.

Department of Pharmacology, and the Alberta Diabetes Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2E1, Canada.

Objectives: Phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI3K) signalling in the endocrine pancreas contributes to glycaemic control. However, the mechanism by which PI3K modulates insulin secretion from the pancreatic beta cell is poorly understood. Thus, our objective was two-fold; to determine the signalling pathway by which acute PI3K inhibition enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and to examine the role of this pathway in islets from type-2 diabetic (T2D) donors.

Methods: Isolated islets from mice and non-diabetic or T2D human donors, or INS 832/13 cells, were treated with inhibitors of PI3K and/or phosphodiesterases (PDEs). The expression of PI3K-C2β was knocked down using siRNA. We measured insulin release, single-cell exocytosis, intracellular Ca(2+) responses ([Ca(2+)]i) and Ca(2+) channel currents, intracellular cAMP concentrations ([cAMP]i), and activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase B (PKB/AKT).

Results: The non-specific PI3K inhibitor wortmannin amplifies GSIS, raises [cAMP]i and activates PKA, but is without effect in T2D islets. Direct inhibition of specific PDE isoforms demonstrates a role for PDE3 (in humans and mice) and PDE8 (in mice) downstream of PI3K, and restores glucose-responsiveness of T2D islets. We implicate a role for the Class II PI3K catalytic isoform PI3K-C2β in this effect by limiting beta cell exocytosis.

Conclusions: PI3K limits GSIS via PDE3 in human islets. While inhibition of p110α or PIK-C2β signalling per se, may promote nutrient-stimulated insulin release, we now suggest that this signalling pathway is perturbed in islets from T2D donors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molmet.2016.05.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4921792PMC
July 2016

Research-Focused Isolation of Human Islets From Donors With and Without Diabetes at the Alberta Diabetes Institute IsletCore.

Endocrinology 2016 Feb 11;157(2):560-9. Epub 2015 Dec 11.

Alberta Diabetes Institute IsletCore (J.L., J.E.M.F., P.E.M.) and Departments of Pharmacology (J.E.M.F., A.F.S., R.K., N.S., P.E.M.) and Surgery (D.O., T.K., A.M.J.S., R.V.R.), University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada T6G 2E1.

Recent years have seen an increased focus on human islet biology, and exciting findings in the stem cell and genomic arenas highlight the need to define the key features of mature human islets and β-cells. Donor and organ procurement parameters impact human islet yield, although for research purposes islet yield may be secondary in importance to islet function. We examined the feasibility of a research-only human islet isolation, distribution, and biobanking program and whether key criteria such as cold ischemia time (CIT) and metabolic status may be relaxed and still allow successful research-focused isolations, including from donors with type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Through 142 isolations over approximately 5 years, we confirm that CIT and glycated hemoglobin each have a weak negative impacts on isolation purity and yield, and extending CIT beyond the typical clinical isolation cutoff of 12 hours (to ≥ 18 h) had only a modest impact on islet function. Age and glycated hemoglobin/type 2 diabetes status negatively impacted secretory function; however, these and other biological (sex, body mass index) and procurement/isolation variables (CIT, time in culture) appear to make only a small contribution to the heterogeneity of human islet function. This work demonstrates the feasibility of extending acceptable CIT for research-focused human islet isolation and highlights the biological variation in function of human islets from donors with and without diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2015-1562DOI Listing
February 2016

Isocitrate-to-SENP1 signaling amplifies insulin secretion and rescues dysfunctional β cells.

J Clin Invest 2015 Oct 21;125(10):3847-60. Epub 2015 Sep 21.

Insulin secretion from β cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans controls metabolic homeostasis and is impaired in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Increases in blood glucose trigger insulin release by closing ATP-sensitive K+ channels, depolarizing β cells, and opening voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels to elicit insulin exocytosis. However, one or more additional pathway(s) amplify the secretory response, likely at the distal exocytotic site. The mitochondrial export of isocitrate and engagement with cytosolic isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDc) may be one key pathway, but the mechanism linking this to insulin secretion and its role in T2D have not been defined. Here, we show that the ICDc-dependent generation of NADPH and subsequent glutathione (GSH) reduction contribute to the amplification of insulin exocytosis via sentrin/SUMO-specific protease-1 (SENP1). In human T2D and an in vitro model of human islet dysfunction, the glucose-dependent amplification of exocytosis was impaired and could be rescued by introduction of signaling intermediates from this pathway. Moreover, islet-specific Senp1 deletion in mice caused impaired glucose tolerance by reducing the amplification of insulin exocytosis. Together, our results identify a pathway that links glucose metabolism to the amplification of insulin secretion and demonstrate that restoration of this axis rescues β cell function in T2D.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI82498DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4607115PMC
October 2015

Insulin secretion induced by glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide requires phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase γ in rodent and human β-cells.

J Biol Chem 2014 Nov 6;289(46):32109-32120. Epub 2014 Oct 6.

Department of Pharmacology, and the Alberta Diabetes Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E1, Canada. Electronic address:

PI3Kγ, a G-protein-coupled type 1B phosphoinositol 3-kinase, exhibits a basal glucose-independent activity in β-cells and can be activated by the glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP). We therefore investigated the role of the PI3Kγ catalytic subunit (p110γ) in insulin secretion and β-cell exocytosis stimulated by GIP. We inhibited p110γ with AS604850 (1 μmol/liter) or knocked it down using an shRNA adenovirus or siRNA duplex in mouse and human islets and β-cells. Inhibition of PI3Kγ blunted the exocytotic and insulinotropic response to GIP receptor activation, whereas responses to the glucagon-like peptide-1 or the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 were unchanged. Downstream, we find that GIP, much like glucose stimulation, activates the small GTPase protein Rac1 to induce actin remodeling. Inhibition of PI3Kγ blocked these effects of GIP. Although exendin-4 could also stimulate actin remodeling, this was not prevented by p110γ inhibition. Finally, forced actin depolymerization with latrunculin B restored the exocytotic and secretory responses to GIP during PI3Kγ inhibition, demonstrating that the loss of GIP-induced actin depolymerization was indeed limiting insulin exocytosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M114.577510DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4231687PMC
November 2014

SUMOylation protects against IL-1β-induced apoptosis in INS-1 832/13 cells and human islets.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2014 Oct 19;307(8):E664-73. Epub 2014 Aug 19.

Department of Pharmacology and Alberta Diabetes Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

Posttranslational modification by the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) peptides, known as SUMOylation, is reversed by the sentrin/SUMO-specific proteases (SENPs). While increased SUMOylation reduces β-cell exocytosis, insulin secretion, and responsiveness to GLP-1, the impact of SUMOylation on islet cell survival is unknown. Mouse islets, INS-1 832/13 cells, or human islets were transduced with adenoviruses to increase either SENP1 or SUMO1 or were transfected with siRNA duplexes to knockdown SENP1. We examined insulin secretion, intracellular Ca²⁺ responses, induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress markers and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and apoptosis by TUNEL and caspase 3 cleavage. Surprisingly, upregulation of SENP1 reduces insulin secretion and impairs intracellular Ca²⁺ handling. This secretory dysfunction is due to SENP1-induced cell death. Indeed, the detrimental effect of SENP1 on secretory function is diminished when two mediators of β-cell death, iNOS and NF-κB, are pharmacologically inhibited. Conversely, enhanced SUMOylation protects against IL-1β-induced cell death. This is associated with reduced iNOS expression, cleavage of caspase 3, and nuclear translocation of NF-κB. Taken together, these findings identify SUMO1 as a novel antiapoptotic protein in islets and demonstrate that reduced viability accounts for impaired islet function following SENP1 up-regulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00168.2014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4200309PMC
October 2014

SUMO1 enhances cAMP-dependent exocytosis and glucagon secretion from pancreatic α-cells.

J Physiol 2014 Sep 6;592(17):3715-26. Epub 2014 Jun 6.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada Alberta Diabetes Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada

Post-translational modification by the small ubiquitin-like modifier-1 (SUMO1) limits insulin secretion from β-cells by inhibiting insulin exocytosis and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor signalling. The secretion of glucagon from α-cells is regulated in a manner opposite to that of insulin; it is inhibited by elevated glucose and GLP-1, and increased by adrenergic signalling. We therefore sought to determine whether SUMO1 modulates mouse and human α-cell function. Action potentials (APs), ion channel function and exocytosis in single α-cells from mice and humans, identified by glucagon immunostaining, and glucagon secretion from intact islets were measured. The effects of SUMO1 on α-cell function and the respective inhibitory and stimulatory effects of exendin 4 and adrenaline were examined. Upregulation of SUMO1 increased α-cell AP duration, frequency and amplitude, in part as a result of increased Ca(2+) channel activity that led to elevated exocytosis. The ability of SUMO1 to enhance α-cell exocytosis was cAMP-dependent and resulted from an increased L-type Ca(2+) current and a shift away from exocytosis dependent on non-L-type channels, an effect that was mimicked by knockdown of the deSUMOylating enzyme sentrin/SUMO-specific protease-1 (SENP1). Finally, although SUMO1 prevented GLP-1 receptor-mediated inhibition of α-cell Na(+) channels and single-cell exocytosis, it failed to prevent the exendin 4-mediated inhibition of glucagon secretion. Consistent with its cAMP dependence, however, SUMO1 enhanced α-cell exocytosis and glucagon secretion stimulated by adrenaline. Thus, by contrast with its inhibitory role in β-cell exocytosis, SUMO1 is a positive regulator of α-cell exocytosis and glucagon secretion under conditions of elevated cAMP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2014.274084DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4192699PMC
September 2014

Functional plasticity of the human infant β-cell exocytotic phenotype.

Endocrinology 2013 Apr 28;154(4):1392-9. Epub 2013 Feb 28.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Alberta, and The Alberta Diabetes Institute, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Our understanding of adult human β-cells is advancing, but we know little about the function and plasticity of β-cells from infants. We therefore characterized islets and single islet cells from human infants after isolation and culture. Although islet morphology in pancreas biopsies was similar to that in adults, infant islets after isolation and 24-48 hours of culture had less insulin staining, content, and secretion. The cultured infant islets expressed pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 and several (Glut1, Cav1.3, Kir6.2) but not all (syntaxin 1A and synaptosomal-associated protein 25) markers of functional islets, suggesting a loss of secretory phenotype in culture. The activity of key ion channels was maintained in isolated infant β-cells, whereas exocytosis was much lower than in adults. We examined whether a functional exocytotic phenotype could be reestablished under conditions thought to promote β-cell differentiation. After a 24- to 28-day expansion and maturation protocol, we found preservation of endocrine markers and hormone expression, an increased proportion of insulin-positive cells, elevated expression of syntaxin 1A and synaptosomal-associated protein 25, and restoration of exocytosis to levels comparable with that in adult β-cells. Thus, human infant islets are prone to loss of their exocytotic phenotype in culture but amenable to experimental approaches aimed at promoting expansion and functional maturation. Control of exocytotic protein expression may be an important mechanism underlying the plasticity of the secretory machinery, an increased understanding of which may lead to improved regenerative approaches to treat diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2012-1934DOI Listing
April 2013

In vivo role of focal adhesion kinase in regulating pancreatic β-cell mass and function through insulin signaling, actin dynamics, and granule trafficking.

Diabetes 2012 Jul 12;61(7):1708-18. Epub 2012 Apr 12.

Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) acts as an adaptor at the focal contacts serving as a junction between the extracellular matrix and actin cytoskeleton. Actin dynamics is known as a determinant step in insulin secretion. Additionally, FAK has been shown to regulate insulin signaling. To investigate the essential physiological role of FAK in pancreatic β-cells in vivo, we generated a transgenic mouse model using rat insulin promoter (RIP)-driven Cre-loxP recombination system to specifically delete FAK in pancreatic β-cells. These RIPcre(+)fak(fl/fl) mice exhibited glucose intolerance without changes in insulin sensitivity. Reduced β-cell viability and proliferation resulting in decreased β-cell mass was observed in these mice, which was associated with attenuated insulin/Akt (also known as protein kinase B) and extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 signaling and increased caspase 3 activation. FAK-deficient β-cells exhibited impaired insulin secretion with normal glucose sensing and preserved Ca(2+) influx in response to glucose, but a reduced number of docked insulin granules and insulin exocytosis were found, which was associated with a decrease in focal proteins, paxillin and talin, and an impairment in actin depolymerization. This study is the first to show in vivo that FAK is critical for pancreatic β-cell viability and function through regulation in insulin signaling, actin dynamics, and granule trafficking.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db11-1344DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3379666PMC
July 2012
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