Publications by authors named "Alison R Sherwood"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Complete chloroplast genome of (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta), a recently described cryptogenic species with invasive traits from Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument, Hawai'i.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2021 5;6(11):3119-3121. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

School of Life Sciences, University of Hawai'i, Honolulu, HI, USA.

The complete chloroplast genome of , a red alga from Manawai (Pearl and Hermes Atoll), Hawai'i, was determined and analyzed using next-generation sequencing and assembly approaches. The chloroplast genome sequence of was 172,617 bp and contained 231 genes, consisting of 197 protein-coding genes, 29 transfer RNA genes, three ribosomal RNA genes, one transfer-messenger RNA gene, one non-coding RNA gene, and one intron inserted into the gene. The number of genes and genome structure was largely similar to other members of the family Rhodomelaceae. The phylogenomic analysis of 32 complete cpDNA from the red algal order Ceramiales showed that is a distinct species within the Chondrieae tribe, and is a diverging early relative to the other three available chloroplast genomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2021.1984327DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8510605PMC
October 2021

Taxonomic determination of the cryptogenic red alga, Chondria tumulosa sp. nov., (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta) from Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument, Hawai'i, USA: A new species displaying invasive characteristics.

PLoS One 2020 7;15(7):e0234358. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Biology, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC, United States of America.

Survey cruises by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in 2016 and 2019 yielded specimens of an undetermined red alga that rapidly attained alarming levels of benthic coverage at Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument, Hawai'i. By 2019 the seaweed had covered large expanses on the northeast side of the atoll with mat-like, extensive growth of entangled thalli. Specimens were analyzed using light microscopy and molecular analysis, and were compared to morphological descriptions in the literature for closely related taxa. Light microscopy demonstrated that the specimens likely belonged to the rhodomelacean genus Chondria, yet comparisons to taxonomic literature revealed no morphological match. DNA sequence analyses of the mitochondrial COI barcode marker, the plastidial rbcL gene, and the nuclear SSU gene confirmed its genus-level placement and demonstrated that this alga was unique compared to all other available sequences. Based on these data, this cryptogenic seaweed is here proposed as a new species: Chondria tumulosa A.R.Sherwood & J.M.Huisman sp. nov. Chondria tumulosa is distinct from all other species of Chondria based on its large, robust thalli, a mat-forming tendency, large axial diameter in mature branches (which decreases in diameter with subsequent orders of branching), terete axes, and bluntly rounded apices. Although C. tumulosa does not meet the criteria for the definition of an invasive species given that it has not been confirmed as introduced to Pearl and Hermes Atoll, this seaweed is not closely related to any known Hawaiian native species and is of particular concern given its sudden appearance and rapid increase in abundance in the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument; an uninhabited, remote, and pristine island chain to the northwest of the Main Hawaiian Islands.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0234358PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7340295PMC
September 2020

Finding the Sweet Spot: Sub-Ambient Light Increases Fitness and Kleptoplast Survival in the Sea Slug cf. Gould, 1852.

Biol Bull 2020 06 9;238(3):154-166. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Sacoglossans, or "sap-sucking" sea slugs, are primarily algivorous, with many taxa exhibiting kleptoplasty, the feeding and retaining of photosynthetically active chloroplasts from algae. The species complex exhibits some of the longest kleptoplast retention and survival times under starvation conditions, but the contributions of these kleptoplasts to their survival and overall fitness have been widely debated. In this study we assessed the effects of starvation and light on the fitness of cf. and its kleptoplasts by placing starved individuals in eight daily average light treatments, ranging from near dark (2 mol photon m s) to ambient light (470 mol photon m s). Slug weight was used as a metric of fitness, and kleptoplast photosynthetic activity was determined maximum quantum yield (/) by pulse-amplitude modulated fluorometry as a proxy for kleptoplast health. individuals in near-dark and high light treatments (>160 mol photon m s) experienced significantly greater weight loss than those in low light (65 mol photon m s) and moderate light treatments (95-135 mol photon m s). Additionally, individuals in high light treatments experienced a rapid decline in kleptoplast photosynthetic activity, while all other treatments experienced minimal decline. This relationship between kleptoplast degradation and weight loss suggests an important link between fitness and kleptoplasty. Given the significant negative effects of ambient conditions, regular refreshment and replenishment of kleptoplasts or physiological or behavioral adjustments are likely employed for the benefits of kleptoplasty to be maintained.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/709371DOI Listing
June 2020

A new record of Avrainvillea cf. erecta (Berkeley) A. Gepp & E. S. Gepp (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) from urbanized estuaries in the Hawaiian Islands.

Biodivers Data J 2018 5(6):e21617. Epub 2018 Oct 5.

University of Hawai'i at Mānoa, Honolulu, United States of America University of Hawai'i at Mānoa Honolulu United States of America.

Background: A second species in the siphonous green algal genus was recently discovered off the island of O'ahu in the Main Hawaiian Islands. Specimens were collected from Honolulu Harbor, including its entrance channel, and near Ke'ehi Harbor. These locations are both in Mālama Bay on O'ahu's south shore in or adjacent to urbanized estuaries, respectively. observations, morphological and molecular assessments were conducted to examine the alga's habit and distribution, as well as to assess its putative species identification.

New Information: The alga occurred in sand as single individuals or in clusters of several individuals at both sites, and near or within seagrass beds () and algal meadows composed of the green alga and an unidentified species at the Ke'ehi Harbor site. All analyses supported both populations as representative of the same taxa, reported until further investigation in the broad Pacific as Avrainvillea cf. erecta based on morphological and molecular analyses. This record of a second species in Hawai'i is of particular concern considering that an alga recognized as , first observed in 1981 from two locales on O'ahu's south shore, has become invasive in Hawai'i's intertidal to mesophotic environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.6.e21617DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6185993PMC
October 2018

Updating Plakobranchus cf. ianthobapsus (Gastropoda, Sacoglossa) host use: Diverse algal-animal interactions revealed by NGS with implications for invasive species management.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2018 11 19;128:172-181. Epub 2018 Jul 19.

Department of Botany, University of Hawai'i at Mānoa, 3190 Maile Way, Honolulu, Hawai'i 96822, USA.

Sacoglossa, the "sap sucking" sea slugs, are highly specialized herbivores and the only metazoans that exhibit kleptoplasty, the sequestration and retention of chloroplasts from algae. Plakobranchus is one of the most generalistic herbivores within this order, with as many as 12 reported "algal host" (i.e. kleptoplast source) species. However, kleptoplast diversity studies conducted on Plakobranchus to date most likely underestimated the full diversity of kleptoplast sources within the studied populations due to limitations of the molecular techniques employed. Here, we apply a high throughput sequencing technique to assess kleptoplast diversity of Plakobranchus cf. ianthobapsus' from 10 sites across the Main Hawaiian Islands during winter and summer seasons. In so doing, we effectively used P. cf. ianthobapsus as a novel sampling tool to explore diminutive algal communities, including the current distribution of the invasive alga "Avrainvillea amadelpha." Our results show that P. cf. ianthobapsus sequesters chloroplasts from 23 algal species from across the siphonous green algal order Bryopsidales. We identified "Avrainvillea amadelpha" and Codium edule as new host species for P. cf. ianthobapusus, but their rarity among the data suggests they were most likely less preferential as hosts and were possibly utilized due to low abundance or unavailability of more preferable species, and therefore a response to starvation risk. Additionally, the identification of the highly invasive siphonous green alga "A. amadelpha" as a kleptoplast source provides new fine-scale range and distribution data for this problematic species. Overall kleptoplast diversity does not differ among sites, except in a coral-dominated, (i.e. not algal dominated) environment, suggesting that siphonous algal assemblages are common in algal-dominated ecosystems in the Hawaiian Islands. Diversity dissimilarity among seasons was recovered from the majority of sites sampled, supporting the need for seasonal data collection in algal diversity assessments. This case study using metabarcoding of sacoglossan kleptoplasts provides deeper insights into these plant-animal interactions with a better understanding of host use than previous studies using traditional molecular methods and illustrates how algal diversity studies on the scale of plastids can have implications for understanding algal community structure and invasive species dynamics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2018.07.010DOI Listing
November 2018

Fungi associated with mesophotic macroalgae from the 'Au'au Channel, west Maui are differentiated by host and overlap terrestrial communities.

PeerJ 2017 11;5:e3532. Epub 2017 Jul 11.

Department of Botany, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, United States of America.

Mesophotic coral ecosystems are an almost entirely unexplored and undocumented environment that likely contains vast reservoirs of undescribed biodiversity. Twenty-four macroalgae samples, representing four genera, were collected from a Hawaiian mesophotic reef at water depths between 65 and 86 m in the 'Au'au Channel, Maui, Hawai'i. Algal tissues were surveyed for the presence and diversity of fungi by sequencing the ITS1 gene using Illumina technology. Fungi from these algae were then compared to previous fungal surveys conducted in Hawaiian terrestrial ecosystems. Twenty-seven percent of the OTUs present on the mesophotic coral ecosystem samples were shared between the marine and terrestrial environment. Subsequent analyses indicated that host species of algae significantly differentiate fungal community composition. This work demonstrates yet another understudied habitat with a moderate diversity of fungi that should be considered when estimating global fungal diversity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.3532DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5508810PMC
July 2017

Molecular determination of kleptoplast origins from the sea slug Plakobranchus ocellatus (Sacoglossa, Gastropoda) reveals cryptic bryopsidalean (Chlorophyta) diversity in the Hawaiian Islands.

J Phycol 2017 06 21;53(3):467-475. Epub 2017 Feb 21.

Department of Botany, University of Hawaii at Mānoa, 3190 Maile Way, Honolulu, Hawaii, 96822, USA.

The sacoglossan sea slug species complex Plakobranchus ocellatus is a common algivore throughout the tropical Pacific, including the Hawaiian Islands. Plakobranchus ocellatus is kleptoplastic-it sequesters and retains algal chloroplasts-a characteristic that can be exploited to molecularly characterize diminutive bryopsidalean algae that are typically difficult to locate, collect, and identify. Previous DNA barcode analyses of both P. ocellatus and its kleptoplasts have been conducted primarily in the western Pacific and have only minimally sampled the most eastern populations in the Hawaiian Islands. Using two chloroplast markers, rbcL and tufA, kleptoplast samples from an Oahu population of P. ocellatus were amplified and cloned to identify their algal sources. Plakobranchus ocellatus sequester chloroplasts from up to 11 bryopsidalean algal species, all but one being diminutive in thallus size. Notably, eight of the detected algal species were new records to the Hawaiian Islands. A sequestration preference study demonstrated that the O'ahu population of P. ocellatus preferentially sequesters chloroplasts from diminutive, epilithic taxa. Using coxI barcoding of P. ocellatus, we showed the O'ahu population to be part of a clade that includes sequences from the neighboring island Maui, Australia, and the Philippines. The use of P. ocellatus as a novel sampling tool allows the exploration of the green algal community diversity and composition at a fine scale.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpy.12503DOI Listing
June 2017

A metabarcoding comparison of windward and leeward airborne algal diversity across the Ko'olau mountain range on the island of O'ahu, Hawai'i.

J Phycol 2017 04 31;53(2):437-445. Epub 2017 Jan 31.

Department of Botany, University of Hawai'i, 3190 Maile Way, Honolulu, Hawai'i, 96822, USA.

Airborne algae from sites on the windward (n = 3) and leeward (n = 3) sides of the Ko'olau Mountain range of O'ahu, Hawai'i, were sampled for a 16 d period during January and February 2015 using passive collection devices and were characterized using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the universal plastid amplicon marker. Amplicons were assigned to 3,023 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), which included 1,189 cyanobacteria, 1,009 heterotrophic bacteria, and 304 Eukaryota (of which 284 were algae and land plants). Analyses demonstrated substantially more OTUs at windward than leeward O'ahu sites during the sampling period. Removal of nonalgal OTUs revealed a greater number of algal reads recovered from windward (839,853) than leeward sites (355,387), with the majority of these being cyanobacteria. The 1,234 total algal OTUs included cyanobacteria, diatoms, cryptophytes, brown algae, chlorophyte green algae, and charophyte green algae. A total of 208 algal OTUs were identified from leeward side samplers (including OTUs in common among samplers) and 1,995 algal OTUs were identified from windward samplers. Barcoding analyses of the most abundant algal OTUs indicated that very few were shared between the windward and leeward sides of the Ko'olau Mountains, highlighting the localized scale at which these airborne algae communities differ. Back trajectories of air masses arriving on O'ahu during the sampling period were calculated using the NOAA HY-SPLIT model and suggested that the sampling period was composed of three large-scale meteorological events, indicating a diversity of potential sources of airborne algae outside of the Hawaiian Islands.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpy.12502DOI Listing
April 2017

New Ulvaceae (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta) from mesophotic ecosystems across the Hawaiian Archipelago.

J Phycol 2016 Feb 12;52(1):40-53. Epub 2016 Jan 12.

Department of Botany, University of Hawai'i at Mānoa, 3190 Maile Way, Honolulu, Hawaii, 96822, USA.

Ulvalean algae (Chlorophyta) are most commonly described from intertidal and shallow subtidal marine environments worldwide, but are less well known from mesophotic environments. Their morphological simplicity and phenotypic plasticity make accurate species determinations difficult, even at the generic level. Here, we describe the mesophotic Ulvales species composition from 13 locations across 2,300 km of the Hawaiian Archipelago. Twenty-eight representative Ulvales specimens from 64 to 125 m depths were collected using technical diving, submersibles, and remotely operated vehicles. Morphological and molecular characters suggest that mesophotic Ulvales in Hawaiian waters form unique communities comprising four species within the genera Ulva and Umbraulva, each with discrete geographic and/or depth-related distributional patterns. Three genetically distinct taxa are supported by both plastid (rbcL and tufA) and nuclear (ITS1) markers, and are presented here as new species: Umbraulva kaloakulau, Ulva ohiohilulu, and Ulva iliohaha. We also propose a new Umbraulva species (Umbraulva kuaweuweu), which is closely related to subtidal records from New Zealand and Australia, but not formally described. To our knowledge, these are the first marine species descriptions from Hawai'i resulting from the collaboration of traditional Hawaiian nomenclature specialists, cultural practitioners and scientists. The difficulty of finding reliable diagnostic morphological characters for these species reflects a common problem worldwide of achieving accurate identification of ulvalean taxa using solely morphological criteria. Mesophotic Ulvales appear to be distinct from shallow-water populations in Hawai'i, but their degree of similarity to mesophotic floras in other locations in the Pacific remains unknown.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpy.12375DOI Listing
February 2016

The Hawaiian freshwater algae biodiversity survey (2009-2014): systematic and biogeographic trends with an emphasis on the macroalgae.

BMC Ecol 2014 Oct 25;14:28. Epub 2014 Oct 25.

Background: A remarkable range of environmental conditions is present in the Hawaiian Islands due to their gradients of elevation, rainfall and island age. Despite being well known as a location for the study of evolutionary processes and island biogeography, little is known about the composition of the non-marine algal flora of the archipelago, its degree of endemism, or affinities with other floras. We conducted a biodiversity survey of the non-marine macroalgae of the six largest main Hawaiian Islands using molecular and microscopic assessment techniques. We aimed to evaluate whether endemism or cosmopolitanism better explain freshwater algal distribution patterns, and provide a baseline data set for monitoring future biodiversity changes in the Hawaiian Islands.

Results: 1,786 aquatic and terrestrial habitats and 1,407 distinct collections of non-marine macroalgae were collected from the islands of Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Maui, Lanai and Hawaii from the years 2009-2014. Targeted habitats included streams, wet walls, high elevation bogs, taro fields, ditches and flumes, lakes/reservoirs, cave walls and terrestrial areas. Sites that lacked freshwater macroalgae were typically terrestrial or wet wall habitats that were sampled for diatoms and other microalgae. Approximately 50% of the identifications were of green algae, with lesser proportions of diatoms, red algae, cyanobacteria, xanthophytes and euglenoids. 898 DNA sequences were generated representing eight different markers, which enabled an assessment of the number of taxonomic entities for genera collected as part of the survey. Forty-four well-characterized taxa were assessed for global distribution patterns. This analysis revealed no clear biogeographic affinities of the flora, with 27.3% characterized as "cosmopolitan", 11.4% "endemic", and 61.3% as intermediate.

Conclusions: The Hawaiian freshwater algal biodiversity survey represents the first comprehensive effort to characterize the non-marine algae of a tropical region in the world using both morphological and molecular tools. Survey data were entered in the Hawaiian Freshwater Algal Database, which serves as a digital repository of photographs and micrographs, georeferenced localities and DNA sequence data. These analyses yielded an updated checklist of the non-marine macroalgae of the Hawaiian Islands, and revealed varied biogeographic affinities of the flora that are likely a product of both natural and anthropogenic dispersal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12898-014-0028-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4222836PMC
October 2014

The Hawaiian Freshwater Algal Database (HfwADB): a laboratory LIMS and online biodiversity resource.

BMC Ecol 2012 Oct 25;12:22. Epub 2012 Oct 25.

Department of Botany, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 3190 Maile Way, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822, USA.

Background: Biodiversity databases serve the important role of highlighting species-level diversity from defined geographical regions. Databases that are specially designed to accommodate the types of data gathered during regional surveys are valuable in allowing full data access and display to researchers not directly involved with the project, while serving as a Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS). The Hawaiian Freshwater Algal Database, or HfwADB, was modified from the Hawaiian Algal Database to showcase non-marine algal specimens collected from the Hawaiian Archipelago by accommodating the additional level of organization required for samples including multiple species.

Description: The Hawaiian Freshwater Algal Database is a comprehensive and searchable database containing photographs and micrographs of samples and collection sites, geo-referenced collecting information, taxonomic data and standardized DNA sequence data. All data for individual samples are linked through unique 10-digit accession numbers ("Isolate Accession"), the first five of which correspond to the collection site ("Environmental Accession"). Users can search online for sample information by accession number, various levels of taxonomy, habitat or collection site. HfwADB is hosted at the University of Hawaii, and was made publicly accessible in October 2011. At the present time the database houses data for over 2,825 samples of non-marine algae from 1,786 collection sites from the Hawaiian Archipelago. These samples include cyanobacteria, red and green algae and diatoms, as well as lesser representation from some other algal lineages.

Conclusions: HfwADB is a digital repository that acts as a Laboratory Information Management System for Hawaiian non-marine algal data. Users can interact with the repository through the web to view relevant habitat data (including geo-referenced collection locations) and download images of collection sites, specimen photographs and micrographs, and DNA sequences. It is publicly available at http://algae.manoa.hawaii.edu/hfwadb/.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6785-12-22DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3526539PMC
October 2012

THE GREEN ALGAL GENUS CLONIOPHORA REPRESENTS A NOVEL LINEAGE IN THE ULVALES: A PROPOSAL FOR CLONIOPHORACEAE FAM. NOV.(1).

J Phycol 2011 Dec 10;47(6):1379-87. Epub 2011 Oct 10.

Botany Department, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822, USAFriday Harbor Laboratories, University of Washington, Friday Harbor, Washington 98250, USABotany Department, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822, USA.

The green algal genus Cloniophora has been classified in the Chaetophorales (Chlorophyceae) based on morphological characters. This study uses DNA sequence data from the nucleus (SSU) and the chloroplast (tufA) from collections in the Hawaiian Islands and a culture originating from Portugal to test this classification. Taxonomic identities of contemporary collections were confirmed by sequencing small fragments of DNA (rbcL and SSU) from type specimens, including the generitype, Cloniophora willei L. H. Tiffany. These molecular data show that Cloniophora does not have close affinities to the Chaetophorales and belongs instead to the Ulvales (Ulvophyceae). The morphological features of eight or more reproductive products per cell and a pyrenoid with a traversing thylakoid membrane support the molecular data and confirm the placement of this group in the Ulvales. As this genus does not belong to any recognized family in the Ulvales, the family Cloniophoraceae, containing the single genus Cloniophora, is proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1529-8817.2011.01065.xDOI Listing
December 2011

The Hawaiian Rhodophyta Biodiversity Survey (2006-2010): a summary of principal findings.

BMC Plant Biol 2010 Nov 22;10:258. Epub 2010 Nov 22.

Botany Department, 3190 Maile Way, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA.

Background: The Hawaiian red algal flora is diverse, isolated, and well studied from a morphological and anatomical perspective, making it an excellent candidate for assessment using a combination of traditional taxonomic and molecular approaches. Acquiring and making these biodiversity data freely available in a timely manner ensures that other researchers can incorporate these baseline findings into phylogeographic studies of Hawaiian red algae or red algae found in other locations.

Results: A total of 1,946 accessions are represented in the collections from 305 different geographical locations in the Hawaiian archipelago. These accessions represent 24 orders, 49 families, 152 genera and 252 species/subspecific taxa of red algae. One order of red algae (the Rhodachlyales) was recognized in Hawaii for the first time and 196 new island distributional records were determined from the survey collections. One family and four genera are reported for the first time from Hawaii, and multiple species descriptions are in progress for newly discovered taxa. A total of 2,418 sequences were generated for Hawaiian red algae in the course of this study--915 for the nuclear LSU marker, 864 for the plastidial UPA marker, and 639 for the mitochondrial COI marker. These baseline molecular data are presented as neighbor-joining trees to illustrate degrees of divergence within and among taxa. The LSU marker was typically most conserved, followed by UPA and COI. Phylogenetic analysis of a set of concatenated LSU, UPA and COI sequences recovered a tree that broadly resembled the current understanding of florideophyte red algal relationships, but bootstrap support was largely absent above the ordinal level. Phylogeographic trends are reported here for some common taxa within the Hawaiian Islands and include examples of those with, as well as without, intraspecific variation.

Conclusions: The UPA and COI markers were determined to be the most useful of the three and are recommended for inclusion in future algal biodiversity surveys. Molecular data for the survey provide the most extensive assessment of Hawaiian red algal diversity and, in combination with the morphological/anatomical and distributional data collected as part of the project, provide a solid baseline data set for future studies of the flora. The data are freely available via the Hawaiian Algal Database (HADB), which was designed and constructed to accommodate the results of the project. We present the first DNA sequence reference collection for a tropical Pacific seaweed flora, whose value extends beyond Hawaii since many Hawaiian taxa are shared with other tropical areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2229-10-258DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3012605PMC
November 2010

The Hawaiian Algal Database: a laboratory LIMS and online resource for biodiversity data.

BMC Plant Biol 2009 Sep 4;9:117. Epub 2009 Sep 4.

Department of Molecular Biosciences and Bioengineering, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822, USA.

Background: Organization and presentation of biodiversity data is greatly facilitated by databases that are specially designed to allow easy data entry and organized data display. Such databases also have the capacity to serve as Laboratory Information Management Systems (LIMS). The Hawaiian Algal Database was designed to showcase specimens collected from the Hawaiian Archipelago, enabling users around the world to compare their specimens with our photographs and DNA sequence data, and to provide lab personnel with an organizational tool for storing various biodiversity data types.

Description: We describe the Hawaiian Algal Database, a comprehensive and searchable database containing photographs and micrographs, geo-referenced collecting information, taxonomic checklists and standardized DNA sequence data. All data for individual samples are linked through unique accession numbers. Users can search online for sample information by accession number, numerous levels of taxonomy, or collection site. At the present time the database contains data representing over 2,000 samples of marine, freshwater and terrestrial algae from the Hawaiian Archipelago. These samples are primarily red algae, although other taxa are being added.

Conclusion: The Hawaiian Algal Database is a digital repository for Hawaiian algal samples and acts as a LIMS for the laboratory. Users can make use of the online search tool to view and download specimen photographs and micrographs, DNA sequences and relevant habitat data, including georeferenced collecting locations. It is publicly available at http://algae.manoa.hawaii.edu.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2229-9-117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2746215PMC
September 2009

PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF PSEUDOCHLORODESMIS STRAINS REVEALS CRYPTIC DIVERSITY ABOVE THE FAMILY LEVEL IN THE SIPHONOUS GREEN ALGAE (BRYOPSIDALES, CHLOROPHYTA)(1).

J Phycol 2009 Jun 1;45(3):726-31. Epub 2009 Jun 1.

Phycology Research Group and Center for Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, building S8, 9000 Ghent, BelgiumBotany Department, University of Hawaii, 3190 Maile Way, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822, USAPhycology Research Group and Center for Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, building S8, 9000 Ghent, Belgium.

The genus Pseudochlorodesmis (Bryopsidales) is composed of diminutive siphons of extreme morphological simplicity. The discovery of Pseudochlorodesmis-like juveniles in more complex Bryopsidales (e.g., the Halimeda microthallus stage) jeopardized the recognition of this genus. Confronted with this uncertainty, taxonomists transferred many simple siphons into a new genus, Siphonogramen. In this study, we used a multimarker approach to clarify the phylogenetic and taxonomic affinities of the Pseudochlorodesmis-Siphonogramen (PS) complex within the more morphologically complex bryopsidalean taxa. Our analyses reveal a new layer of diversity largely distinct from the lineages containing the structurally complex genera. The PS complex shows profound cryptic diversity exceeding the family level. We discuss a potential link between thallus complexity and the prevalence and profundity of cryptic diversity. For taxonomic simplicity and as a first step toward clarifying the taxonomy of these simple siphons, we propose to maintain Pseudochlorodesmis as a form genus and subsume Siphonogramen and Botryodesmis therein.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1529-8817.2009.00690.xDOI Listing
June 2009

SYSTEMATICS OF THE BATRACHOSPERMALES (RHODOPHYTA)-A SYNTHESIS(1).

J Phycol 2009 Jun 21;45(3):704-15. Epub 2009 May 21.

Botanic Gardens Trust, Mrs Macquaries Road, Sydney, New South Wales 2000, AustraliaDepartment of Environmental and Plant Biology, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701, USAZoology and Botany Department, São Paulo State University, Rua Cristóvão Colombo, 2265-15054-000 São José do Rio Preto, SP, BrazilDepartment of Botany, 3190 Maile Way, University of Hawai'i, Honolulu, Hawai'i 96822, USA.

Recent molecular and morphological data necessitate a major taxonomic revision of the Batrachospermales, an order of red algae, distributed in freshwater habitats throughout the world. This article is a synthesis of available information with some targeted additional sequence data, resulting in a few relatively conservative taxonomic changes to begin the process of creating a natural taxonomy for the Batrachospermales. To increase the information content of our taxonomic categories, and in particular to reduce paraphyly, we describe one new genus (Kumanoa) and a new section in Batrachospermum (section Macrospora), and we amend the circumscriptions of the family Batrachospermaceae (to include Lemaneaceae and Psilosiphonaceae), the genus Batrachospermum (to exclude the sections Contorta and Hybrida, raised to genus level as Kumanoa), and the sections Aristata, Helminthoidea, and Batrachospermum of Batrachospermum. We also provide a new name, B. montagnei, for the illegitimate B. guyanense, and recognize an informal paraphyletic grouping of taxa within Batrachospermum, the "Australasica Group." This taxonomic synthesis increases the level of monophyly within the Batrachospermales but minimizes taxonomic change where data are still inadequate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1529-8817.2009.00686.xDOI Listing
June 2009

Application of universally amplifying plastid primers to environmental sampling of a stream periphyton community.

Mol Ecol Resour 2008 Sep 28;8(5):1011-4. Epub 2008 Jun 28.

Department of Botany, Department of Molecular Biosciences and Bioengineering, 1955 East-West Road, University of Hawai'i, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA.

To demonstrate the utility of universal plastid primers for probing of environmental samples, we extracted DNA from a tropical stream periphyton community and created two environmental clone libraries. We demonstrate the recovery of DNA sequences corresponding to the major groups of algae observed microscopically in the sample, illustrating the utility of these primers for analysis of environmental samples. Using a touchdown polymerase chain reaction technique, almost 99% of recovered sequences correspond to plastid-containing or cyanobacterial taxa, which allows algae to be targeted to the almost complete exclusion of noncyanobacterial prokaryotes and nonplastid-containing eukaryotes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-0998.2008.02138.xDOI Listing
September 2008

Morphology and phylogenetic position of Spongiochrysis hawaiiensis gen. et sp. nov., the first known terrestrial member of the order Cladophorales (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta).

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2006 Apr;56(Pt 4):913-922

Martin Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.

Spongiochrysis hawaiiensis gen. et sp. nov. is described from material collected at two sites on O'ahu, Hawaiian Islands. This alga produced golden-yellow crusts on the bark of Casuarina trees and consisted of globular cells with an axial stellate chloroplast. The only form of reproduction was a specialized type of autosporulation in which a budding-like division of the mother cell produced daughter cells of different sizes. Phylogenetic analyses of the 18S rRNA gene showed that Spongiochrysis hawaiiensis is a member of the freshwater clade of the Cladophorales/Siphonocladales lineage in the green algal class Ulvophyceae. On the basis of its unicellular habit and terrestrial habitat, this species is well differentiated from all other members of the same lineage and can be considered as the first known successful step of a member of the order Cladophorales into terrestrial habitats. The implications of the description of this species with regard to both green algal evolution and conservation of little-known tropical habitats are discussed. The holotype specimen of Spongiochrysis hawaiiensis is GALW015489 and isotype specimens have also been deposited in the BISH and BM herbaria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/ijs.0.63977-0DOI Listing
April 2006

Continued evolutionary surprises among dinoflagellates.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2002 Sep 23;99(18):11558-60. Epub 2002 Aug 23.

Department of Botany and Hawaiian Evolutionary Biology Program, University of Hawaii, 3190 Maile Way, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.192456999DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC129305PMC
September 2002
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