Publications by authors named "Alireza Milajerdi"

67 Publications

The role of altered long noncoding RNAs in overall survival of ovarian cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Pathol Res Pract 2021 Mar 9;219:153363. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Gametogenesis Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Science, Kashan, Iran; Anatomical Sciences Research Center, Institute for Basic Sciences, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran. Electronic address:

In recent years, tremendous research efforts have been focused on investigating the effect of dysregulation of lncRNAs on cancer progression, most of which confirm a positive link. This inspired us to conduct the present meta-analysis to explore whether aberrant expression of multiple lncRNAs has a role in patients' outcome in ovarian cancer. This comprehensive meta-analysis pertains to the evaluation of association between dysregulated lncRNAs expression level with eventual outcome and clinicopathological characteristics of ovarian cancer patients. We systematically searched PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus to find all eligible articles. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for overall survival, disease-free survival and progression-free survival were measured with a fixed or random effects model. A total of 34 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Dysregulation of lncRNAs were contributed to shorter overall survival (34 studies, 1180 patients HR = 2.12, 95% CI: 1.73 ± 2.60, random-effects) in ovarian cancer. Furthermore, altered lncRNAs were also related to decreased progression-free survival (8 studies, 1180 patients HR: 1.88, 95% CI: (1.35-2.62) and disease-free survival (2 studies, 285 patients, HR: 6.07, 95% CI: 1.28-28.78) in this disease. Our analyses supported the robust prognostic significance of altered lncRNAs in ovarian cancer. However, more extended studies are encouraged to evaluate the clinical application potential of these lncRNAs in the prognosis evaluation of ovarian cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prp.2021.153363DOI Listing
March 2021

The effects of L-carnitine supplementation on indicators of inflammation and oxidative stress: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

J Diabetes Metab Disord 2020 Dec 15;19(2):1879-1894. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, Research Center for Evidence-Based Health Management, Maragheh University of Medical Sciences, Maragheh, Iran.

Objective: Several trials investigated the efficacy of L-carnitine administration on markers of inflammation and indicators of oxidative stress; however, their findings are controversial. The aim of this study was to conduct a comprehensive meta-analysis and a critical review, which would analyze all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in order to determine the effects of L-carnitine supplementation on inflammatory markers and oxidative stress.

Methods: An electronic search was performed using Scopus, Cochrane Library, PubMed, Google scholar and Web of Science databases on publications from 1990 up to May 2020. Human RCTs conducted in healthy subjects or participants with certain disorders which investigating the efficacy of L-carnitine supplementation compared to control (placebo, usual treatment or no intervention) on inflammation and oxidative markers were included. Data were pooled applying a random-effects model and as the overall effect size, weighted mean difference (WMD) was presented. Between heterogeneity among studies was computed using Cochran's Q test and I-square (I). Quality of studies assessed using the Jadad scale. Dose-response analysis was measured using meta-regression. The funnel plot, as well as the Egger's regression test was applied to determine the publication bias.

Results: 44 trials (reported 49 effect sizes for different outcomes of interest) met the inclusion criteria for this meta-analysis. According to the findings, L-carnitine supplementation resulted in a significant reduction in C-reactive protein (CRP) (WMD: -0.10; 95% CI: -0.14, -0.06), interleukin 6 (IL-6) (WMD: -1.87; 95% CI: -2.80, -0.95), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels (WMD: -1.43; 95% CI: -2.03, -0.84), and malondialdehyde (MDA) (WMD: -0.47; 95% CI: -0.76, -0.18) levels, while there was a significant increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) (WMD: 2.14; 95% CI: 1.02, 3.25). However, no significant effects of L-carnitine on glutathione peroxidase (GPx) (WMD: 0.02; 95% CI: -0.01, 0.05) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (WMD: 0.14; 95% CI: -0.05, 0.33) were found.

Conclusions: L-carnitine supplementation was associated with lowering of CRP, IL-6, TNF-α, and MDA, and increasing SOD levels, but did not affect other inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40200-020-00627-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7843735PMC
December 2020

The effects of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on metabolic status in pregnant women: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

J Diabetes Metab Disord 2020 Dec 6;19(2):1685-1699. Epub 2020 Jun 6.

Pars Advanced and Minimally Invasive Medical Manners Research Center, Pars Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background And Objective: Data regarding the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supplementation on metabolic status of pregnant women are limited. This systematic review and meta-analysis were done based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) dealing with the effects of omega-3 PUFA supplementation on glycemic control, lipoproteins, inflammation and oxidative stress in pregnant women.

Methods: Following databases were searched for eligible studies published from inception to until 2019: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and Google scholar. Studies that evaluated the effect of omega-3 PUFA supplementation on parameters of glycemic control, lipoproteins, inflammation and oxidative stress in pregnant women were found by using the key MeSH. A study quality assessment was performed using the Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias tool and heterogeneity between studies was statistically computed using Cochrane's Q test and I-square (I). Data were pooled using a random-effects model and weighted mean difference (WMD) was considered as the overall effect size.

Results: No significant effects of omega-3 PUFA supplementation on FPG, insulin, insulin resistance, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol, interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-8, and malondialdehyde were found. However, omega-3 PUFA significantly increased serum concentrations of HDL-cholesterol (WMD: 3.10; 95% CI: 0.18, 6.03) and reduced C-reactive protein (WMD: -1.85; 95% CI: -2.61, -1.09).

Conclusion: Based on the results of this meta-analysis omega-3 PUFA supplementation during pregnancy has a significant beneficial effect on HDL-cholesterol, and C-reactive protein.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40200-020-00558-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7843696PMC
December 2020

Association of Dietary Fiber, Fruit, and Vegetable Consumption with Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Adv Nutr 2020 Nov 13. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

No previous investigation has summarized findings from prospective cohort studies on the association between dietary intake of fiber, fruit, and vegetables and risk of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Dietary fiber and its major sources can influence the risk of IBD by modulation of the gut microbiota. This study summarizes findings from published cohort studies on the association between dietary fiber, fruit, and vegetable consumption and risk of IBD. Relevant articles published up to January 2019 were searched via PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar. All prospective cohort studies investigating the association between dietary fiber, fruit, and vegetable intake and risk of IBD were included. Combining 7 effect sizes from 6 studies, no significant association was found between dietary intake of fiber and risk of ulcerative colitis (UC) (RR: 1.09; 95% CI: 0.88, 1.34). However, a significant inverse association was found between dietary fiber intake and risk of Crohn disease (CD) (RR: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.74), based on 5 studies with 6 effect sizes. Pooling information from 4 studies, we found a significant protective association between dietary intake of fruit and risk of UC (RR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.55, 0.86) and CD (RR: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.38, 0.58). We also found a significant inverse association between vegetable consumption and risk of UC (RR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.66) and CD (RR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.59). In conclusion, dietary intake of fruit and vegetables was inversely associated with risk of IBD and its subtypes. Dietary fiber intake was also inversely associated with incidence of IBD and CD, but not with UC. Further studies are warranted to examine the association of other fiber-rich foods with IBD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/advances/nmaa145DOI Listing
November 2020

Breakfast skipping and prevalence of heartburn syndrome among Iranian adults.

Eat Weight Disord 2020 Nov 12. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Integrative Functional Gastroenterology Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Purpose: Limited data are available linking breakfast consumption to Heart Burn Syndrome (HBS). This study was done to investigate to find whether breakfast consumption is associated with HBS. This cross-sectional study was done to investigate the association between breakfast consumption and HBS among Iranian adults.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed among 4763 general adults of Isfahan, Iran. Participants' patterns of breakfast eating were assessed by asking two questions from them. How often do you eat breakfast in a week?" Participants were able to respond as: "never or 1 day/wk", "2-4 days/wk", "5-6 days/wk", "every day". HBS was defined as the presence of HBS at sometimes, often or always using a Persian version of validated self-administered modified ROME III questionnaire.

Results: Totally, 4763 patients with HBS completed this cross-sectional study, where about 32.4% of them intake breakfast less than one time per week. After controlling for potential confounders, participants who consumed breakfast every day had a 43% lower risk for having HBS as compared with those who had breakfast ≤ 1 times/wk (OR 0.57; 95% CI 0.41-0.80). A significant inverse relationship was found between breakfast consumption and frequent than scare HBS (OR 0.57; 95% CI 0.40-0.77) among the whole population, not in patients with HBS. No significant association was observed between breakfast intake and severity of HBS (OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.31-1.04).

Conclusion: We found an inverse association between frequency of breakfast consumption and odds of HBS as well as the frequency of HBS among the adult population. Prospective studies are required to confirm these findings.

Level Of Evidence: Level V, cross-sectional descriptive study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40519-020-01065-5DOI Listing
November 2020

Is there any association between fruit consumption and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Complement Ther Med 2020 Nov 17;54:102445. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Diabetes Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Aim: Although a considerable number of studies have illustrated the positive effects of fresh fruits on metabolic status, the impacts of fruits on the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are inconsistent. In consideration of this issue, we aimed to systematically summarize the findings of cohort studies with respect to the link between fresh fruits and the risk of GDM.

Method: We selected cohort studies with English language indexed in PubMed/Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and Embase from 2000 to 31 January 2018. To examine the link between fresh fruits and the risk of GDM development, relative risk (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for the highest versus the lowest consumption of fruits were pooled using a random effect model and the DerSimonian and Laird method.

Results: Out of 2522 publications, finally 5 cohort studies were obtained. No significant association between fruit consumption and GDM incidence was found (Pooled RR: 0.95; 95 % CI: 0.84, 1.08; I: 90.3 %, p = 0001). In women who consumed higher amount of fruits before pregnancy, the risk of GDM was 5% lower than in those who consumed lower amount of fruits (0.95; 95 %CI: 0.91, 0.99, I: 0%, p = 0.85). No link was obtained between fruit consumption during the pregnancy and GDM onset (1.18, 95 % CI: 0.48, 2.91; I:94.6 %, p = 0.0001).

Conclusion: In women who consumed greater fruits before pregnancy, the risk for GDM was 5 % lower than those consumed lower amounts of fruits, while there was no link between fruit consumption throughout the pregnancy and GDM onset. However, due to limited studies and considerable heterogeneity, the findings must be interpreted with great caution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2020.102445DOI Listing
November 2020

Effects of flaxseed oil supplementation on biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in patients with metabolic syndrome and related disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Clin Nutr ESPEN 2020 Dec 16;40:27-33. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Objective: This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was performed to analyze the effects of flaxseed oil supplementation on biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and related disorders.

Methods: Databases including PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central library were searched until January 31, 2019.

Results: 14 effect sizes from 12 studies were identified eligible to be included in current meta-analysis. Flaxseed supplementation resulted in a significant reduction in interleukin 6 (IL-6) (WMD: -0.22; 95% CI: -0.43, -0.01) and malondialdehyde (MDA) (WMD: -0.17; 95% CI: -0.31, -0.03) and a significant increase in total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels (WMD: 137.25; 95% CI: 68.04, 206.47). Flaxseed oil supplementation did not affect other biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress.

Conclusions: Overall, this meta-analysis demonstrated flaxseed oil supplementation decreased IL-6 and MDA levels, and increased TAC, but did not affect other biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress among patients with MetS and related disorders. This suggests that flaxseed oil supplementation may have played an indirect role in improved clinical symptoms in diseases with metabolic disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnesp.2020.09.017DOI Listing
December 2020

A systematic review and meta-analysis: The effects of probiotic supplementation on metabolic profile in patients with neurological disorders.

Complement Ther Med 2020 Sep 15;53:102507. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Department of Addiction Studies, School of Medical, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran; Clinical Research Development Unit-Matini/Kargarnejad Hospital, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran. Electronic address:

Background And Objective: The objective of meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was to evaluate the effects of probiotic supplementation on metabolic status in patients with neurological disorders.

Methods: The following databases were search up to April 2019: Pubmed, Scopus, Google scholar, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. The quality of the relevant extracted data was assessed according to the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Data were pooled by the use of the inverse variance method and expressed as mean difference with 95 % Confidence Intervals (95 % CI).

Results: Nine studies were included in this meta-analysis. The findings suggested that probiotic supplementation resulted in a significant reduction in C-reactive protein (CRP) [Weighted Mean Difference (WMD): -1.06; 95 % CI: -1.80, -0.32] and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels (WMD: -0.32; 95 % CI: -0.46, -0.18). Supplementation with probiotics also significantly reduced insulin (WMD: -3.02; 95 % CI: -3.88, -2.15) and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (WMD: -0.71; 95 % CI: -0.89, -0.52). Probiotics significantly reduced triglycerides (WMD: -18.38; 95 % CI: -25.50, -11.26) and VLDL-cholesterol (WMD: -3.16; 95 % CI: -4.53, -1.79), while they increased HDL-cholesterol levels (WMD: 1.52; 95 % CI: 0.29, 2.75).

Conclusion: This meta-analysis demonstrated that taking probiotic by patients with neurological disorders had beneficial effects on CRP, MDA, insulin, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, VLDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol levels, but did not affect other metabolic parameters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2020.102507DOI Listing
September 2020

Effects of whey protein on glycemic control and serum lipoproteins in patients with metabolic syndrome and related conditions: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials.

Lipids Health Dis 2020 Sep 21;19(1):209. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Institute for Basic Sciences, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

Background: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the effects of whey protein on serum lipoproteins and glycemic status in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and related disorders.

Methods: Online databases, such as Web of Science, Cochrane Library, PubMed and Scopus were systematically searched by two independent authors from inception until 30th April 2020 for English randomized clinical trials investigating the efficacy of whey protein administration in subjects with Mets or related conditions on the parameters of glycemic and lipid control compared to certain control. In order to evaluate the included studies' methodological quality, Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias tool was applied. Using Cochrane's Q test and I-square (I) statistic, the included trials' heterogeneity was also examined. Using a random-effects model, data were pooled, and weighted mean difference (WMD) was considered as the overall effect size.

Results: Twenty-two studies were selected to be included in this meta-analysis. Consumption of whey protein resulted in significant reduction of HbA1c (WMD: -0.15; 95% CI: - 0.29, - 0.01) insulin (WMD: -0.94; 95% CI: - 1.68, - 0.21) and homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (WMD: -0.20; 95% CI: - 0.36, - 0.05). A significant reduction in triglycerides levels (WMD: -17.12; 95% CI: - 26.52, - 7.72), total cholesterol (WMD: -10.88; 95% CI -18.60, - 3.17), LDL-cholesterol levels (WMD: -8.47 95% CI: - 16.59, - 0.36) and total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio (WMD: -0.26; 95% CI: - 0.41, - 0.10) was found as well.

Conclusions: This meta-analysis suggests that supplementation with whey protein had beneficial effect on several indicators of glycemic control and lipid parameters in patients with MetS and related conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12944-020-01384-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7504833PMC
September 2020

Clinical effectiveness of zinc supplementation on the biomarkers of oxidative stress: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Pharmacol Res 2020 11 21;161:105166. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Obesity and Eating Habits Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Molecular Cellular Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Food Security Research Center, Department of Community Nutrition, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Oxidative stress plays an important role in the occurrence of chronic diseases. Zinc supplementation is also known to be an antioxidant agent. While, there is no review on the effects of zinc supplementation on oxidative stress, this study aimed to systematically summarize randomized clinical trials (RCTs) which have evaluated the impacts of zinc supplementation on oxidative stress biomarkers.

Methods: Systematic searches were performed using the PubMed/Medline, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases, up to April 2020. All RCTs assessed the effect of oral zinc supplementation on serum malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), glutathione (GSH), and nitric oxide (NO) levels, were included. For each variable, mean differences (MD) and standard deviations (SDs) were combined using the random-effects model, and the fractional polynomial model was used to implement the dose-response analysis.

Results: Ten RCTs were included. The pooled analysis of data showed that zinc supplementation significantly reduced MDA levels (MD: -0.42 μmol/L; 95 % CI: -0.71 to -0.13), increased serum TAC (MD: 225.96 mmol/L; 95 % CI: 68.42-383.5) and GSH levels (MD: 49.99 μmol/L; 95 % CI: 2.25 t 97.73), compared with the placebo group. In contrast, no significant changes were seen in NO levels following zinc supplementation (MD: -1.66 μmol/L; 95 % CI: -5.89 to 2.57). Dose-response analysis showed a significant non-linear relationship between zinc supplementation dosage and serum levels of MDA (p < 0.01), but not other biomarkers.

Conclusions: The current study showed that zinc supplementation would significantly decrease MDA and increase TAC and GSH, but not NO levels. Thus, it encourages the use of zinc supplementation in oxidative stress-related diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2020.105166DOI Listing
November 2020

Effects of probiotics on salivary cytokines and immunoglobulines: a systematic review and meta-analysis on clinical trials.

Sci Rep 2020 07 16;10(1):11800. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Findings on the effects of probiotics on salivary cytokines and immunoglobulines have been conflicting. We aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on clinical trials that examined the effects of oral intake and local administration of probiotics on salivary cytokines and immunoglobulines in adults. We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, SCOPUS, EMBASE, and Google Scholar up to April 2020 for all relevant published papers assessing probiotic intakes and salivary cytokines and immunoglobulines. We included all randomized clinical trials that investigated the effect of oral probiotic supplementation or lozenges tablets on inflammatory biomarkers in adults. Studies that reported their effect sizes as mean ± SD or mean ± SEM were included. After excluding non-relevant papers, 8 studies remained in this review. Combining findings from 3 studies with 4 effect sizes, we found no significant reduction in salivary IgA concentrations after oral probiotic supplementation [weighted mean difference (WMD): -0.26; 95% CI: (-0.86, 0.35)]. A significant increase in salivary IL-1β concentrations reached after local probiotic supplementation (WMD: 28.21; 95% CI: 18.42, 38.01); however, no significant changes in salivary IL-6 concentrations after local probiotic supplementation was found (WMD: 0.36; 95% CI: -0.85, 1.56). We observed a significant increase in salivary IL-8 concentrations after local probiotic supplementation (WMD: 31.82; 95% CI: 27.56, 36.08). In case of salivary IL-10 concentrations after local probiotic administration, no significant reduction was seen (WMD: -0.02; 95% CI: -0.10, 0.06). we found that oral and local administrations of probiotics might influence some of salivary cytokines. However, additional clinical trials are required to examine these effects on further pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and immunoglobulines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67037-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7366729PMC
July 2020

Effects of soy milk consumption on gut microbiota, inflammatory markers, and disease severity in patients with ulcerative colitis: a study protocol for a randomized clinical trial.

Trials 2020 Jun 23;21(1):565. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14155-6117, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Several strategies are recommended to alleviate clinical symptoms of ulcerative colitis (UC). Soy milk may affect UC through its anti-inflammatory properties. However, no study has examined the effects of soy milk consumption on gut microbiota and inflammatory biomarkers in patients with UC. The current study will be done to examine the effects of soy milk consumption on UC symptoms, inflammation, and gut microbiota in patients with UC.

Methods: This study is a randomized clinical trial, in which thirty patients with mild to moderate severity of UC will be randomly allocated to receive either 250 mL/day soy milk plus routine treatments (n = 15) or only routine treatments (n = 15) for 4 weeks. Assessment of anthropometric measures and biochemical indicators including serum concentrations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) will be done at the study baseline and end of trial. In addition, the quantity of butyrate-producing bacteria including Clostridium cluster IV, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, and Roseburia spp.; prebiotic bacteria including Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacteria spp.; and mucus-degrading bacteria including Akkermansia muciniphila, Bacteroides fragilis, and Ruminococcus spp., as well as calprotectin and lactoferrin levels, will be explored in fecal samples. Also, the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio which is of significant relevance in human gut microbiota composition will be assessed.

Discussion: Altered gut microbiota has been reported as an important contributing factor to inflammation in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Soy milk contains several components such as phytoestrogens with potential anti-inflammatory properties. This product might affect gut microbiota through its protein and fiber content. Therefore, soy milk might beneficially affect systemic inflammation, gut microbiota, and then clinical symptoms in patients with UC.

Trial Registration: Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (www.irct.ir) IRCT20181205041859N1. Registered on 27 January 2019.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-020-04523-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7310397PMC
June 2020

Effects of Nigella sativa on glycemic control, lipid profiles, and biomarkers of inflammatory and oxidative stress: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials.

Phytother Res 2020 Oct 11;34(10):2586-2608. Epub 2020 May 11.

Metabolic Diseases Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.

The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of Nigella sativa (N. sativa) on glycemic control, lipid profiles, and biomarkers of inflammatory and oxidative stress. Two independent authors systematically examined online databases consisting of, EMBASE, Scopus, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science from inception until October 30, 2019. Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias tool was applied to assess the methodological quality of the studied trials. The heterogeneity among the included studies were assessed using the Cochrane's Q test and I-square (I ) statistic. Data were pooled using a random-effects model and weighted mean difference (WMD) was considered as the overall effect size. A total of 50 trials were included in this meta-analysis. We found a significant reduction in total cholesterol (WMD: -16.80; 95% CI: -21.04, -12.55), triglycerides (WMD: -15.73; 95% CI: -20.77, -10.69), LDL-cholesterol (WMD: -18.45; 95% CI: -22.44, -14.94) and VLDL-cholesterol (WMD: -3.72; 95% CI: -7.27, -0.18) following supplementation with N. sativa. In addition, there was significant reductive effect observed with N. sativa on fasting glucose (WMD: -15.18; 95% CI: -19.82, -10.55) and HbA1C levels (WMD: -0.45; 95% CI: -0.66, -0.23). Effects of N. sativa on CRP (WMD: -3.61; 95% CI: -9.23, 2.01), TNF-α (WMD: -1.18; 95% CI: -3.23, 0.86), TAC (WMD: 0.31; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.63), and MDA levels (WMD: -0.95; 95% CI: -2.18, 0.27) were insignificant. This meta-analysis demonstrated the beneficial effects of N. sativa on fasting glucose, HbA1c, triglycerides, total-, VLDL-, LDL-cholesterol levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6708DOI Listing
October 2020

Correction to: The effect of zinc supplementation on blood pressure: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials.

Eur J Nutr 2020 08;59(5):1829

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14155-6117, Tehran, Iran.

The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. The family name of "Israel Júnior Borges do Nascimento" was incorrect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-020-02217-0DOI Listing
August 2020

The effects of probiotic supplementation on mental health, biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in patients with psychiatric disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Complement Ther Med 2020 Mar 27;49:102361. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Department of Addiction Studies, School of Medical, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran; Clinical Research Development Unit-Matini/Kargarnejad Hospital, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran. Electronic address:

Background And Objective: In the current meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), the effects of probiotic supplementation on mental health, biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in patients with psychiatric disorders were assessed.

Methods: The following databases were search up to February 2019: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Google scholar and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials.

Results: Twelve studies were included in the current meta-analysis. The findings demonstrated that probiotic supplementation resulted in a significant reduction in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) [Weighted Mean Difference (WMD): -9.60; 95 % CI: -10.08, -9.11]. In addition, a significant reduction in C-reactive protein (CRP) (WMD: -1.59; 95 % CI: -2.22, -0.97), interleukin 10 (IL-10) (WMD: -0.29; 95 % CI: -0.48, -0.11) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels (WMD: -0.38; 95 % CI: -0.63, -0.13) was found after probiotics supplementation. No significant change was seen in Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) score (WMD: -11.17; 95 % CI: -24.99, 2.65), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (WMD: -0.12; 95 % CI: -0.20, -0.05), IL-1B (WMD: -0.34; 95 % CI: -1.43, 0.74), IL-6 (WMD: 0.03; 95 % CI: -0.32, 0.38), nitric oxide (NO) (WMD: -0.54; 95 % CI: -2.16, 1.08), glutathione (GSH) (WMD: 46.79; 95 % CI: -17.25, 110.83) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels (WMD: 15.21; 95 % CI: -59.96, 90.37) after probiotics supplementation.

Conclusion: Overall, the current meta-analysis demonstrated that taking probiotic by patients with psychiatric disorders had beneficial effects on HAMD, CRP, IL-10 and MDA levels, but it did not affect BDI score, other markers of inflammation and oxidative stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2020.102361DOI Listing
March 2020

Effects of grape seed extract on dyslipidaemia: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

Br J Nutr 2020 Mar 6:1-14. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Data on the effect of grape seed extract (GSE) on lipid profiles are inconclusive. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled clinical trials on the effect of GSE on serum lipid profiles. The online databases of PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Scopus, ProQuest, Science Direct and Embase were searched for relevant publications until March 2019, using MeSH and non-MeSH keywords. Study selection, data extraction and quality assessment were completed independently by two investigators. Meta-regression and subgroup analyses were performed to identify the source of heterogeneity. Assessment of study quality was conducted using the Jadad scale. Eleven randomised clinical trials involving 536 participants were included in the present meta-analysis. Combining effect sizes from earlier studies, we found that GSE supplementation significantly decreased serum levels of LDL-cholesterol (-0·17 mmol/l; 95 % CI -0·34, -0·01) and TAG (-0·11 mmol/l; 95 % CI -0·18, -0·05). Although no overall significant effect of GSE supplementation on circulating total- and HDL-cholesterol levels was observed, there were significant reductions in these lipids in studies with <10 weeks of intervention and those that had administered the dosages of <300 mg/d of GSE. In conclusion, GSE supplementation seems to favourably affect serum levels of LDL and TAG concentrations, but it did not affect total- and HDL-cholesterol concentrations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114520000902DOI Listing
March 2020

The effect of zinc supplementation on blood pressure: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials.

Eur J Nutr 2020 Aug 24;59(5):1815-1827. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14155-6117, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: Despite previous investigations on the effects of zinc supplementation on blood pressure, inconsistent findings are available in this regard. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials on the effects of zinc supplementation on blood pressure (BP) in adults.

Methods: Relevant studies published up to September 2019 were searched through PubMed/Medline, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, and Google Scholar using suitable keywords. All randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that examined the effect of oral zinc supplementation on systolic blood pressure (SBP) or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in adults were included.

Results: Overall, nine trials were included in our study. Zinc supplementation significantly reduced SBP compared to the control [weighted mean differences (WMD) - 1.49 mmHg; 95% CI - 2.85 to - 0.13; P = 0.03]. However, zinc supplementation had no significant effects on DBP (WMD - 0.88 mmHg; 95% CI - 2.04 to 0.29; P = 0.14). Nonlinear analysis failed to indicate a significant influence of supplementation dosage or duration on both SBP and DBP. Sensitivity analysis showed that no individual study had a significant impact on our final results. In addition, we found no evidence for the presence of small-study effects among studies for both SBP and DBP.

Conclusion: We found a significant reduction in SBP following zinc supplementation. However, zinc supplementation had no significant effect on DBP. In addition, no nonlinear association was found between supplementation dosage and duration with changes in both SBP and DBP. Further RCTs using different dosages of zinc in various durations are required to confirm our conclusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-020-02204-5DOI Listing
August 2020

A randomized controlled trial investigating the effect of a diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols on the intestinal microbiome and inflammation in patients with ulcerative colitis: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Trials 2020 Feb 18;21(1):201. Epub 2020 Feb 18.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, PO Box 81745, Tehran, Iran.

Background: No conclusive treatment is available for irritable bowel disease (IBD). Adherence to a diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) might alleviate clinical symptoms of IBD. However, no study has investigated the effect of low FODMAPs diet on the intestinal microbiota and inflammatory biomarkers in patients with IBD. The aim of current study is to examine the effect a low FODMAP diet on IBD symptoms, inflammation, and the intestinal microbiota in patients with ulcerative colitis.

Methods And Analysis: This study is a randomized clinical trial. Thirty patients with mild to moderate ulcerative colitis will be randomly allocated to receive a low FODMAP diet (n = 15) or to continue their usual diet as control (n = 15), for 4 weeks. The quantity of intestinal microbiota including Clostridium cluster IV, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Rosburia spp., Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacteria spp., Akkermansia muciniphila, Bacteroides fragilis, and Ruminococcus spp., and the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio and calprotectin and lactoferrin levels will be explored in fecal samples from patients. In addition, anthropometric measures and biochemical assessments including serum concentrations of highly sensitive-C reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IL-1β will be taken from patients at baseline and end of the study. The study has been registered in IRCT (IRCT20181126041763N1; registration date: 2019-01-18).

Discussion: Consumption of a low-FODMAP diet might decrease systemic and intestinal inflammation, change the bacterial population in the gut, and modulate clinical symptoms in patients with ulcerative colitis. Further studies investigating the effect of such a diet on other variables, including other bacterial species and inflammatory cytokines, are required to confirm future findings of this trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-020-4108-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7029518PMC
February 2020

Metformin Therapy Reduces Obesity Indices in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials.

Child Obes 2020 04 18;16(3):174-191. Epub 2020 Feb 18.

Students' Scientific Research Center, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran, Iran.

Few studies have summarized findings for the effect of metformin on obesity indices. Therefore, we aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on the effect of metformin on obesity indices among children and adolescents. Relevant articles published up to September 2018 were searched in SCOPUS, Medline, and Google Scholar using appropriate keywords. All clinical trials that examined the effect of metformin on obesity indices in children and adolescents were included. Overall, 38 studies, including 2199 participants (39.75% male and 60.25% female), were included. The pooled results indicated that metformin significantly reduced BMI [weighted mean difference (WMD): -1.07 kg/m; 95% confidence interval (CI): -1.43 to -0.72]. Same findings were found for waist circumference (WC) (WMD: -1.93 cm; 95% CI: -2.69 to -1.16). Metformin also reduced body weight in all participants (WMD: -2.51 kg; 95% CI: -3.14 to -1.89). Moreover, it reduced body fat mass in patients with overweight or obesity (WMD: -1.90%; 95% CI: -3.25 to -0.56) and chronic diseases (WMD: -1.41%; 95% CI: -2.23 to -0.58), but not among those with growth problems. Metformin therapy did not affect lean body mass (LBM) in patients with overweight or obesity and growth problems; however, it reduced LBM in patients with chronic diseases (WMD: -1.49 kg; 95% CI: -2.69 to -0.30). We found a significant reduction in BMI, body weight, WC, and fat mass following administration with metformin. However, the effect of metformin on LBM was not significant. Further studies are required to confirm these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/chi.2019.0040DOI Listing
April 2020

The Effect of Prostate Cancer Radiotherapy on Testosterone Level: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Anticancer Agents Med Chem 2020 ;20(6):636-642

Halal Research Center of IRI, FDA, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: In the current study, a systematic search and meta-analysis were performed to evaluate the effect of prostate cancer radiotherapy on testosterone levels of patients.

Methods: To illuminate the effect of radiotherapy on the testosterone level of prostate cancer patients, a systematic search was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA guideline in electronic databases of Scopus, Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, and clinical trials up to December 2018 using relevant keywords. Based on a certain set of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 12 eligible studies that had data on the testosterone level following prostate cancer radiotherapy were included in the meta-analysis.

Results: According to the various techniques of prostate cancer radiotherapy, the dose values scattered to the testicular tissues ranged from 0.31 to 10 Gy. Combining the findings from 12 studies, it was found that prostate cancer radiotherapy leads to a significant reduction in the testosterone level (Weighted Mean Difference [WMD]: -51.38 ng/dL, 95% CI: -75.86, -26.90, I2=0.0%, P<0.05). Furthermore, subgroup analysis by the patient number showed a significant reduction in the testosterone level at patient number < 50 (WMD: -80.32 ng/dL, 95% CI: -125.10, -35.55, I2= 0.0%) and 50 < patient number < 100 (WMD: -46.99 ng/dL, 95% CI: - 87.15, -6.82, I2= 0.0%). Subgroup analysis based on treatment technique type revealed a significant reduction in testosterone level after conventional radiotherapy (WMD: -56.67, 95% CI: -100.45,-12.88, I2= 34.3%) and IMRT/SBRT technique (WMD: -57.42, 95% CI: -99.39, -15.46, I2= 0.0%) in comparison with the proton therapy (WMD: 0.00, 95% CI: -80.24, 80.24).

Conclusion: The findings showed a significant decrease in the testosterone level of prostate cancer patients after radiotherapy compared with pre-treatment levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871520620666200128112558DOI Listing
January 2020

Influence of Statins on Circulating Inflammatory Cytokines in Patients With Abnormal Glucose Homeostasis: A Meta-analysis of Data From Randomized Controlled Trials.

Clin Ther 2020 02 17;42(2):e13-e31. Epub 2020 Jan 17.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Obesity and Eating Habits Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Molecular-Cellular Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Food Security Research Center, Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Science, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Electronic address:

Purpose: Chronic inflammation increases the risks for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and cancer. Recently, the antiinflammatory effects of statins, as cholesterol-lowering medications, have been considered. This study systematically reviewed and summarized earlier findings from randomized clinical trials about the effects of statins on serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin (IL)-6 in patients with abnormal glucose homeostasis.

Methods: Relevant articles published through October 2019 were searched using suitable key words on the PubMed/MEDLINE, SCOPUS, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases. RCTs were included if they compared the effects of statins on serum concentrations of CRP and IL-6 in adults with abnormal glucose homeostasis. The effect sizes were represented as weighted mean differences (WMDs) and 95% CI s using a random-effects model. Subgroup analysis was performed to find possible sources of heterogeneity.

Findings: Overall, 17 publications with 21 effect sizes and which enrolled 3766 subjects (1895 participants in intervention and 1871 in control groups) were included. Combining 13 effect sizes from 10 studies, a significant reduction in serum CRP concentration following the administration of atorvastatin was found (WMD, -0.35; 95% CI, -0.54 to -0.17; I = 90.6%). Based on 5 effect sizes from 4 studies, we found a statistically significant reduction in serum IL-6 concentration after atorvastatin therapy (WMD, -0.44; 95% CI, -0.65 to -0.22; I = 93.9%). Pooling 6 effect sizes from 5 studies revealed a significantly reduced serum concentration of CRP after simvastatin therapy (WMD, -0.66; 95% CI, -0.79 to -0.54; I = 97.6%).

Implications: The administration of atorvastatin or simvastatin in patients with abnormal glucose hemostasis was associated with a reduced serum CRP concentration. Atorvastatin therapy might also help to decrease serum IL-6 concentration in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinthera.2019.12.009DOI Listing
February 2020

The association of glycemic index and glycemic load with elevated blood pressure in Iranian women.

J Cardiovasc Thorac Res 2019 24;11(4):272-279. Epub 2019 Oct 24.

Diabetes Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Dietary intake is a risk factor related to elevated blood pressure (EBP). Few studies have investigated an association of dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) with the EBP. The aim of the current study was to examine the association of dietary GI and GL with the EBP among a group of healthy women. This population-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 306 healthy women. Dietary GI and GL were measured using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Blood pressure (BP) was measured twice by a mercury sphygmomanometer from the right arm. Anthropometric measurements were also assessed according to the standard protocols. Before controlling for potential confounders, no significant association was seen between dietary GI/GL and SBP/DBP. Also after controlling for potential confounders, the associations did not change between dietary GI and SBP (odds ratio [OR]: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.42-2.17, = 0.87), between GI and DBP (OR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.35-1.45, = 0.37), as well as between GL and SBP (OR: 1.04; 95% CI: 0.43-2.49, = 1.00) and between GL and DBP (OR: 1.20; 95% CI: 0.56-2.00, = 0.61). In a stratified analysis by obesity and overweight, differences between tertiles of GI were not significant (OR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.42-1.31, = 0.31), even after adjustment for the potential confounders (OR: 1.54; 95% CI: 0.70-3.40, = 0.26). This study did not show a significant association between dietary GI/GL and the risk of high SBP/DBP. In addition, no significant association was found between dietary GI/GL and odds of overweight or obesity in adult women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/jcvtr.2019.45DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6891046PMC
October 2019

The effect of saffron supplementation on blood glucose and lipid profile: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Complement Ther Med 2019 Dec 25;47:102158. Epub 2019 Jul 25.

Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Despite several studies about the effects of saffron supplementation on serum concentrations of lipid and glucose profiles, no systematic study had summarized the findings. Therefore, we conduct current study to systematically summarize findings from studies about the effect of saffron supplementation on serum levels of glucose and lipid profiles and to do a meta-analysis, if possible.

Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted for clinical trials published in PubMed, SCOPUS, EMBASE, Cochrane's Library and ISI Web of Science from the beginning to 22 February 2019. All randomized clinical trials on the effect of saffron supplementation on serum concentrations of lipid and glucose profiles were included.

Results: In overall, six studies were included in the current study. Pooled analysis of six studies for the effect of saffron on serum TG, TC and FBG concentrations and of five studies for LDL and HDL, showed a significant reduction in TG (WMD: -8.93 mg/dl; 95% CI: -16.49 to -1.37, P = 0.02) and TC levels (WMD: -5.72 mg/dl; 95% CI: -11.10 to -0.34, P = 0.03), a significant increase in HDL levels (WMD: 2.7 mg/dl; 95% CI: 0.22 to 5.18, P = 0.03), and no significant effect on LDL (WMD: -2.30 mg/dl; 95% CI: -11.73 to 7.13, P = 0.63) and FBG levels (WMD: -5.30 mg/dl; 95% CI: -14.20 to 3.60, P = 0.51).

Conclusion: We found a significant reduction in serum concentrations of TC and TG and a significant increase in serum levels of HDL following supplementation with saffron. Saffron supplementation had no significant influence on serum FPG and LDL concentrations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2019.07.017DOI Listing
December 2019

Metaanalysis on obesity and risk of inflammatory bowel disease: Reanalysis is needed.

Obes Rev 2020 01 6;21(1):e12965. Epub 2019 Nov 6.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.12965DOI Listing
January 2020

Effects of resistant starch on glycemic control, serum lipoproteins and systemic inflammation in patients with metabolic syndrome and related disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2020 29;60(18):3172-3184. Epub 2019 Oct 29.

Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of resistant starch (RS) on glycemic status, serum lipoproteins and inflammatory markers in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and related disorders. Two independent authors systematically searched online database including EMBASE, Scopus, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science from inception until 30 April 2019. Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias tool was applied to assess the methodological quality of included trials. The heterogeneity among the included studies was assessed using Cochrane's Q test and I-square (I) statistic. Data were pooled using a random-effects model and weighted mean difference (WMD) was considered as the overall effect size. Nineteen trials were included in this meta-analysis. Administration of RS resulted in significant reduction in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (14 studies) (WMD: -4.28; 95% CI: -7.01, -1.55), insulin (12 studies) (WMD: -1.95; 95% CI: -3.22, -0.68), and HbA1C (8 studies) (WMD: -0.60; 95% CI: -0.95, -0.24). When pooling data from 13 studies, a significant reduction in total cholesterol levels (WMD: -8.19; 95% CI: -15.38, -1.00) and LDL-cholesterol (WMD: -8.57; 95% CI: -13.48, -3.66) were found as well. Finally, RS administration was associated with a significant decrease in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) (WMD: -2.02; 95% CI: -3.14, -0.90). This meta-analysis showed beneficial effects of RS on improving FPG, insulin, HbA1c, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and TNF-α levels in patients with MetS and related disorders, but it did not affect HOMA-IR, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, CRP and IL-6 levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2019.1680950DOI Listing
November 2020

Anti-hypertensive effects of cinnamon supplementation in adults: A systematic review and dose-response Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2020 16;60(18):3144-3154. Epub 2019 Oct 16.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Despite controversies, no earlier study has systematically summarized findings from earlier studies on the effect of cinnamon supplementation on blood pressure. Therefore, current systematic review and meta-analysis was done on the effect of cinnamon supplementation on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in adults. Relevant studies published up to July 2019 were searched through PubMed/Medline, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, Embase and Google Scholar. All randomized clinical trials investigating the impact of oral cinnamon supplementation on any of the blood pressure parameters including SBP or/and DBP were included. Out of 469 citations, 9 trials that enrolled 641 subjects were included. Cinnamon supplementation resulted in significant reduction in SBP (Weighted Mean Differences (WMD): -6.23 mmHg, 95% CI: -10.69 to -1.77,  = 0.006) and DBP (WMD: -3.93 mmHg, 95% CI: -6.33 to -1.52,  = 0.001). Greater effects on SBP were detected in trials using ≤2 g cinnamon, lasted ≥12 weeks and participants aged <50 years' old. DBP was also reduced by using lower doses. However, no significant non-linear associations were found between cinnamon supplementation dosage and study duration with both SBP (For dosage: P = 0.35, for duration: P = 0.21) and DBP (For dosage: P = 0.27, for duration: P = 0.41). We found a significant reduction in both SBP and DBP following cinnamon supplementation in adults. It could be proposed as a hypotensive supplement in hypertension management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2019.1678012DOI Listing
November 2020

The effects of L-carnitine supplementation on glycemic control: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

EXCLI J 2019 19;18:631-643. Epub 2019 Aug 19.

Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

The findings of trials investigating the effect of L-carnitine administration on glycemic control are controversial. This meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was performed to explore the effects of L-carnitine intake on glycemic control. Two authors independently searched electronic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, PubMed and Google scholar from 1990 until February 2019, in order to find relevant RCTs. 37 studies with 44 effect sizes met the inclusion criteria and were eligible for the meta-analysis. L-carnitine supplementation resulted in a significant reduction in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (WMD: -4.57; 95 % CI: -6.88, -2.25), insulin (WMD: -1.21; 95 % CI: -1.85, -0.57), homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (WMD: -0.67; 95 % CI: -0.90, -0.44) and HbA1C concentrations (WMD: -0.30; 95 % CI: -0.47, -0.13). L-Carnitine supplementation significantly reduced FPG, insulin, HOMA-IR, and HbA1c levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17179/excli2019-1447DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6785772PMC
August 2019

The Effects of L-Carnitine Supplementation on Serum Lipids: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Curr Pharm Des 2019 ;25(30):3266-3281

Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

Background: The findings of trials investigating the effects of L-carnitine administration on serum lipids are inconsistent. This meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was performed to summarize the effects of L-carnitine intake on serum lipids in patients and healthy individuals.

Methods: Two authors independently searched electronic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, PubMed and Google Scholar from 1990 until August 1, 2019, in order to find relevant RCTs. The quality of selected RCTs was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias tool. Cochrane's Q test and I-square (I2) statistic were used to determine the heterogeneity across included trials. Weight mean difference (SMD) and 95% CI between the two intervention groups were used to determine pooled effect sizes. Subgroup analyses were performed to evaluate the source of heterogeneity based on suspected variables such as, participant's health conditions, age, dosage of L-carnitine, duration of study, sample size, and study location between primary RCTs.

Results: Out of 3460 potential papers selected based on keywords search, 67 studies met the inclusion criteria and were eligible for the meta-analysis. The pooled results indicated that L-carnitine administration led to a significant decrease in triglycerides (WMD: -10.35; 95% CI: -16.43, -4.27), total cholesterol (WMD: -9.47; 95% CI: - 13.23, -5.70) and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations (WMD: -6.25; 95% CI: -9.30, -3.21), and a significant increase in HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels (WMD: 1.39; 95% CI: 0.21, 2.57). L-carnitine supplementation did not influence VLDL-cholesterol concentrations. When we stratified studies for the predefined factors such as dosage, and age, no significant effects of the intervention on triglycerides, LDL-C, and HDL-C levels were found.

Conclusion: This meta-analysis demonstrated that L-carnitine administration significantly reduced triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels, and significantly increased HDL-cholesterol levels in the pooled analyses, but did not affect VLDL-cholesterol levels; however, these findings were not confirmed in our subgroup analyses by participant's health conditions, age, dosage of L-carnitine, duration of study, sample size, and study location.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1381612825666190830154336DOI Listing
June 2020

The effects of curcumin supplementation on endothelial function: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Phytother Res 2019 Nov 18;33(11):2989-2995. Epub 2019 Aug 18.

Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

Impaired endothelial function is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Curcumin supplementation might be an appropriate approach to decrease the complications of CVD. Randomized controlled trials assessing the effects of curcumin supplementation on endothelial function were included. Two independent authors systematically searched online database including EMBASE, Scopus, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science with no time restriction. Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias tool was applied to assess the methodological quality of included trials. Between-study heterogeneities were estimated using the Cochran's Q test and I-square (I ) statistic. Data were pooled using a random-effects model, and weighted mean differences (WMDs) were considered as the overall effect sizes. Ten studies with 11 effect sizes were included. We found a significant increase in flow-mediated dilation (FMD) following curcumin supplementation (WMD: 1.49; 95% CI [0.16, 2.82]). There was no effect of curcumin supplement on pulse wave velocity (PWV; WMD: -41.59; 95% CI [-86.59, 3.42]), augmentation index (Aix; WMD: 0.71; 95% CI [-1.37, 2.79]), endothelin-1 (ET-1; WMD: -0.30; 95% CI [-0.96, 0.37]), and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1; WMD: -10.11; 95% CI [-33.67, 13.46]). This meta-analysis demonstrated the beneficial effects of curcumin supplementation on improving FMD, though it did not influence PWV, Aix, Et-1, and sICAM-1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6477DOI Listing
November 2019

The effects of catechin on endothelial function: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2020 7;60(14):2369-2378. Epub 2019 Aug 7.

Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

The findings of trials investigating the effect of catechin on endothelial function are controversial. This meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was performed to summarize the existing evidence and determine the effects of catechin supplementation on endothelial function. Two authors independently searched electronic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science from inception until March 2019, in order to find relevant RCTs. The quality of selected RCTs was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias tool. Cochrane's Q test and -square () statistic were used to determine the heterogeneity of included trials. Data were pooled using a random-effects model and weighted mean difference (WMD) was considered as the overall effect size. A total of 16 studies with 22 effect sizes were included in this meta-analysis. A significant increase in flow mediated dilation (FMD) in 10 studies was found after catechin supplementation including 13 effect sizes (WMD: 1.53; 95% CI: 0.93, 2.14). The pooled analysis of 7 effect sizes from 4 studies showed a significant reduction in pulse wave velocity (PWV) after catechin supplementation (WMD: -0.32; 95% CI: -0.44, -0.20) and combining 5 effect sizes from 3 studies in augmentation index (AI) (WMD: -3.57; 95% CI: -6.40, -0.74). Catechin supplementation significantly increased FMD, and significantly reduced PWV and AI, but did not affect other markers of endothelial function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2019.1639037DOI Listing
September 2020