Publications by authors named "Alireza Mesdaghinia"

75 Publications

A systematic review and meta-analysis of human biomonitoring studies on exposure to environmental pollutants in Iran.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Apr 2;212:111986. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health and Safety, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Population exposure to environmental contaminants can be precisely observed through human biomonitoring studies. The present study aimed to systematically review all the biomonitoring studies conducted in Iran on some selected carcinogen environmental pollutants. In this systematic review study, 11 carcinogen agents were selected including arsenic, cadmium, chromium, nickel, lindane, benzene, trichloroethylene (TCE), pentachlorophenol (PCP), radon-222, radium-224, - 226, - 228, and tobacco smoke. The Web of Science, PubMed, and Scopus databases were searched for peer-reviewed articles published in English. After several screening steps, data were extracted from the studies. Meta-analyses (a random-effect model using the DerSimonian-Laired method) were performed only for the biomarkers with more than three eligible articles, including cadmium in blood and breast milk, and arsenic in breast milk. Methodological quality of the studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale adapted for cross-sectional studies. Of the 610 articles found in the database search, 30 studies were eligible for qualitative review, and 13 were included in the meta-analysis (cadmium in blood (n = 3), cadmium in breast milk (n = 6), and arsenic in breast milk (n = 4)). The overall pooled average concentrations (95% CI) of cadmium in blood, cadmium in breast milk, and arsenic in breast milk were 0.11 (95% CI: 0.08, 0.14), 5.38 (95% CI: 3.60, 6.96), and 1.42 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.81) µg/L, respectively. These values were compared with the biomarker concentrations in other countries and health-based guideline values. This study showed that there is a need for comprehensive action plans to reduce the exposure of general population to these environmental contaminants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.111986DOI Listing
April 2021

A comprehensive systematic review of photocatalytic degradation of pesticides using nano TiO.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jan 23. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

This study has systematically reviewed all of the research articles about the photocatalytic degradation of pesticides using titanium dioxide (TiO) nanoparticles (NPs) and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Online databases were searched for peer-reviewed research articles and conference proceedings published during 2009-2019, and ultimately 112 eligible articles were included in the review. Fifty-three active ingredients of pesticides and one mixture had been investigated, most of them were organophosphorus (22%), followed by triazine derivatives (11%), chloropyridines (9%), and organochlorines (9%). Sixteen types of TiO with an average photodegradation efficiency of 71% were determined. Based on the type of pesticide and experimental conditions such as irradiation time, the complete photodegradation had been observed. The removal of each group of pesticides has been sufficiently discussed in the article. Effect of experimental conditions on photocatalytic activity has been investigated using linear and polynomial regressions. The strategies to reduce the required energy for this process, doping TiO with metal and non-metal agents, innovative reactor designs, etc., were also discussed. In conclusion, TiO NPs have been successful for degradation of pesticides. Future direction for research incorporates developing and application of heterogeneous doped and immobilized titania having optimized characteristics such as surface area, reactive centers, recombination rate, and phase, and capable to photo-degrade low levels of pesticides residues under solar light in an efficient full-scale size.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12576-8DOI Listing
January 2021

Iranian population exposures to heavy metals, PAHs, and pesticides and their intake routes: a study protocol of a national population health survey.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jan 4. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Non-Communicable Diseases Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Population Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the world and the third leading cause of death in Iran. It has been proven that numerous cancer cases are caused by exposure to environmental pollutants. There is a public health concern regarding an increase in exposure to carcinogens across Iran through different sources (air, food, and water) and a lack of research to address this issue. This study aims to gather data on exposure to heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and pesticides and their intake routes during the implementation of a national population health survey. This is a cross-sectional study of environmental pollutants in Iran, with a stratified multi-stage random sampling method, which led to 660 nationally representative samples in 132 clusters in three sequential parts. The first will be questionnaires to obtain demographics, assets, food records, air quality, and food frequency. The second will be physical measurements, including anthropometric and body composition. The third will be lab assessments that measure 26 types of environmental pollutants (7 heavy metals, 16 PAHs, and 3 pesticides) in urine, inhaled air, and consumed food and water of the population under study using ICP-MS and GS-MS devices. The results of this study will inform policymakers and the general population regarding the level of threat and will provide evidence for the development of interventional and observatory plans on the reduction of exposures to these pollutants. It could also be used to develop local standards to control contaminants through the three exposure routes. This study protocol will obtain data needed for policymakers to set surveillance systems for these pollutants at the national and provincial level to address the public concerns regarding the contamination of food, air, and water.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-12004-3DOI Listing
January 2021

Isolation and characterization of a multidrug-resistant toxinotype V from municipal wastewater treatment plant.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2020 Dec 26;18(2):1281-1288. Epub 2020 Sep 26.

Division of Microbiology, Department of Pathobiology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, PO Box: 14155-6446, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is regarded as a potential source for transmission of from urban areas into the surface water, through feces of human and animals. The aim of this study was to screen and characterize the bacteria in inlet and outlet wastewater of different WWTPs in Tehran, Iran.

Methods: Totally, 72 samples were collected from three different WWTPs (inlet site and outlet sites) during a year. was isolated and characterized in terms of toxins, toxinotype, resistance profile and genes, and colonization factors using PCR.

Results: One toxinotype V was isolated from the outlet samples. The isolate was susceptible to vancomycin but resistant to metronidazole, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, and moxifloxacin using MIC Test Strips. The isolated was toxigenic (, , , positive and CPE positive) and had genotype. No mutations were found in and . The sequence type was 078 - 01. The was positive for , , but negative for , , and genes. Mutations were not observed in and genes.

Conclusions: This study provided evidence of presence of a multidrug-resistant toxinotype V in one of the municipal WWTP. The transmission of such isolate to the environment and reuse of treated wastewater by human pose a threat to human health and dissemination of antibiotic resistant bacteria which are untreatable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-020-00546-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7721768PMC
December 2020

Tehran environmental and neurodevelopmental disorders (TEND) cohort study: Phase I, feasibility assessment.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2020 Dec 9;18(2):733-742. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Department of Research Methodology and Data Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: To advance knowledge about childhood neurodevelopmental disorders and study their environmental determinants, we conducted a study in Tehran, Iran to assess the feasibility of prospective birth cohort study.

Methods: We evaluated participation of pregnant women, feasibility of sampling biological material, and health care services availability in Tehran in four steps: (1) first trimester of pregnancy; (2) third trimester of pregnancy; (3) at delivery; and (4) two to three months after delivery. We collected related data through questionnaires, also various biological samples were obtained from mothers (blood, urine, milk and nails-hands and feet) and newborns (umbilical cord blood, meconium, and urine samples) from February 2016 to October 2017.

Results: overall 838 eligible pregnant women were approached. The participation rate was 206(25%) in our study and about 185(90%) of subjects were recruited in hospitals. Out of 206 participants in the first trimester, blood, urine, hand nail, and foot nail samples were collected from 206(100%),193(93%), 205(99%), and 205(99%), respectively. These values dropped to 65(54%), 83(69%), 84(70%), and 84(70%) for the remaining participants 120(58%) in the third trimester, respectively. Also, we gathered milk samples from 125(60%) of mothers at two to three months after delivery.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that hospitals were better places for recruitment of subjects in a birth cohort in Tehran. We further concluded that birth cohort study recruitment can be improved by choosing appropriate gestational ages. Obtaining the newborn's urine, meconium, and umbilical cord blood were challenging procedures and require good collaboration between hospital staff and researchers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-020-00499-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7721759PMC
December 2020

Subnational exposure to secondhand smoke in Iran from 1990 to 2013: a systematic review.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jan 2;28(3):2608-2625. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Every year, almost eight million people die from tobacco-related diseases, among which around 1.2 million die from secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. Generally, it is estimated that SHS constituents generated in the interval between puffs are approximately 3 times more toxic than those produced at the moment of puffing. There is no risk-free level of SHS exposure, and even brief exposure can be harmful to health. The aim of this study was to assess SHS exposure and its trend in the different provinces of Iran from 1990 to 2013. To collect available data on SHS exposure, a systematic review was performed. We searched international and national databases using a combination of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and relevant text words in the titles, abstracts, and/or keywords. Also, the data in national surveys were gathered. The frequency of exposure in different provinces as well as age, sex, and rural/urban areas were extracted. Afterwards, modeling was done to estimate SHS exposure from the smoking data. According to our findings, SHS exposure was more prevalent among young people. Moreover, this exposure was greater in rural areas as compared to urban areas. A national study on 13-15-year-old individuals showed the highest exposure occurred outdoors. In addition, a declining trend was observed on SHS exposure over time. It seems that attention to the importance of SHS exposure in researches in Iran dates back to 2001, and gradually, especially in recent years, further studies have been conducted on SHS exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-11199-9DOI Listing
January 2021

High prevalence of Clostridiodes diffiicle PCR ribotypes 001 and 126 in Iran.

Sci Rep 2020 03 13;10(1):4658. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Division of Microbiology, Department of Pathobiology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Clostridium difficile is a leading causative agent of hospital-acquired and community-acquired diarrhea in human. This study aims to characterize the predominant C. difficile strains, RT001 and 126, circulating in Iranian hospitals in relation to resistant phenotypes, the antibiotic resistance genes, and their genetic relatedness. A total number of 735 faecal specimens were collected from patients suspected of CDI in Tehran hospitals. Typing and subtyping of the strains were performed using CE-PCR ribotyping and MLVA, respectively, followed by PCR assays for ARGs and indicators of Tns. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of five antibiotics were determined by MIC Test Strips. Among 65 strains recovered from CDI patients, RT001 (32.3%) and RT126 (9.2%) were found as the most frequent ribotypes, and 64 MLVA types were identified. Using MLVA, RT001 and RT126 were subtyped into 6 and 4 groups, respectively. The vanA, nim, tetM, gyrA, gyrB genes were detected in 24.6%, 0%, 89.2%, 95.3%, and 92.3% of the strains, respectively. The indicators of Tns including vanHAX, tndX, and int were found in 0%, 3% and 29.2% of the strains, respectively. The most common amino acid (AA) alterations of GyrA and GyrB were related to substitutions of Thr82 → Val and Ser366 → Val, respectively. Resistance rate to metronidazole, vancomycin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, and moxifloxacin was 81.5%, 30.7%, 85%, 79%, and 74%, respectively. This study, for the first time revealed the subtypes of circulating RT001 and RT126 in Iran. It is of importance that the majority of the strains belonging to RT001 were multidrug resistant (MDR). This study also pointed to the intra-hospital dissemination of the strains belonging to RT001 and RT126 for short and long periods, respectively, using MLVA. The most important resistance phenotypes observed in this study was vancomycin-resistant phenotypes. Resistance to metronidazole was also high and highlights the need to determine its resistance mechanisms in the future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-61604-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7070088PMC
March 2020

Adsorptive removal of endocrine disrupting compounds from aqueous solutions using magnetic multi-wall carbon nanotubes modified with chitosan biopolymer based on response surface methodology: Functionalization, kinetics, and isotherms studies.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Jul 9;155:1019-1029. Epub 2019 Nov 9.

Department of chemistry, Payame Noor University, Tehran. Iran.

Recently, the presence of endocrine disrupting compounds in the environment has emerged as a global and ubiquitous problem. In this study, a novel synthesis of magnetically carbon nanotube modified with biological polymeric was successfully prepared. The effect of different parameters on the Bisphenol A (BPA) adsorption was studied. A prediction model for BPA adsorption was extended based on the Central Composite Design. Also, the prepared biopolymeric nanotubes were characterized by FT-IR, XRD, TEM, FE-SEM. The surface morphology of nanocomposite was observed, increased carbon nano tube size, and the levels after surface deposition were completely covered by chitosan proteins. The results of our experiments showed that optimum adsorption conditions was achieved at t = 76 min, BPA concentration 6.5 mg/L, adsorbent dosage 1 g/L and pH = 6.2.The data obtained in this study followed the Langmuir isotherm model and the pseudo-second order model. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of nanocomposite for BPA was 46.2 mg/g at 20 °C. This study showed that the adsorption of BPA onto nanocomposite was spontaneous and thermodynamically desirable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.11.065DOI Listing
July 2020

Correction to: Chemical composition of PM10 and its effect on in vitro hemolysis.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2019 Jun 22;17(1):503-504. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

1Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1007/s40201-018-00327-w.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-019-00360-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6582202PMC
June 2019

Developing environmental health indicators [EHIs] for Iran based on the causal effect model.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2019 Jun 27;17(1):273-279. Epub 2019 May 27.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Environmental health monitoring and its effects on health are very important in health systems. Relationship between environment and health can be done by simplifying data in understandable indicators for people and policy-makers. The present study presents the general framework for formulating environmental health quality index for Iran.

Methods: This study was implemented through expert panel at two levels: indicator domain determination and domain specific variables selection. Domain specific variables were selected based on the Driving force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action (DPSEEA) framework from the list of national and international variables.

Results: Seven environmental health issues [air quality, drinking water, sewage disposal, food, radiation management and housing and human settlements] were determined, and three variables were selected for air quality, 8 variables for water quality, 5 variables for sanitation, 1 variable for food quality, 3 variables for housing and human settlements, 4 variables for solid waste management and 3 variables for radiation management.

Conclusions: Environmental health indicators determination based on the causal effect model leads to a better understanding of the relationship between the environment and health by simplifying data in an understandable format for public and improves prioritization of policy-making in the environmental health. In this study, environmental health indicators for Iran were proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-019-00346-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6582035PMC
June 2019

Optimizing the performance of conventional water treatment system using quantitative microbial risk assessment, Tehran, Iran.

Water Res 2019 Oct 1;162:394-408. Epub 2019 Jul 1.

Water and Wastewater Company, Department of Water and Wastewater Quality Control Laboratory, Tehran, Iran.

The performance of conventional drinking water treatment plants (WTPs) can be improved using quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). A QMRA study on Cryptosporidium using actual pathogen density was conducted to examine the performance of Jalaliyeh WTP in Tehran, Iran. The infection risk and the burden of disease attributed to the parasite presence in finished water were estimated incorporating physical and chemical log reduction values (LRVs), using stochastic modeling and disinfection profiling. The risk and burden of disease were compared with health-based targets, i.e. one case of infection per 10,000 people or 10 DALYs per person per year. The parasite's LRVs were 2.31 and 0.034 log provided by physico-chemical treatment and disinfection processes, respectively. The mean of estimated risk (111 cases per 10 people per year) and the burden of disease (11.7 DALYs per 10 people per year) both exceeded the targets. To control the excess risk, three QMRA-based disinfection scenarios were examined including: (1) employing chlorine dioxide (ClO) instead of chlorine (2) ozonation with a concentration of 0.75 mg/L (Ct = 22.5 min mg/L) and (3) UV irradiation with a dose of 10 mJ/cm. The LRV of parasite may be increased to 3.0, 5.1 and 4.9 log by employing ClO, ozonation and UV irradiation, respectively. The use of ozone or UV as alternative disinfectants, could enhance the disinfection efficacy and provide sufficient additional treatment against the excess risk of parasite. QMRA could make it easier applying appropriate improvement to conventional WTPs in order to increase the system performance in terms of health-based measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2019.06.076DOI Listing
October 2019

Chemical composition of PM and its effect on in vitro hemolysis of human red blood cells (RBCs): a comparison study during dust storm and inversion.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2019 Jun 2;17(1):493-502. Epub 2019 Feb 2.

1School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Enqelab Square, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: This study aimed to investigate chemical composition of PM (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm) during dust storm and inversion in Tehran and hemolysis effects.

Methods: PM was sampled in Tehran, Iran, during dust storm and inversion conditions. Water soluble ions (F¯, Cl¯, NO¯, NO¯, SO¯, Na, K, NH, Ca, Mg) and elements (Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Sn, Sr, V, Zn, Pt, Rh, Pd, As and Si) were analyzed by ion chromatograph (IC) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES), respectively. Hemolysis was examined as in vitro at PM concentrations of 50-300 μg/ml.

Results: Daily average of PM concentrations in dusty and inversion days were 348.40 and 220.54 μg/m, respectively. Most prevalence ionic components were NO¯, Cl¯, SO¯ and Ca during dust storm and SO¯, NO¯, Cl¯ and NH during inversion. Si, Fe and Al had the maximum values in both conditions. Particles associated with both conditions induced hemolytic responses. PM from dusty day showed a higher hemolysis percent (10.24 ± 4.67%) than inversion (9.08 ± 5.47%), but this difference was not significant ( = 0.32). Hemolytic effects were significantly intensified by increased PM concentrations ( < 0.001) in a dose-response manner.

Conclusions: As the results, chemical composition of sampled particles from inversion days and dust storm was different from each other. Hemolytic effects of particles during dust storm were more than inversion days. However, this difference was not statistically significant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-018-00327-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6582044PMC
June 2019

Dr. Hossein Malekafzali: A Pioneer in Iran's Health Evolution and Development.

Arch Iran Med 2019 05 1;22(5):272-276. Epub 2019 May 1.

Center for Disease Control, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran.

Dr Malekafzali, an elite biostatistics professor at Tehran University of Medical Sciences, in his more than 50 years of glorious service, has played a crucial role in creation of fundamental evolution in public health, reproductive health and development of applied research in Iran. He has left lasting activities in administrative positions such as health and research deputies, health minister consultant, director of health faculty and director of health research institutes. He published several books and articles on statistics, epidemiology and public health. This article is a review of his worthy and interesting activities in the country's health, research and education.
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May 2019

Tetracycline and ciprofloxacin multiresidues in beef and chicken meat samples using indirect competitive ELISA.

J Immunoassay Immunochem 2019 4;40(3):328-342. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

a Division of Microbiology, Department of Pathobiology, School of Public Health , Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , Iran.

In livestock and poultry, broad-spectrum antibiotics such as tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones are widely used; thus, controlling food productions made from these animals is a necessary task. Meat may contain residues of antibiotics, even in low concentrations, which can cause a selection pressure for antibiotic resistance. Therefore, measurement of amounts of antibiotics in meat is of major importance. A total of 41 beef and 41 chicken meat samples were collected for 1 year. Tetracycline and ciprofloxacin were extracted from samples and tested by an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 100% of the beef and more than 95% of the chicken meat samples were positive for ciprofloxacin. Only one of the chicken meat samples had concentrations of ciprofloxacin higher than maximum residue limit (MRL). For ciprofloxacin, none of the beef meat samples exceeded the MRL. For tetracycline, 75% of the beef and 58% of the chicken meat samples were positive. All of the samples had concentrations of tetracycline lower than MRL. It was revealed that the chicken meat samples had higher levels of both antibiotics than those of beef samples. The amounts of tested antibiotics were not high in the meat samples, consequently using of beef and chicken meat by consumers in Iran is not resulted in entrance of high amounts of the antibiotics into human body.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15321819.2019.1597735DOI Listing
June 2019

An in vitro method to evaluate hemolysis of human red blood cells (RBCs) treated by airborne particulate matter (PM).

MethodsX 2019 10;6:156-161. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Environmental Health Engineering Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Air pollutants are capable to enter bloodstream through the nose, mouth, skin and the digestive tract. Hemolysis is the premature destruction of red blood cells (RBCs) membranes. This can affect metabolism of RBCs and reduce cell life. Each of these adverse effects could lead to anemia, jaundice and other pathological conditions. Hemolysis can induce by the mineral components adsorbed on the particles. The aim of this study was to evaluate hemolysis of RBCs treated by airborne PM (PM with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm) in vitro. Study had two main stages including sampling and preparation of PM suspension, and hemolysis test. Particle samples were collected by means of a high-volume sampler on fiberglass filters. The PM was extracted through dry ultrasonic method. Blood sample was incubated by PM at concentrations 50-300 μg/mL for 3 h. Hemolysis percent was assessed through measurement of Hemoglobin concentration in test samples and total blood hemoglobin (TBH) sample by the cyanmethemoglobin method. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey post-hoc test were applied to compare mean values of hemolysis percent between different PM concentrations. Method used in current study is suggested for investigation of toxic effects of airborne particle matter (PM, PM and PM) on human RBCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mex.2019.01.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6355395PMC
January 2019

Comparative investigation of argon and argon/oxygen plasma performance for Perchloroethylene (PCE) removal from aqueous solution: optimization and kinetic study.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2018 Dec 2;16(2):277-287. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

1Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: The aim of this study is evaluation of the perchloroethylene degradation from aqueous solutions by non-thermal plasma produced in dielectric barrier discharge reactor in two different scenarios: first plasma generated with 225 cc/min mixture of oxygen and argon flow (12% gas ratio of O/Ar), and in the second scenario plasma generated with 225 cc/min of pure argon gas.

Methods: Design studies were performed using response surface methodology and central composite design. All experiments with the selected levels of independent parameters including the initial concentration of perchloroethylene (5-100 mg/L), voltage (20-5 kv) and contact time (15-180 s) was implemented, and 29 tests were proposed by using response surface methodology and central composite design was performed in two experimental scenarios.

Results: Results showed that the Pseudo first-order kinetics coefficient of perchloroethylene degradation in the mixture of oxygen and argon and pure argon scenario under the optimum conditions were 0.024 and 0.016 S respectively. Results conveyed that in order to achieve the highest removal efficiency (100%), the values of contact time, perchloroethylene concentration and voltage variables were predicted 169.55 s, 74.3 mg/l, 18.86 kv respectively in mixture of oxygen and argon scenario and also were predicted 203 s, 85.22 mg/l, 20.39 kv respectively in pure argon scenario.

Conclusions: In the recent study dielectric barrier discharge was an efficient method for perchloroethylene removal with both oxygen an argon mixture and pure argon as input gas. Both input voltage and reaction time has positive effect on perchloroethylene removal; but initial perchloroethylene concentration has negative effect on perchloroethylene removal. Comparison of two plasma scenarios with different input gas shown that plasma generated by mixture of oxygen and argon gas was more powerful and had higher removal efficiency and degradation kinetics than the plasma generated by pure argon gas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-018-0316-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6277337PMC
December 2018

Endotoxin removal from aqueous solutions with dimethylamine-functionalized graphene oxide: Modeling study and optimization of adsorption parameters.

J Hazard Mater 2019 04 12;368:163-177. Epub 2019 Jan 12.

Biomaterials Group, The Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences (TIPS), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1417614411, Iran; Department of Pharmaceutical Biomaterials and Medicinal Biomaterials Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Novel graphene oxide (GO)-based adsorbent embedded with epichlorohydrin (ECH) as a coupling agent and dimethylamine (DMA) as a ligand (GO-ECH-DMA) were prepared and employed for endotoxin removal from aqueous solutions. The physicochemical properties of nanocomposite were fully characterized. The model attributed to batch adsorption process was optimized employing response surface methodology (RSM) via various parameters such as pH, GO-ECH-DMA dosage, and contact time and endotoxin concentration. The p-value with low probability (<0.00001), determination coefficient (R=0.99) and the non-significant lack of fit (p > 0.05) showed a quadratic model with a good fit with experimental terms. The synergistic effects of the linear term of contact time and GO-ECH-DMA dosage on endotoxin removal were significant. The optimum condition for endotoxin removal was obtained at pH of 5.52, GO-ECH-DMA dosage of 21 mgL, contact time of 56 min and endotoxin concentration of 51.3 endotoxin units per milliliter (EUmL). The equilibrium was the better explained by Langmuir isotherm with the maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 121.47 EUmg-1, while the kinetics of the endotoxin adsorption process was followed by the pseudo-second-order model. The adsorbent could be recycled with NaOH. The possible mechanisms of endotoxin adsorption were proposed by hydrogen-bonding, π-π stacking, and electrostatic interaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.01.028DOI Listing
April 2019

Antibiotics in urban wastewater and rivers of Tehran, Iran: Consumption, mass load, occurrence, and ecological risk.

Chemosphere 2019 Apr 27;221:55-66. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Research Methodology and Data Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

The continuous discharge of antibiotic pharmaceuticals from incomplete wastewater treatment processes into receiving water bodies has become a matter of both scientific and public concern as antibiotics may exert adverse influences on non-target organisms. In this study, the occurrence of seven most commonly prescribed antibiotics belonging to four therapeutic classes of β-lactams, cephalosporins, macrolides, and fluoroquinolones were investigated in the effluent of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and two river waters: Firozabad Ditch (receiving effluent) and Kan River (not receiving effluent) in Tehran, Iran. In 2016, average consumption rate of target antibiotics in Tehran province was evaluated based on Anatomical Therapeutic chemical (ATC)/Defined Daily Dose (DDD) system and reported as DDD/1000 inh/day. The highest consumption rate was for amoxicillin (128017.6 mg/1000 inhabitants/day), whereas it remained lower for other compounds (amoxicillin > cefixime > azithromycin > ciprofloxacin > cephalexin > erythromycin > penicillin). Ciprofloxacin (79.62 mg/1000 inh/d) and cephalexin (209.51 mg/inh/d) with highest mass loads were evaluated in the influent of WWTP A and WWTP B, respectively. Ciprofloxacin (24.87 mg/1000 inh/d) and cefixime (90.45 mg/1000 inh/d) were the highest evaluated mass loads in the effluent of Ekbatan wastewater treatment plant (WWTP A) and Tehran Southern wastewater treatment plant (WWTP B), respectively. The calculated risk quotients showed that six out of seven target antibiotics posed a high risk to algae (M. aeruginosa and P. subcapitata) and bacteria (P. putida) in the effluent of WWTPs and the rivers wherein amoxicillin and penicillin posed a higher risk than other antibiotics occurring due to their lowest PNEC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.12.187DOI Listing
April 2019

Short-term effects of ambient air pollution and cardiovascular events in Shiraz, Iran, 2009 to 2015.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Mar 7;26(7):6359-6367. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Department of Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Air pollution and dust storms are associated with increased cardiovascular hospital admissions. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between short-term exposure to ambient air pollutants and CVD (cardiovascular disease) events in a long-term observational period. The study included the events of cardiovascular diseases (namely coronary artery disease, ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, and pneumo thrombo embolism) within the population of Shiraz, from March 21, 2009 to March 20, 2015. Also, each patient's demographics were recorded. Main meteorological variables and five ambient pollutants (CO, O, SO, NO, and PM) were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using linear regression (GLM) and a generalized additive model (GAM) estimating Poisson distribution and adjusted for the main risk factors and ambient meteorological variables. A mild prevalence (51.5%) of coronary artery disease (CAD) was registered in 6425 events. In GLM analysis, we observed an association among the pollutants with the coronary artery disease hospital admissions which was in the order of CO, NO, and PM. The highest association of each pollutant with hospital admission was observed as PM at lag 4 (RR = 1.08; 95% CI 1.02, 1.14 and p < 0.05), NO at lag 0 (RR = 1.22; 95% CI 1.00, 1.48), and CO at lag 0 (RR = 1.52 95% CI = (1.16, 1.99)). However, on dusty days, there were significantly higher numbers of referrals of cardiovascular patients (mean = 7.54 ± 4.44 and p = 0.002,) than on non-dusty days. According to these data, dust storms and some types of pollutants in the air are responsible for more admissions to hospitals for cardiovascular problems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-3952-4DOI Listing
March 2019

Association Among Sources Exposure of Cadmium in the Adult Non-smoking General Population of Tehran.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2019 Sep 7;191(1):27-33. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Center for research on occupational disease, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Acute and chronic exposure to cadmium can cause numerous health effects including poisoning, as well as, bone, liver, and kidney diseases. Cadmium competes with iron absorption in blood and can induce anemia. Cadmium body burden can be measured through urine and blood samples. Urine reflects chronic and blood indicates recent and cumulative exposures to cadmium. Dietary is considered as the main source of exposure to cadmium in non-smoking general population. The study was conducted to determine cadmium level in blood, urine, and in diet of 120 non-smoking adults in Tehran. Dietary components and consumption pattern of participants estimated by a food frequency questionnaire. Next, the correlation investigated between them. Moreover, serum ferritin measured as a marker of iron storage in blood to determine its association with cadmium. The prediction of cadmium fate in the body is determined by toxicokinetic models. This study tried to evaluate one of these models' validity which is developed to predict urinary cadmium from dietary. Afterwards, the predicted urinary compared with the measured urinary cadmium. The correlation coefficient between dietary and blood cadmium equaled 0.66 which was statically significant, but the correlation between dietary and urinary cadmium was minimal and not statically significant (p > 0.05). An inverse and negative correlation was found between serum ferritin and blood cadmium. The mean predicted urinary cadmium calculated by the model was 2.5-fold higher than the measured value in the total population. Results of the present study revealed that blood cadmium reflected mainly acute exposure. There was no correlation between chronic and acute exposures to cadmium. The low serum ferritin level increased cadmium amount in blood. Moreover, the mean predicted urinary cadmium by the model was greater than the measured value. It can because of characteristics of populations and type of dietary exposure. Thus, it is suggested that the model coefficients are determined in each society based on their characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-018-1590-9DOI Listing
September 2019

An in vitro method to survey DNA methylation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) treated by airborne particulate matter (PM).

MethodsX 2018 17;5:1508-1514. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has defined outdoor air pollution and PM as the human carcinogen (Group 1), which mainly cause an increased risk of lung cancer. Scientists have considered epigenetic modifications as a possible mechanism to deal with adverse effects of air pollution. This study aimed to compare the effect of airborne PM (PM with aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm) on in vitro global methylation in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). PM was sampled in metropolitan Tehran, the capital of Iran. PBMCs were extracted from whole blood of healthy males and treated with PM suspension at concentrations of 50-300 μg/mL for 4 h. Untreated cells were used as the negative control. Genomic DNA was extracted from each sample using the DNA blood mini kit according to the manufacturer's instruction. Moreover, 5-methylsytosine (%5-mC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (%5-hmC) were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. %5-mC and %5-hmC in each sample was compared with negative control and reported as difference %5-mC and %5-hmC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mex.2018.11.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6260300PMC
November 2018

Association between apparent temperature and acute coronary syndrome admission in Rasht, Iran.

Heart Asia 2018 22;10(2):e011068. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: Our objective was to assess the relations between apparent temperature and incidence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in Rasht, Iran.

Methods: We used a time-series analysis to investigate the relationship between apparent temperature and hospital admission from 2005 to 2014. Distributed lag non-linear models were used to estimate the association between ACS hospitalisation and apparent temperature. To examine the high-temperature effect on ACS hospital admission, the relative risk of ACS hospital admission associated with high temperature, the 99th percentile of temperature (34.7°C) compared with the 75th percentile of temperature (26.9°C), was calculated. To assess the cold effect on ACS hospital admission, the relative risk of ACS hospital admission associated with cold temperature, the first percentile of temperature (-0.2°C) compared with the 25th percentile of temperature (8.2°C), was evaluated.

Results: The cumulative effect of hot exposure on ACS admissions was statistically significant, with a relative risk of 2.04 (95% CI 1.06 to 4.16). The cumulative effect of cold temperature on ACS admissions was found to be non-significant. The highest risk of ACS admission in women was in 38°C (RR, 2.03, 95%  CI 1.04 to 4.18). The effect of hot temperature on ACS admission occurred immediately (lag 0) (RR, 1.09, 95%  CI 1.001 to 1.19).

Conclusions: The high apparent temperature is correlated with a higher ACS admission especially on the same day. These findings may have implications for developing intervention strategies to reduce and prevent temperature-related morbidity especially in the elderly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/heartasia-2018-011068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6203051PMC
October 2018

Setting research priorities to achieve long-term health targets in Iran.

J Glob Health 2018 Dec;8(2):020702

Engineering Seismology Department, International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology (IIEES), Tehran, Iran.

Background: In 2015, it was estimated that the burden of disease in Iran comprised of 19 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), 74% of which were due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The observed leading causes of death were cardiovascular diseases (41.9%), neoplasms (14.9%), and road traffic injuries (7.4%). Even so, the health research investment in Iran continues to remain limited. This study aims to identify national health research priorities in Iran for the next five years to assist the efficient use of resources towards achieving the long-term health targets.

Methods: Adapting the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) method, this study engaged 48 prominent Iranian academic leaders in the areas related to Iran's long-term health targets, a group of research funders and policy makers, and 68 stakeholders from the wider society. 128 proposed research questions were scored independently using a set of five criteria: feasibility, impact on health, impact on economy, capacity building, and equity.

Findings: The top-10 priorities were focused on the research questions relating to: health insurance system reforms to improve equity; integration of NCDs prevention strategy into primary health care; cost-effective population-level interventions for NCDs and road traffic injury prevention; tailoring medical qualifications; epidemiological assessment of NCDs by geographic areas; equality in the distribution of health resources and services; current and future common health problems in Iran's elderly and strategies to reduce their economic burden; the status of antibiotic resistance in Iran and strategies to promote rational use of antibiotics; the health impacts of water crisis; and research to replace the physician-centered health system with a team-based one.

Conclusions: These findings highlight consensus amongst various prominent Iranian researchers and stakeholders over the research priorities that require investment to generate information and knowledge relevant to the national health targets and policies. The exercise should assist in addressing the knowledge gaps to support both the National General Health Policies by 2025 and the health targets of the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals by 2030.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7189/jogh.08.020702DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6188089PMC
December 2018

Assessment of Environmental Health Research Centers in Iran due to knowledge production and utilization.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2018 Jun 30;16(1):35-40. Epub 2018 Mar 30.

3Undersecretary for Research and Technology, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Section a, 13th floor, Shahrake gharb, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Knowledge production in environmental health promotion is one of the most important goals at the national level and establishing environmental health research centers (EHRCs) is one of the main strategies that will lead to achieving this goal. In this study, we are going to present the results of knowledge production and research performance evaluation of EHRCs in Iran.

Methods: In this cross sectional study, a specific check list has been used to assess Knowledge production and utilization through annual evaluations undertaken by research centers in Iran. This article has the results of the 4-year evaluation (2011-2014).

Results: The total number of EHRCs under the supervision of universities of medical sciences (UMS) is 34. The number of faculty members at these centers is 291 and the total approved projects by research council of UMS during 2011-2014, were 538. The number of published article increased from 282 in 2011 to 709 in 2014. During this period, the number of citations to EHRCs' articles was 4488 in Scopus database. The number of EHRCs' articles which have been referred in text books were 39. The proportion of published articles per academic member in environmental health has been 1.8 per year.

Conclusion: Based on research performance evaluation, knowledge production and research is desirable in EHRCs, but research utilization to health environmental promotion is still inadequate and should be assessed by qualitative evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-018-0293-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6148233PMC
June 2018

Correction to: Investigation and Comparison of In Vitro Genotoxic Potency of PM Collected in Rural and Urban Sites at Tehran in Different Metrological Conditions and Different Seasons.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2019 05;189(1):311

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. Figure 6 caption should be "The light microscopic image (a) and transmission electron microscopic image (b) of A549 cell after 24 h of exposure to PM10 (150 μg/ml).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-018-1487-7DOI Listing
May 2019

Investigation and Comparison of In Vitro Genotoxic Potency of PM Collected in Rural and Urban Sites at Tehran in Different Metrological Conditions and Different Seasons.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2019 May 3;189(1):301-310. Epub 2018 Aug 3.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The particulate matter has become a serious health problem in some large cities in the world. These particles are a complex mixture of chemical compounds which change based on location and time and, consequently, can cause different health-related effects. The exact mechanism of the effect of these particles is not yet known for certain. However, it seems that numerous mechanisms through the production of ROS and, eventually, DNA destruction, which are related to a wide range of diseases, are among the causes of particles' health-related effects. The present study is aimed to evaluate and compare the genotoxicity potential of particles collected in Tehran, Iran, in urban and rural regions during spring and autumn as well as dusty and inversion conditions. These effects were examined using the comet assay on human pulmonary epithelial cells (A549). Results showed that all the particles had the potential for genotoxicity at the concentration used in this study (75,150 and 300 μg/ml). Moreover, DNA destruction changed with season, site, and even dusty and inversion atmospheric conditions. These changes mostly belonged to urban particles. In general, urban particles in autumn and, specifically, on days with inversion had higher genotoxicity (p < 0.01). Difference was observed between dusty and regular days so that regular days were more potent (p < 0.05). A strong correlation was observed between the effects of most PAH compounds and other metals such as Cr, Co, Cd, Mn, As, and also SO, which were mostly the result of combustion in vehicle engines in urban regions. No difference was observed for rural particles at different conditions and seasons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-018-1469-9DOI Listing
May 2019

The Effects of Apparent Temperature on Cardiovascular Mortality Using a Distributed Lag Nonlinear Model Analysis: 2005 to 2014.

Asia Pac J Public Health 2018 05 19;30(4):361-368. Epub 2018 Apr 19.

2 Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The relationship between apparent temperature and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality was studied in Rasht, Iran, from 2005 to 2014. The effects of apparent temperature on CVD mortality were investigated using the distributed lag nonlinear model. Data on all types of cardiovascular mortality cases according to the International Classification of Diseases were collected from the only cardiovascular hospital in Rasht, and the meteorological variables were obtained from Rasht Meteorological Center during the period of study. Our findings showed that low temperatures had significant impacts on CVD mortality, and a reverse J-shaped temperature-mortality relationship was found. Moreover, immediate effects of hot temperatures on CVD mortality with the strongest effects on the same day but delayed effects of cold temperature was observed. This study showed that exposure to both hot and cold apparent temperatures was associated with increased cardiovascular mortality in Rasht.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1010539518768036DOI Listing
May 2018

Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk assessments of arsenic contamination in drinking water of Ardabil city in the Northwest of Iran.

J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2018 Apr 26;53(5):421-429. Epub 2017 Dec 26.

a Center for Water Quality Research (CWQR) , Institute for Environmental Research (IER), Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , Iran.

Based on the environmental health assessment framework of the United State Environmental Protection Agency, a quantitative health risk assessment of arsenic in contaminated drinking water in a city in the northwest of Iran has been carried out. In the exposure assessment step, arsenic concentrations in drinking water were determined during four seasons. In addition, the water ingestion rate for different age groups in this region was determined. The concentration of arsenic in 163 collected samples from different locations during four seasons ranged from 0 to 99 μg L. Furthermore, a high percentage of the samples manifested higher levels than the permissible limit of 10 μg L. The total daily water intake rates of four age groups 1 to <2 (group 1), 2 to <6 (group 2), 6 to <16 (group 3), and ≥16 years (group 4) were estimated as 0.86, 1.49, 2.00, and 2.33 L day, respectively. Calculating the lifetime average daily dose of arsenic indicated that adults (group 4) had the highest and children (group 1) had the lowest daily intake of arsenic in their entire life. The results of risk characteristic showed that the order of excess lifetime cancer risk via arsenic exposure in the four groups was 4 > 3 > 2 > 1. The estimated risks for all age groups were higher than the acceptable range (1E-6 to 1E-4). The hazard quotient values for all of the classified groups were lower than the recommended limit values (<1), but it cannot be concluded that potential non-carcinogenicity risks are non-existent since the possible exposure to arsenic via food and skin may also pose the risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10934529.2017.1410421DOI Listing
April 2018

What do we know about exposure of Iranians to cadmium? Findings from a systematic review.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Jan 19;25(2):1-11. Epub 2017 Dec 19.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Cadmium is an important environmental contaminant. High consumption of chemical fertilizers and industrial activities in recent decades has caused people to be worried about exposure to cadmium. There is no policy for environmental and biological monitoring of exposure to cadmium in the general population in Iran. This study was aimed to review cadmium content in consuming foods and biological samples in Iran, systematically. We developed a comprehensive search strategy and used it to search on Web of Science, Scopus, Science Direct, and Scientific Information Database until 28 December 2016. The totals of 285 articles were identified and finally 31 original papers were selected. Cadmium contamination was found in Iranian food groups such as rice, cereal and legumes, canned tuna fish, vegetables, fruit juice, and egg. This study showed that cadmium amount in 75% of the consumed rice samples (domestic and imported) was higher than the maximum limits approved by institute of standards and industrial research of Iran. Lettuce samples in Yazd were recorded the highest concentration of cadmium compared to other studies. In addition, high amount of cadmium was observed in the blood of the general population. Regarding the cadmium contamination in food and blood samples in Iran, policies must be adopted to reduce exposure to cadmium through different matrices as much as possible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-0863-8DOI Listing
January 2018

Occurrence and fate of most prescribed antibiotics in different water environments of Tehran, Iran.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Apr 29;619-620:446-459. Epub 2017 Nov 29.

Center for Water Quality Research (CWQR), Institute for Environmental Research (IER), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

The presence of most prescribed antibiotic compounds from four therapeutic classes (β-lactam, cephalosporins, macrolides, fluoroquinolones) were studied at two full-scale WWTPs, two rivers, thirteen groundwater resources, and five water treatment plants in Tehran. Analytical methodology was based on high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry after solid-phase extraction. Samples were collected at 33 sample locations on three sampling periods over four months from June to August 2016. None of the target antibiotics were detected in groundwater resources and water treatment plants, while seven out of nine target antibiotics were analyzed in two studied river waters as well as the influent and effluent of wastewater treatment plants at concentrations ranging from
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.07.272DOI Listing
April 2018