Publications by authors named "Alireza Khatony"

54 Publications

Barriers to the success of cardiopulmonary resuscitation from the perspective of Iranian nurses: A qualitative content analysis.

Int Emerg Nurs 2021 Jan 24;54:100954. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Clinical Research Development Centre, Imam Reza Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran; Health Institute, Social Development and Health Promotion Research Centre, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: The survival rate following Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) has been reported to be 7-26.7%. Various studies have shown that CPR failure is high in many countries. This study was aimed to explore the barriers to the success of CPR from the perspective of Iranian nurses.

Methods: Participants were 14 Iranian nurses recruited through purposive sampling. In-depth semi-structured interviews were used to collect data. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis.

Results: The barriers to successful CPR were developed in three main categories and nine subcategories. Some of the barriers to CPR success were: "delayed attendance of the CPR team and start of CPR", "inadequate experience and skill of the CPR team", "poor access to special units", "insufficient and deficient CPR equipment", "poor CPR location", "critical clinical conditions of the patient", and "interference of the patient's family members.

Conclusion: The results showed that human and environmental factors can result in CPR failure. These barriers can be minimized by measures such as empowerment of the CPR team, and providing the necessary facilities and equipment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ienj.2020.100954DOI Listing
January 2021

Factors Affecting the Desire to Undergo Cosmetic Procedures Among the Nurses of Kermanshah, Iran: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Plast Surg Nurs 2020 Oct/Dec;40(4):205-210

Maryam Janatolmakan, MSc, is a Nurse Researcher, Clinical Research Development Center of Imam Reza Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

The number of people undergoing cosmetic procedures (CP) has been growing around the world in recent years. The aim of this study was to determine factors involved in the desire of nurses to undergo CP. A total of 360 nurses were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Stratified random sampling was used to select the samples. The data were collected using the Social Appearance Anxiety Scale and a questionnaire addressing social factors affecting the desire to undergo CP. More than half of the nurses (56.7%) were willing. Gender, social factors, and social appearance anxiety (SAA) were associated with undergoing CP. The results of logistic regression indicated that women were four times more willing to undergo CP than men, and for each unit increase in SAA score, the odds of desiring to undergo CP increased by 1.04. The Hosmer-Lemeshow test confirmed the goodness-of-fit of the regression model. Moreover, 3 independent variables of gender, SAA, and social factors were powerful predictors of the desire to undergo CP that could explain 39.9%-53.6% of changes in the desire to undergo CP. Further studies are needed to investigate the amount of CP and motivations to undergo CP in nurses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PSN.0000000000000324DOI Listing
December 2020

Factors affecting the acceptance of blended learning in medical education: application of UTAUT2 model.

BMC Med Educ 2020 Oct 16;20(1):367. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Clinical Research Development Center of Imam Reza Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: Blended learning is a new approach to improving the quality of medical education. Acceptance of blended learning plays an important role in its effective implementation. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate and determine the factors that might affect students' intention to use blended learning.

Methods: In this cross-sectional, correlational study, the sample consisted of 225 Iranian medical sciences students. The theoretical framework for designing the conceptual model was the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology 2 (UTAUT2). Venkatesh et al. (2012) proposed UTAUT2 as a framework to explain a person's behavior while using technology. Data were analyzed using SPSS-18 and AMOS-23 software. Structural equation modeling technique was used to test the hypotheses.

Results: The validity and reliability of the model constructs were acceptable. Performance Expectance (PE), Effort Expectance (EE), Social Influence (SI), Facilitating Conditions (FC), Hedonic Motivation (HM), Price Value (PV) and Habit (HT) had a significant effect on the students' behavioral intention to use blended learning. Additionally, behavioral intention to use blended learning had a significant effect on the students' actual use of blended learning (β = 0.645, P ≤ 0.01).

Conclusion: The study revealed that the proposed framework based on the UTAUT2 had good potential to identify the factors influencing the students' behavioral intention to use blended learning. Universities can use the results of this study to design and implement successful blended learning courses in medical education.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12909-020-02302-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7565754PMC
October 2020

Knowledge, Attitude, and Performance of ICU, CCU, and Emergency Wards Nurses in Kermanshah, Iran, regarding Organ Donation.

Crit Care Res Pract 2020 27;2020:5167623. Epub 2020 Sep 27.

Clinical Research Development Center, Imam Reza Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: Providing an organ for donation is a major problem worldwide and nurses play an important role in facilitating the process of organ donation. This study is aimed at investigating the knowledge, attitude, and performance of nurses working in the ICU, CCU, and emergency wards regarding organ donation.

Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, 185 nurses working in ICU, CCU, and emergency wards were studied through systematic random sampling. The data collection was done by a self-administered questionnaire.

Results: The mean knowledge of nurses was 8.9 ± 1.4 out of 10. There was a significant relationship between knowledge of nurses regarding donation and religion and having organ donation card ( < 0.001). The mean attitude of nurses was 7.8 ± 2.2 out of 8. The variables, including "having a donation card and marriage," were associated with attitude of nurses toward organ donation. The mean performance of nurses was 0.4 ± 0.7 out of 3. There was a significant relationship between performance of nurses and having a donation card ( < 0.001). Knowledge was the strongest predictor of nurses' performance ( < 0.01).

Conclusion: The studied nurses showed sufficient knowledge and favorable attitude toward organ donation; however, they had poor performance. It is suggested to hold training courses to improve performance of nurses. The revision of the nursing students' curriculum as future nurses should also be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/5167623DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7537714PMC
September 2020

The Hidden Curriculum Challenges in Learning Professional Ethics Among Iranian Medical Students: A Qualitative Study.

Adv Med Educ Pract 2020 24;11:673-681. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, School of Paramedical Sciences, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: Medical ethics is a vital quality for the doctors which has been seriously taken into consideration in recent years. Identifying the factors affecting medical ethics may help to develop more effective ways to promote this quality in medical education. This study was aimed to explain the challenges of hidden curriculum in learning the professional ethics among Iranian medical students.

Materials And Methods: This qualitative study was performed on 15 medical interns of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2019 using grounded theory (GT). Sampling was started by purposive sampling and continued through theoretical sampling until complete data saturation. Data collection and analysis were done simultaneously. Data were interpreted by the constant comparative method according to Strauss and Corbin's approach.

Results: The results showed that the challenges of hidden curriculum for learning the professional ethics by medical students included a number of key concepts. Analyzing these concepts and taking into account the commonalities, we obtained six subthemes using a reduction inductive method, the main theme of which was "the challenge of hidden curriculum in learning the professional medical ethics". The subthemes included "decreased interest in medicine", "false beliefs", "curriculum weakness", "materialism and economic problems", "avoidance of responsibility", and "underlying problems of the medical profession".

Conclusion: The findings indicated six challenges in the hidden curriculum for learning the professional medical ethics. These challenges can be considered a threat or an obstacle to achieving the goals of professional ethics. Therefore, curriculum planners, education policymakers, and teachers should plan and implement the professional ethics curriculum based on these factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/AMEP.S258723DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7523179PMC
September 2020

The role of hidden curriculum in the formation of professional ethics in Iranian medical students: A qualitative study.

J Educ Health Promot 2020 28;9:180. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Social Development and Health Promotion Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Introduction: Professionalism and medical ethics are a vital quality for doctors, which has been taken into account seriously in recent years. Perception of the factors affecting professionalism may help develop more efficient approaches to promote this quality in medical education. This study was aimed to explain the role of hidden curriculum in the formation of professional ethics in Iranian medical students.

Materials And Methods: This qualitative study was performed on 15 medical interns of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2019, using grounded theory. Sampling was started by purposive sampling and continued through theoretical sampling until complete data saturation. Data collection and analysis were done simultaneously. Data were interpreted by a constant comparative method according to Strauss and Corbin's approach.

Results: The analysis of the participants' interviews and reduction of findings using common themes yielded one class and four categories as well as a number of concepts as the role of hidden curriculum in the formation of professional ethics in medical students. The categories included the role of modeling in the formation of professional ethics, role of education in the formation of professional ethics, role of environmental factors in the formation of professional ethics, and role of personal and inherent attributes in the formation of professional ethics.

Conclusion: Curriculum developers and medical education authorities need to proceed in line with the findings of the present study to provide a proper learning environment, in which the modeling, learning, and teaching conditions and supportive environmental atmosphere are taken into account in accordance with the inherent and individual characteristics of the learners in order to guarantee the formation of professional ethics in medical students.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jehp.jehp_172_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7482700PMC
July 2020

Nursing students' perceived consequences of self-medication: a qualitative study.

BMC Nurs 2020 25;19:71. Epub 2020 Jul 25.

Doolat abaad, Nursing Department, School of Nursing and Midwifery, student research committee, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Dolat Abad Street, Kermanshah, Kermanshah province 6718996511 Iran.

Background: Self-medication associates with many problems and complications, and is considered as a global health issue. Regarding a lack of information about perception of nursing students, as a part of healthcare workers, in this issue, the current study was aimed to explore the perceived consequences of self-medication from the perspective of nursing students.

Methods: This qualitative study was conducted using semi-structured individual face-to-face interviews. Purposeful sampling method was used for selection of participants. Twelve nursing students in the age range of 21-36 years were enrolled. Five participants were male and seven were female, seven master's degree and five were undergraduate of bachelor degree. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and analyzed as content analyses.

Results: Two categories and seven sub-categories were emerged from the data analysis. The main categories included; positive consequences and negative consequences, and subcategories included; time saving, cost savings, disease treatment, harming the health system, drug resistance, physical complications and death.

Conclusion: The participants believed that self-medication has some positive and negative consequences in viewpoints of nursing students. Regarding, Self-medication that potentially has dangerous consequences, it is suggested the students will be educated and warned about the adverse effects of self-medication, and the nursing teachers should try to rectify students' misconceptions about self-medication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12912-020-00460-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7382074PMC
July 2020

Comparison of the Effect of Inhalation Aromatherapy with 10% and 30% Peppermint Essential Oils on the Severity of Nausea in Abdominal Surgery Patients.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2020 20;2020:5897465. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Health Institute, Social Development and Health Promotion Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: One of the most common surgical complications is nausea. Regarding the contradictory findings on the effect of aromatherapy with peppermint on the severity of nausea, in the present study, we aimed at comparing the effect of aromatherapy with 10% and 30% peppermint essential oils on the severity of nausea in surgical patients.

Methods: This single-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted at the surgical ward of Imam Reza Hospital in Kermanshah, Iran. A total of 120 patients undergoing abdominal surgery were randomly divided into three groups of 10% peppermint, 30% peppermint, and control (40 patients in each group) using a random number table. In each of the intervention groups, 0.2 ml of 10% and 30% peppermint essential oil was inhaled. In the control group, the same amount of distilled water colored with green food coloring was inhaled. The severity of nausea was measured by nausea visual analog scale (NVAS) before and 10 minutes after the intervention.

Results: In the 10% peppermint group, the mean severity of nausea before the intervention was 52.3 ± 13.7 out of 100, which reduced to 40.5 ± 13.5 after the intervention ( < 0.001). In the 30% peppermint group, the mean severity scores of nausea before and after the intervention were 60.2 ± 15.0 and 39.7 ± 12.4, respectively ( < 0.001). In the control group, the mean severity scores of nausea before and after the intervention was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference between the two intervention groups in terms of the mean severity of nausea after the intervention.

Conclusions: It can be concluded that 10% and 30% peppermint essential oils are equally effective on the severity of nausea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/5897465DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7189337PMC
April 2020

Effects of Aromatherapy with Lavender and Peppermint Essential Oils on the Sleep Quality of Cancer Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2020 25;2020:7480204. Epub 2020 Mar 25.

Clinical Research Development Center, Imam Reza Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

One of the problems of cancer patients is sleep disorder. Given the absence of studies on comparing the effect of inhalation aromatherapy with lavender and peppermint on the sleep quality of the cancer patients, this study was performed to compare the effect of inhalation aromatherapy with lavender and peppermint essential oils on the sleep quality of cancer patients. For this purpose, 120 patients were randomly allocated to three groups of lavender, peppermint, and control. The intervention groups received three drops of the essential oil for 7 days. In the control group, aromatic distilled water was used instead. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory (PSQI) was used. Before the intervention, no significant difference was observed between the mean PSQI scores of three groups, while the difference was statistically significant after the intervention. The mean PSQI scores were lower in lavender and peppermint groups than in the control group. Aromatherapy can improve the sleep quality of cancer patients. To confirm the findings, more studies should be done.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/7480204DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7132346PMC
March 2020

Prevalence of anxiety, depression, and stress in patients with multiple sclerosis in Kermanshah-Iran: a cross-sectional study.

BMC Psychiatry 2020 04 15;20(1):166. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Health Institute, Social Development and Health Promotion Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease that decreases the physical ability and affects the mental health of the patients. This descriptive-analytical study investigated the prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress in MS patients.

Methods: A total of 87 MS patients were recruited in this study through simple random sampling method using a random number table. Data were collected by Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) and analyzed by descriptive and analytical statistics.

Results: The mean age of the patients was 35.5 ± 9.2 years. Of them, 41 (47.1%) had moderate depression, 34 (39.1%) had moderate anxiety, and 39 (44.8%) had moderate stress. There was a significant relationship between depression and job, education, and economic status of the participants. There was also a significant association between the participants' economic status and anxiety. There was no significant relationship between stress and any of the variables.

Conclusion: Given the relatively high prevalence of anxiety, depression, and stress in MS patients as well as the significant relationship between their economic status and depression and anxiety, interventional measures are required to be taken to decrease their problems and to provide a favorable ground for their employment. Periodic examinations by psychologists / psychiatrists and treatment of patients with symptoms of stress, anxiety and depression are also essential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12888-020-02579-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7161227PMC
April 2020

Epidemiological study on animal bite cases referred to Haji Daii health Center in Kermanshah province, Iran during 2013-2017.

BMC Public Health 2020 Mar 30;20(1):412. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Infectious Diseases Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: Over thousands of animal bite cases are reported annually worldwide and in Iran placing a large financial burden on the health and economy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiology of animal bite cases in Kermanshah, Iran through 2013-2017.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 5618 animal bite cases in Kermanshah from 2013 to 2017 were studied. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics.

Results: In the study period, 5618 animal bite cases were found. The prevalence of animal bites was estimated between 42.55-45.66 per100000 populations during 2013-2017. An increasing significant trend was found for prevalence of animal bites (Average annual percent change [AAPC] + 4.9, P-trend< 0.001) over a 5-years' time period. The mean age of the subjects was 32.7 ± 18.3 years. Of the studied subjects 76.3% were male, and 34% had non-governmental jobs. Dogs were found as the cause of animal bites in 72% of the cases. Of the studied cases, 82% had received rabies vaccination for three times.

Conclusion: The results showed an increasing significant trend for animal bites in Kermanshah. Development of interventional programs, such as limiting stray dogs, vaccination of dogs and raising public awareness are essential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-08556-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7106602PMC
March 2020

Comparison of the effect of manual compression and closure pad on postangiography complications: A randomized controlled trial.

J Vasc Nurs 2020 Mar 19;38(1):2-8. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Health Institute, Social Development and Health Promotion Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Different methods are available for the closure of the femoral artery after catheterization. The present study aimed at comparing the effect of manual compression (MC) and closure pad (CP) on vascular complications (hematoma and bleeding) of coronary angiography.

Methods: In the current clinical trial, a total of 238 patients who were candidates for angiography were randomly assigned to the MC and CP groups. In the MC group, after removal of the arterial sheath, the arterial puncture site was manually compressed for 5-10 minutes and hemostasis was achieved. In the CP group, after removal of the arterial sheath, the arterial puncture site was first manually compressed for 5-10 minutes and initial coagulation was achieved. Then, to continue the coagulation process, a CP was attached to the artery puncture site. Postangiography complications including bleeding and hematoma were monitored in both groups immediately and up to 24 hours after hemostasis. Data were analyzed by SPSS-18 software.

Results: After angiography, 7 (9.5%) and 5 (2.4%) patients had hematoma in the MC and CP groups, respectively; however, no significant difference was found between the groups. Rebleeding after hemostasis was observed in 2 (7.1%) patients in the MC group, but none of the subjects in the CP group had rebleeding. There was no significant difference in bleeding volume between the groups.

Conclusion: The results indicated the same efficacy of MC and CP methods in the prevention of postangiography vascular complications. Given the advantages of CP such as the possibility of changing the position in bed and increased physical comfort in the patient, this method is recommended for angiography and catheterization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvn.2020.01.001DOI Listing
March 2020

The Relationship Between Care Burden and Coping Strategies in Caregivers of Hemodialysis Patients in Kermanshah, Iran.

Psychol Res Behav Manag 2020 5;13:133-140. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

Infectious Diseases Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between care burden and coping strategies in caregivers of hemodialysis patients.

Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted from September to December 2018 in Kermanshah, Iran. A total of 130 caregivers of patients admitted to the hemodialysis wards of Imam Reza and Imam Khomeini hospitals of Kermanshah, Iran were selected via convenience sampling. Data-collection tools included a demographic information form, caregiver-burden inventory, and coping inventory for stressful situations. Data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical tests.

Results: The mean age of the caregivers was 35.8±13.7 years, and 71 (54.6%) were patients' children. The mean caregiver-burden score was 58.5±20.5 out of 96. Mean scores of time-dependent, evolutionary, physical, social, and emotion-dependent care burdens were 17.5±5.3, 12.2±6.3, 9.1±4.7, 8.2±4.0, and 11.4±5.1, respectively. Mean scores of problem-focused, emotion-focused, and avoidance-oriented coping strategies were 46.0±80.8, 43.1±9.0, and 48.9±9.5, respectively. Among the strategies, only the avoidance-oriented one had a significant positive relationship with total care burden and all its subscales.

Conclusion: Caregivers of hemodialysis patients experienced a relatively high care burden. However, they did not use appropriate coping strategies; therefore, they should be trained to select an effective coping strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PRBM.S233103DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7008190PMC
February 2020

The Relationship Between the VARK Learning Styles and Academic Achievement in Dental Students.

Adv Med Educ Pract 2020 8;11:15-19. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

Social Development and Health Promotion Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: Learning style is a factor influencing academic achievement. There are contradictory results in studies on the relationship between learning styles and academic achievement. The current study aimed at investigating the relationship between learning styles and academic achievement in dental students.

Methods: In the current descriptive-analytical study, 184 dental students were selected by simple random sampling. The VARK questionnaire was used as the data collection tool. The grade point average (GPA) of previous semester was used as an indicator of academic achievement, and accordingly, students were divided into two groups of strong (GPA ≥15) and weak (GPA ≤14.99).

Results: The most common learning styles in strong students were unimodal (n = 55, 42%) and bimodal (n = 41, 31.3%), while they were unimodal (n = 28, 47.2%) and bimodal (n = 24, 45.3%) in the weak students. There was no significant relationship between learning styles and academic achievement in the two groups of strong and weak students.

Conclusion: No significant relationship was found between learning style and academic achievement. Further studies with larger sample sizes are recommended. Further studies with larger sample sizes are recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/AMEP.S235002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6955605PMC
January 2020

Effectiveness Of Polyethylene Cover Versus Polyethylene Cover With Artificial Tear Drop To Prevent Dry Eye In Critically Ill Patients: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

Clin Ophthalmol 2019 12;13:2203-2210. Epub 2019 Nov 12.

Health Institute, Social Development and Health Promotion Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of polyethylene cover versus polyethylene cover with artificial tear drop to prevent dry eye in critically ill patients.

Methods: In this clinical trial, 208 patients were randomly assigned into two groups of polyethylene cover, and polyethylene cover with artificial tear drop. In each of the two groups, one eye was randomly selected as a control eye and the other was considered as an intervention eye. In the polyethylene cover group, the eye was covered with polyethylene. In the polyethylene cover and artificial tear drop group, an artificial tear drop was applied every 8 hrs to the eye, and then it was covered with polyethylene. The control eye received the routine intensive care unit eye care (washing the inside of the eye and the eyelids with distilled water). In both groups, the eyes were examined for eye dryness by an ophthalmologist for 5 days.

Results: The incidence of dry eye after the use of both polyethylene cover and polyethylene cover with artificial tear drop methods was lower than that of a conventional method. Both methods of polyethylene covering and polyethylene covering with artificial tear drop were effective, but clinically, the method of polyethylene cover with artificial tear drop was more effective.

Conclusion: Both methods of polyethylene covering and polyethylene covering with artificial tear drop were more effective than a conventional method, but the method of polyethylene cover with artificial tear drop was clinically more effective. Therefore, it is recommended for use in critically ill patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S233404DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6859212PMC
November 2019

Comparison of Depression Rate Between the First- and Final-Year Nursing Students in Kermanshah, Iran.

Psychol Res Behav Manag 2019 24;12:1147-1153. Epub 2019 Dec 24.

Health Institute, Social Development and Health Promotion Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: Depression can affect nursing students' quality of life, academic performance, and clinical self-efficacy and may interfere with their relationship with patients. The purpose of this study was to compare of depression rate between the first- and final-year nursing students in Kermanshah, Iran.

Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, 60 first-year and 42 last-year nursing students were enrolled. The participants were chosen using the census sampling method. The data collection tool was Beck's Depression Inventory. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics.

Results: In our study, 61.7% (n = 37) of the first year and 38.1% (n = 16) of the last year students had varying degrees of depression. The rate of depression was significantly higher in first-year students than last-year students ( = 0.013).

Discussion: Given the relatively high rate of depression among nursing students, the need for targeted planning to control their mental health, especially in the first year of study, is of importance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PRBM.S238873DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6935301PMC
December 2019

Comparison of foam sclerotherapy versus radiofrequency ablation in the treatment of primary varicose veins due to incompetent great saphenous vein: Randomized clinical trial.

J Vasc Nurs 2019 Dec 18;37(4):226-231. Epub 2019 Nov 18.

Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Imam Reza Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran. Electronic address:

Background And Objective: Minimally invasive procedures such as foam sclerotherapy and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) have gained attention for treatment of incompetent great saphenous vein (GSV). The objective of this study was to compare recurrence rate and quality of life between foam sclerotherapy and RFA in patients with incompetent GSV varicose veins.

Methods: In this parallel single-blinded randomized clinical trial, 60 adult patients with primary varicose veins due to incompetent GSV (CEAP classes C2-4EPAsPr) were included and randomly divided to receive RFA or foam sclerotherapy. Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) was assessed by the Short Form 36, and the Aberdeen Varicose Vein Questionnaire (AVVQ) was applied to assess the impact of varicose veins on quality of life of the patients. In addition, pain severity after the procedures was investigated by a visual analog scale (VAS) (range, 0 to 10). The patients were followed at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months postoperation. GSV reflux and recurrence was assessed by color Doppler ultrasound examination after 6 months.

Results: Twenty-eight patients in RFA and 27 patients in foam sclerotherapy remained for the final analyses. The time interval from the procedure and recovery to daily normal activities was 1 day in both groups. Mean (±SD) pain VAS score in RFA group decreased from preintervention score of 7.35 (±3.28) to 1.21 (±0.68); P < .0001. Likewise, this score decreased from 6.64 (±2.04) to 1.29 (±0.91) in foam sclerotherapy group. HRQOL scores increased gradually at 1, 3, and 6 months after the intervention. AVVQ scores decreased significantly 1 week postintervention in both groups. After 6 months, 17.9% (5 patients) in RFA group and 14.8% (4 patients) in foam sclerotherapy group had recurrence of GSV reflux (P = .52).

Conclusion: Both foam sclerotherapy and RFA were effective in treatment of GSV reflux. Comparable findings were observed between the 2 groups regarding postoperative pain, recovery time, HRQOL, and AVVQ scores.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvn.2019.10.002DOI Listing
December 2019

Investigation the correlation between psychological empowerment and assertiveness in nursing and midwifery students in Iran.

Nurse Educ Pract 2020 Jan 9;42:102667. Epub 2019 Nov 9.

Health Institute, Social Development and Health Promotion Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Assertiveness is a key skill for nurses and midwives, and should be considered in the students' education. In this regard, variables such as psychological empowerment, which may have a significant correlation with assertiveness, should be identified and studied.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between psychological empowerment and assertiveness in nursing and midwifery students.

Design: A cross-sectional and correlational study.

Settings: /Participants: This study was carried out on 200 Iranian nursing and midwifery students.

Methods: The students were randomly selected for the study. The study tools were The Rathus' Assertiveness Schedule and Spreitzer's Psychological Empowerment Scale. Data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics.

Findings: There was a positive and significant correlation between psychological empowerment and assertiveness. The components of meaning and self-determination had a positive and significant correlation with the assertiveness.

Conclusions: Since psychological empowerment and assertiveness in decision-making and interaction with colleagues and patients are considered as essential skills for nurses and midwives, we recommend that, required measures should be taken to promote these skills in nursing and midwifery students.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nepr.2019.102667DOI Listing
January 2020

International Nursing: A Study of Sleep Quality Among Nurses and Its Correlation With Cognitive Factors.

Nurs Adm Q 2020 Jan/Mar;44(1):E1-E10

Social Development and Health Promotion Research Center (Dr Khatony), Sleep Disorders Research Center (Drs Zakiei and Khazaie and Mr Rezaei), and Clinical Research Development Center, Imam Reza Hospital (Ms Janatolmakan), Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

The objective of this study was to evaluate sleep quality and its relationship to cognitive factors among nurses. Sleep quality among nurses is an important issue, which requires more extensive study. Its correlation with cognitive ability has not been sufficiently considered. Five hundred forty nurses (66.3% female) working in 6 hospitals were selected as the sample of the study. Results show that nurses do not experience good quality of sleep. That is, 77.4% of the sample population of nurses have a poor quality of sleep, and nurses working the night shift have more sleep problems than other nurses. The results show that there is a relationship between dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep and metacognitive process and the quality of sleep, and that these variables can predict sleep quality. Based on the results of the study, it can be said that cognitive and metacognitive processes play an important role in sleep quality. Lack of sufficient sleep can create numerous problems for nurses and patients. Attention to the role of cognitive and metacognitive processes can help improve the sleep quality of nurses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NAQ.0000000000000397DOI Listing
February 2020

Evaluation of clinical competence and its related factors among ICU nurses in Kermanshah-Iran: A cross-sectional study.

Int J Nurs Sci 2019 Oct 9;6(4):421-425. Epub 2019 Sep 9.

Health Institute, Social Development and Health Promotion Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Objectives: The present study was conducted to evaluate the clinical competence and its related demographic factors among critical care nurses in Kermanshah, Iran.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 155 Iranian nurses were selected by stratified random sampling. The data collection tools included a personal information form and the "Nurse Competence Scale". Data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistics.

Results: The mean score of nurses' clinical competence was equal to 76.14 ± 1.59 out of 100, which was at a "very good level". The mean score of using clinical competence in practice was equal to 70.38 ± 15.25 out of 100, which was at a "good level". Among the subscales of clinical competence, the highest mean score was related to "managing situation". The mean score of "using clinical competence in practice" was related to the subscale of "therapeutic interventions". There was no statistically significant difference among the score of clinical competence of nurses varying with different gender, age, academic degree, and work experience.

Conclusions: The clinical competence of critical care nurses in Kermanshah was at a "very good" level, and the use of clinical competence in practice was at a "good level." Given the importance of clinical competencies in practice, nurses' clinical competence should be evaluated objectively and positive measures should be taken to promote the application of their clinical competence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnss.2019.09.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6838869PMC
October 2019

Effect Of Peppermint Essence On The Pain And Anxiety Caused By Intravenous Catheterization In Cardiac Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Pain Res 2019 21;12:2933-2939. Epub 2019 Oct 21.

Clinical Research Development Center, Imam Reza Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: The effects of the peppermint essence on the pain and anxiety caused by intravenous catheterization have not been studied yet. The aim of this study was to determine effect of inhaling peppermint essence on the pain and anxiety.

Methods: In this study, 80 cardiac patients were selected through convenient sampling and randomly allocated to aromatherapy and control groups. Data gathering tools were numeric pain rating scale and visual analogue scale for anxiety. The aromatherapy and control groups received inhaled aromatherapy with peppermint essence and distilled water, respectively.

Results: Mean severity of the pain in the aromatherapy and control groups was 2.95±0.98 and 3.42±1.33, respectively. The difference was statistically significant (=0.048). The mean score of anxiety before the intervention in the aromatherapy and control groups was 3.75±1.08 and 4.70±1.43, respectively; these figures after the intervention were 2.32±0.97 and 2.10±1.42, respectively. The two groups were not significantly different before and after the intervention in terms of the level of anxiety. However, the level of anxiety before and after the intervention was significantly different in each group (<0.001).

Conclusion: Aromatherapy attenuated the pain and anxiety caused by intravenous catheterization. Before catheterization, peppermint essence aromatherapy is recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JPR.S226312DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6814313PMC
October 2019

The relationship between addiction to mobile phone and sense of loneliness among students of medical sciences in Kermanshah, Iran.

BMC Res Notes 2019 Oct 22;12(1):676. Epub 2019 Oct 22.

Clinical Research Development Center, Imam Reza Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Objective: Addiction to mobile phone is one of the negative consequences of excessive use of this device. This disorder may also be related to individuals' loneliness and may reduce or increase the sense of loneliness. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the relationship between addiction to mobile phone and sense of loneliness among medical sciences students.

Results: In this descriptive-analytical study, 439 students entered the study by stratified random sampling. The study tool was the mobile phone addiction and SELSA's sense of loneliness questionnaires. The average score of mobile phone addiction in boys and girls was 73.77 ± 11.48 and 74.64 ± 12.28 from 100, respectively. There was no significant difference between them. According to the rating of mobile phone addiction, 17.8% of the students were in the range of moderate dependency and 10.9% of them were in the range of extreme dependency. Also, 71.3% of the students were identified as mobile phone addicts. The average score of sense of loneliness in boys and girls was 43.22 ± 5.16 and 42.82 ± 5.30, out of 105, respectively. There was no significant difference between them. There was a significant and negative correlation between the scores of mobile phone addiction and sense of loneliness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-019-4728-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6805567PMC
October 2019

Investigating factors affecting on medical sciences students' intention to adopt mobile learning.

BMC Med Educ 2019 Oct 21;19(1):381. Epub 2019 Oct 21.

Clinical Research Development Center of Imam Reza Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: Mobile learning (m-learning) provides a good opportunity for students' lifelong learning. The design and implementation of effective and successful mobile learning requires identification of factors that affect m-learning. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors that affect the intention of students of medical sciences to adopt mobile learning based on theory of planned behavior (TPB).

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 332 students of medical sciences were randomly selected. The study tool was a based a questionnaire that had been designed based on TPB model. Descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, frequency and percentage) were calculated. In order to determine the standardized factor loading and assess the study hypotheses, structural equation modeling was used. Composite reliability, average variance extracted, and standardized factor loading were used to determine the convergent validity.

Results: The mean of mobile learning readiness was 3.59 ± 0.83. Among the TPB structures, the structures of attitude (β = 0.525) and behavioral control (β = 0.318) had positive and significant effect on the intention to adopt m-learning (P ≤ 0.01). However, the structure of subject norm did not have a significant effect on the intention to adopt m-learning. In general, attitude, behavioral control and subject norm structures were 0.675 determinants of the intention to adopt m-learning (r = 0.675).

Conclusions: In this study Mobile learning readiness of the students was at moderate level. Also the results indicated Positive and significant effect of attitude and behavioral control on the intention of students to accept m-learning. The TPB-based model was a suitable model for identifying psychological factors that affect the intention of students of medical sciences to adopt m-leaning. In order to increase the students' acceptance of mobile learning, we suggest that, other psychological, behavioral, social, and cultural factors that affect the acceptance of m-learning should be identified. Educational programs are also suggested to be introduced to students to familiarize them with the m-learning and its application in learning process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12909-019-1831-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6802341PMC
October 2019

Mapping 123 million neonatal, infant and child deaths between 2000 and 2017.

Authors:
Roy Burstein Nathaniel J Henry Michael L Collison Laurie B Marczak Amber Sligar Stefanie Watson Neal Marquez Mahdieh Abbasalizad-Farhangi Masoumeh Abbasi Foad Abd-Allah Amir Abdoli Mohammad Abdollahi Ibrahim Abdollahpour Rizwan Suliankatchi Abdulkader Michael R M Abrigo Dilaram Acharya Oladimeji M Adebayo Victor Adekanmbi Davoud Adham Mahdi Afshari Mohammad Aghaali Keivan Ahmadi Mehdi Ahmadi Ehsan Ahmadpour Rushdia Ahmed Chalachew Genet Akal Joshua O Akinyemi Fares Alahdab Noore Alam Genet Melak Alamene Kefyalew Addis Alene Mehran Alijanzadeh Cyrus Alinia Vahid Alipour Syed Mohamed Aljunid Mohammed J Almalki Hesham M Al-Mekhlafi Khalid Altirkawi Nelson Alvis-Guzman Adeladza Kofi Amegah Saeed Amini Arianna Maever Loreche Amit Zohreh Anbari Sofia Androudi Mina Anjomshoa Fereshteh Ansari Carl Abelardo T Antonio Jalal Arabloo Zohreh Arefi Olatunde Aremu Bahram Armoon Amit Arora Al Artaman Anvar Asadi Mehran Asadi-Aliabadi Amir Ashraf-Ganjouei Reza Assadi Bahar Ataeinia Sachin R Atre Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla Martin Amogre Ayanore Samad Azari Ebrahim Babaee Arefeh Babazadeh Alaa Badawi Soghra Bagheri Mojtaba Bagherzadeh Nafiseh Baheiraei Abbas Balouchi Aleksandra Barac Quique Bassat Bernhard T Baune Mohsen Bayati Neeraj Bedi Ettore Beghi Masoud Behzadifar Meysam Behzadifar Yared Belete Belay Brent Bell Michelle L Bell Dessalegn Ajema Berbada Robert S Bernstein Natalia V Bhattacharjee Suraj Bhattarai Zulfiqar A Bhutta Ali Bijani Somayeh Bohlouli Nicholas J K Breitborde Gabrielle Britton Annie J Browne Sharath Burugina Nagaraja Reinhard Busse Zahid A Butt Josip Car Rosario Cárdenas Carlos A Castañeda-Orjuela Ester Cerin Wagaye Fentahun Chanie Pranab Chatterjee Dinh-Toi Chu Cyrus Cooper Vera M Costa Koustuv Dalal Lalit Dandona Rakhi Dandona Farah Daoud Ahmad Daryani Rajat Das Gupta Ian Davis Nicole Davis Weaver Dragos Virgil Davitoiu Jan-Walter De Neve Feleke Mekonnen Demeke Gebre Teklemariam Demoz Kebede Deribe Rupak Desai Aniruddha Deshpande Hanna Demelash Desyibelew Sagnik Dey Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne Meghnath Dhimal Daniel Diaz Leila Doshmangir Andre R Duraes Laura Dwyer-Lindgren Lucas Earl Roya Ebrahimi Soheil Ebrahimpour Andem Effiong Aziz Eftekhari Elham Ehsani-Chimeh Iman El Sayed Maysaa El Sayed Zaki Maha El Tantawi Ziad El-Khatib Mohammad Hassan Emamian Shymaa Enany Sharareh Eskandarieh Oghenowede Eyawo Maha Ezalarab Mahbobeh Faramarzi Mohammad Fareed Roghiyeh Faridnia Andre Faro Ali Akbar Fazaeli Mehdi Fazlzadeh Netsanet Fentahun Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad João C Fernandes Irina Filip Florian Fischer Nataliya A Foigt Masoud Foroutan Joel Msafiri Francis Takeshi Fukumoto Nancy Fullman Silvano Gallus Destallem Gebremedhin Gebre Tsegaye Tewelde Gebrehiwot Gebreamlak Gebremedhn Gebremeskel Bradford D Gessner Birhanu Geta Peter W Gething Reza Ghadimi Keyghobad Ghadiri Mahsa Ghajarzadeh Ahmad Ghashghaee Paramjit Singh Gill Tiffany K Gill Nick Golding Nelson G M Gomes Philimon N Gona Sameer Vali Gopalani Giuseppe Gorini Bárbara Niegia Garcia Goulart Nicholas Graetz Felix Greaves Manfred S Green Yuming Guo Arvin Haj-Mirzaian Arya Haj-Mirzaian Brian James Hall Samer Hamidi Hamidreza Haririan Josep Maria Haro Milad Hasankhani Edris Hasanpoor Amir Hasanzadeh Hadi Hassankhani Hamid Yimam Hassen Mohamed I Hegazy Delia Hendrie Fatemeh Heydarpour Thomas R Hird Chi Linh Hoang Gillian Hollerich Enayatollah Homaie Rad Mojtaba Hoseini-Ghahfarokhi Naznin Hossain Mostafa Hosseini Mehdi Hosseinzadeh Mihaela Hostiuc Sorin Hostiuc Mowafa Househ Mohamed Hsairi Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi Mohammad Hasan Imani-Nasab Usman Iqbal Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani Nazrul Islam Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam Mikk Jürisson Nader Jafari Balalami Amir Jalali Javad Javidnia Achala Upendra Jayatilleke Ensiyeh Jenabi John S Ji Yash B Jobanputra Kimberly Johnson Jost B Jonas Zahra Jorjoran Shushtari Jacek Jerzy Jozwiak Ali Kabir Amaha Kahsay Hamed Kalani Rohollah Kalhor Manoochehr Karami Surendra Karki Amir Kasaeian Nicholas J Kassebaum Peter Njenga Keiyoro Grant Rodgers Kemp Roghayeh Khabiri Yousef Saleh Khader Morteza Abdullatif Khafaie Ejaz Ahmad Khan Junaid Khan Muhammad Shahzeb Khan Young-Ho Khang Khaled Khatab Amir Khater Mona M Khater Alireza Khatony Mohammad Khazaei Salman Khazaei Maryam Khazaei-Pool Jagdish Khubchandani Neda Kianipour Yun Jin Kim Ruth W Kimokoti Damaris K Kinyoki Adnan Kisa Sezer Kisa Tufa Kolola Soewarta Kosen Parvaiz A Koul Ai Koyanagi Moritz U G Kraemer Kewal Krishan Kris J Krohn Nuworza Kugbey G Anil Kumar Manasi Kumar Pushpendra Kumar Desmond Kuupiel Ben Lacey Sheetal D Lad Faris Hasan Lami Anders O Larsson Paul H Lee Mostafa Leili Aubrey J Levine Shanshan Li Lee-Ling Lim Stefan Listl Joshua Longbottom Jaifred Christian F Lopez Stefan Lorkowski Sameh Magdeldin Hassan Magdy Abd El Razek Muhammed Magdy Abd El Razek Azeem Majeed Afshin Maleki Reza Malekzadeh Deborah Carvalho Malta Abdullah A Mamun Navid Manafi Ana-Laura Manda Morteza Mansourian Francisco Rogerlândio Martins-Melo Anthony Masaka Benjamin Ballard Massenburg Pallab K Maulik Benjamin K Mayala Mohsen Mazidi Martin McKee Ravi Mehrotra Kala M Mehta Gebrekiros Gebremichael Meles Walter Mendoza Ritesh G Menezes Atte Meretoja Tuomo J Meretoja Tomislav Mestrovic Ted R Miller Molly K Miller-Petrie Edward J Mills George J Milne G K Mini Seyed Mostafa Mir Hamed Mirjalali Erkin M Mirrakhimov Efat Mohamadi Dara K Mohammad Aso Mohammad Darwesh Naser Mohammad Gholi Mezerji Ammas Siraj Mohammed Shafiu Mohammed Ali H Mokdad Mariam Molokhia Lorenzo Monasta Yoshan Moodley Mahmood Moosazadeh Ghobad Moradi Masoud Moradi Yousef Moradi Maziar Moradi-Lakeh Mehdi Moradinazar Paula Moraga Lidia Morawska Abbas Mosapour Seyyed Meysam Mousavi Ulrich Otto Mueller Atalay Goshu Muluneh Ghulam Mustafa Behnam Nabavizadeh Mehdi Naderi Ahamarshan Jayaraman Nagarajan Azin Nahvijou Farid Najafi Vinay Nangia Duduzile Edith Ndwandwe Nahid Neamati Ionut Negoi Ruxandra Irina Negoi Josephine W Ngunjiri Huong Lan Thi Nguyen Long Hoang Nguyen Son Hoang Nguyen Katie R Nielsen Dina Nur Anggraini Ningrum Yirga Legesse Nirayo Molly R Nixon Chukwudi A Nnaji Marzieh Nojomi Mehdi Noroozi Shirin Nosratnejad Jean Jacques Noubiap Soraya Nouraei Motlagh Richard Ofori-Asenso Felix Akpojene Ogbo Kelechi E Oladimeji Andrew T Olagunju Meysam Olfatifar Solomon Olum Bolajoko Olubukunola Olusanya Mojisola Morenike Oluwasanu Obinna E Onwujekwe Eyal Oren Doris D V Ortega-Altamirano Alberto Ortiz Osayomwanbo Osarenotor Frank B Osei Aaron E Osgood-Zimmerman Stanislav S Otstavnov Mayowa Ojo Owolabi Mahesh P A Abdol Sattar Pagheh Smita Pakhale Songhomitra Panda-Jonas Animika Pandey Eun-Kee Park Hadi Parsian Tahereh Pashaei Sangram Kishor Patel Veincent Christian Filipino Pepito Alexandre Pereira Samantha Perkins Brandon V Pickering Thomas Pilgrim Majid Pirestani Bakhtiar Piroozi Meghdad Pirsaheb Oleguer Plana-Ripoll Hadi Pourjafar Parul Puri Mostafa Qorbani Hedley Quintana Mohammad Rabiee Navid Rabiee Amir Radfar Alireza Rafiei Fakher Rahim Zohreh Rahimi Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar Shadi Rahimzadeh Fatemeh Rajati Sree Bhushan Raju Azra Ramezankhani Chhabi Lal Ranabhat Davide Rasella Vahid Rashedi Lal Rawal Robert C Reiner Andre M N Renzaho Satar Rezaei Aziz Rezapour Seyed Mohammad Riahi Ana Isabel Ribeiro Leonardo Roever Elias Merdassa Roro Max Roser Gholamreza Roshandel Daem Roshani Ali Rostami Enrico Rubagotti Salvatore Rubino Siamak Sabour Nafis Sadat Ehsan Sadeghi Reza Saeedi Yahya Safari Roya Safari-Faramani Mahdi Safdarian Amirhossein Sahebkar Mohammad Reza Salahshoor Nasir Salam Payman Salamati Farkhonde Salehi Saleh Salehi Zahabi Yahya Salimi Hamideh Salimzadeh Joshua A Salomon Evanson Zondani Sambala Abdallah M Samy Milena M Santric Milicevic Bruno Piassi Sao Jose Sivan Yegnanarayana Iyer Saraswathy Rodrigo Sarmiento-Suárez Benn Sartorius Brijesh Sathian Sonia Saxena Alyssa N Sbarra Lauren E Schaeffer David C Schwebel Sadaf G Sepanlou Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi Faramarz Shaahmadi Masood Ali Shaikh Mehran Shams-Beyranvand Amir Shamshirian Morteza Shamsizadeh Kiomars Sharafi Mehdi Sharif Mahdi Sharif-Alhoseini Hamid Sharifi Jayendra Sharma Rajesh Sharma Aziz Sheikh Chloe Shields Mika Shigematsu Rahman Shiri Ivy Shiue Kerem Shuval Tariq J Siddiqi João Pedro Silva Jasvinder A Singh Dhirendra Narain Sinha Malede Mequanent Sisay Solomon Sisay Karen Sliwa David L Smith Ranjani Somayaji Moslem Soofi Joan B Soriano Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy Agus Sudaryanto Mu'awiyyah Babale Sufiyan Bryan L Sykes P N Sylaja Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos Karen M Tabb Takahiro Tabuchi Nuno Taveira Mohamad-Hani Temsah Abdullah Sulieman Terkawi Zemenu Tadesse Tessema Kavumpurathu Raman Thankappan Sathish Thirunavukkarasu Quyen G To Marcos Roberto Tovani-Palone Bach Xuan Tran Khanh Bao Tran Irfan Ullah Muhammad Shariq Usman Olalekan A Uthman Amir Vahedian-Azimi Pascual R Valdez Job F M van Boven Tommi Juhani Vasankari Yasser Vasseghian Yousef Veisani Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian Francesco S Violante Sergey Konstantinovitch Vladimirov Vasily Vlassov Theo Vos Giang Thu Vu Isidora S Vujcic Yasir Waheed Jon Wakefield Haidong Wang Yafeng Wang Yuan-Pang Wang Joseph L Ward Robert G Weintraub Kidu Gidey Weldegwergs Girmay Teklay Weldesamuel Ronny Westerman Charles Shey Wiysonge Dawit Zewdu Wondafrash Lauren Woyczynski Ai-Min Wu Gelin Xu Abbas Yadegar Tomohide Yamada Vahid Yazdi-Feyzabadi Christopher Sabo Yilgwan Paul Yip Naohiro Yonemoto Javad Yoosefi Lebni Mustafa Z Younis Mahmoud Yousefifard Hebat-Allah Salah A Yousof Chuanhua Yu Hasan Yusefzadeh Erfan Zabeh Telma Zahirian Moghadam Sojib Bin Zaman Mohammad Zamani Hamed Zandian Alireza Zangeneh Taddese Alemu Zerfu Yunquan Zhang Arash Ziapour Sanjay Zodpey Christopher J L Murray Simon I Hay

Nature 2019 10 16;574(7778):353-358. Epub 2019 Oct 16.

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Since 2000, many countries have achieved considerable success in improving child survival, but localized progress remains unclear. To inform efforts towards United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 3.2-to end preventable child deaths by 2030-we need consistently estimated data at the subnational level regarding child mortality rates and trends. Here we quantified, for the period 2000-2017, the subnational variation in mortality rates and number of deaths of neonates, infants and children under 5 years of age within 99 low- and middle-income countries using a geostatistical survival model. We estimated that 32% of children under 5 in these countries lived in districts that had attained rates of 25 or fewer child deaths per 1,000 live births by 2017, and that 58% of child deaths between 2000 and 2017 in these countries could have been averted in the absence of geographical inequality. This study enables the identification of high-mortality clusters, patterns of progress and geographical inequalities to inform appropriate investments and implementations that will help to improve the health of all populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1545-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6800389PMC
October 2019

Relationship between study habits and academic achievement in students of medical sciences in Kermanshah-Iran.

Adv Med Educ Pract 2019 15;10:637-643. Epub 2019 Aug 15.

Health Institute, Social Development and Health Promotion Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Purpose: Study habits have been the most important predictor of academic performance and play a special role in the academic achievement of students. The aim of this study was to investigate the status of study habits and its relationship with academic achievement in medical sciences students in Kermanshah-Iran.

Materials And Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 380 medical sciences students at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. The samples were randomly assigned to the study. The Palsane and Sharma study Habit Inventory was the tool used for data collection. Data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics.

Results: The mean of students' grade point average was 15.73±1.5 out of 20 and the mean of total status of study habits was 45.70±11.36 out of 90. The status of study habits in 81.3% of the students was at moderate level. There was a direct and significant relationship between study habits and academic achievement.

Conclusion: The status of study habits was at moderate level for most students. Therefore, it is recommended to consider and assess students' study habits at the time of entry into university, in addition, specific training should be offered to students in order to help them learn or modify study habits to increase their academic achievements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/AMEP.S208874DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6699491PMC
August 2019

Occupational stress and its related demographic factors among Iranian CCU nurses: a cross-sectional study.

BMC Res Notes 2019 Sep 27;12(1):634. Epub 2019 Sep 27.

Clinical Research Development Center of Imam Reza Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Objectives: Occupational stress can have an adverse effect on mental and physical health and performance of nurses. The aim of this study was to investigate the occupational stress of Iranian critical care unit (CCU) nurses and its related demographic factors.

Results: In this cross-sectional study, 155 CCU nurses were randomly selected. The Osipow Occupational Stress Questionnaire was used as data collection tool. The mean of nurses' occupational stress was 210.13 ± 40.87 out of 300, which was at the "moderate-to-high" level. The highest mean of occupational stress was related to the subscale of "Role Overload" (36.30 ± 6.98) and the lowest mean was related to the subscale of "Physical Environment" (33.58 ± 9.76). There was no statistically significant difference between the mean occupational stress and variables of sex, age, academic degree and working experience.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-019-4674-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6764133PMC
September 2019

The prevalence and the reasons of issuing permission for therapeutic abortion in department of forensic medicine, Kermanshah, Iran, during 2005 to 2010.

BMC Res Notes 2019 Sep 13;12(1):574. Epub 2019 Sep 13.

Clinical Research Development Center, Imam Reza Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and the reasons of issuing permission for therapeutic abortion in department of forensic medicine, Kermanshah-Iran.

Results: There were a total number of 428 applications for issuing permits. The most common reasons of issuing permit for therapeutic abortion were fetal and maternal problems, specifically cerebral abnormalities (70.8%), and anencephaly (30.3%). Furthermore, 354 (82/7%) out of 428 applications were able to get the legal permit and 17.3% of the applications did not receive permission, which was mainly due to "the lack of maternal indication". Increased knowledge of physicians and clinical personnel on indications of therapeutic abortions and related regulations would lead to the implementation of strategies which prevent void referrals to the department of forensic medicine and a better execution of therapeutic abortion law. By improving the health condition of pregnant women who seek pregnancy termination, informing them about indications of therapeutic abortions, and developing proper strategies to make pregnant women more acquainted with legal cases of abortion, we can take a significant step towards helping pregnant women and promoting their health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-019-4622-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6743142PMC
September 2019

Attitude of primiparous women towards their preference for delivery method: a qualitative content analysis.

Arch Public Health 2019 20;77:38. Epub 2019 Aug 20.

3Students Research Committee, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: The delivery method is one of the primary concerns of primiparous women. Today, due to the fear of delivery, the number of cesarean sections has increased significantly. Considering the importance of choosing the type of delivery and the lack of study in this regard, the present study was conducted to explain the attitude of primiparous women towards their preference for delivery method.

Method: In this qualitative study, in-depth interview was conducted with 12 primiparous women. The transcripts of the interviews were read carefully by the researcher for several times. Finally, using the analytical method, the codes were extracted and subsequent subcategories and main categories were determined. To assess the credibility of the data, the Denzin & Lincoln's criteria were used, which include Credibility, Transferability, Dependability, and Confirmability.

Results: Because of inexperience in delivery and ambiguity in process, most of the woman had a specific fear and they commonly affected by other advices and experiences. The majority of the participants had desire to vaginal delivery with announcing its advantages such as shortage of pain process, easy breast feeding, and mother ability to better carryout the newborn works. Other participants believed on adverse effects of normal vaginal delivery including bladder prolapse, uterus rupture, and probability of experience of both happenings (CS and NVD), frequent examination, pain and urine incontinence. Some stated cesarean section have benefits of less injury to neonate and preserving her/his beauty.

Conclusion: Results showed that, choosing a delivery method is difficult for primiparous women, and their attitude toward the type of delivery is influenced by subjective and internal factors. Giving awareness to primiparous women greatly enhances their tendency towards vaginal delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13690-019-0364-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6700977PMC
August 2019

Knowledge and performance of nursing students of Kermanshah-Iran regarding the standards of nosocomial infections control: a cross-sectional study.

BMC Res Notes 2019 Aug 6;12(1):485. Epub 2019 Aug 6.

Health Institute, Social Development and Health Promotion Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the level of knowledge and performance of nursing students in regard to the standards of nosocomial infections control.

Results: The average score of knowledge and performance of the subjects was 12.49 ± 2.3 from 18 and 43.07 ± 0.67 from 54, respectively. There was a direct and significant correlation between the knowledge and performance of students (r = 0.46, p < 0.0001). There was no statistically significant relationship between the knowledge of students and variables such as gender and academic year of the students, but there was a significant relationship between students' performance, and gender (p = 0.014) and academic year (p = 0.015).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-019-4533-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6683346PMC
August 2019

Comparing effects of aromatherapy with lavender essential oil and orange essential oil on fatigue of hemodialysis patients: A randomized trial.

Complement Ther Clin Pract 2019 Aug 29;36:64-68. Epub 2019 May 29.

Social Development and Health Promotion Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran. Electronic address:

Background And Purpose: Fatigue is a common complication of hemodialysis. This study aimed to compare the effects of aromatherapy with essential oils of lavender and orange on the fatigue of hemodialysis patients.

Materials And Methods: Ninety subjects were randomly allocated into three groups of aromatherapy with lavender essential oil, aromatherapy with orange essential oil and control. Data collection tool was the Fatigue Severity Scale. In each experimental group, subjects inhaled five drops of lavender essential oil and orange essential oil.

Results: The difference in the mean of fatigue before and after the intervention in each of the experimental groups was statistically significant, but this difference was not significant in the control group. Between the two groups of aromatherapy, no significant difference was observed in terms of the mean fatigue after the intervention.

Conclusion: Aromatherapy with lavender essential oil and orange essential oil might reduce fatigue in hemodialysis patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2019.05.005DOI Listing
August 2019